1. Chang, D.J., Chang, T.K., Yamanishi, S.S., Salazar, F.H., Kosaka, A.H., Khare, R., Bhakta, S., Jasper, J.R., Shieh, I.S., Lesnick, J.D., Ford, A.P., Daniels, D.V., Eglen, R.M., Clarke, D.E., Bach, C., Chan, H.W. Molecular cloning, genomic characterization and expression of novel human alphalA-adrenoceptor isoforms. FEBS Lett. 1998; 422:279-283.

2. Warnecke, C., Surder, D., Curth, R., Fleck, E., Regitz-Zagrosek, V. Analysis and functional characterization of alternatively spliced angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptor transcripts in the human heart. J. Mol. Med. 1999; 77:718-727.

3. Pitcher, J.A., Freedman, N.J., Lefkowitz, R.J. G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1998; 67:653-692.

4. Contreras, F., de la Parte, M.A., Cabrera, J., Ospino, N., Israili, Z.H., Velasco, M. Role of angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers in the treatment of arterial hypertension. Am. J. Ther. 2003; 10:401-408.

5. MacDonald, E., Kobilka, B.K., Scheinin, M. Gene targeting: homing in on alpha 2-adrenoceptor-subtype function. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 1997; 18:211-219.

6. Link, R.E., Desai, K., Hein, L., Stevens, M.E., Chruscinski, A., Bernstein, D., Barsh, G.S., Kobilka, B.K. Cardiovascular regulation in mice lacking alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes b and c. Science 1996; 273:803-805.

7. MacMillan, L.B., Hein, L., Smith, M.S., Piascik, M.T., Limbird, L.E. Central hypotensive effects of the alpha2a-adrenergic receptor subtype. Science 1996; 273:801-803.

8. Ferguson, S.S. Evolving concepts in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis: the role in receptor desensitization and signaling. Pharmacol. Rev. 2001; 53:1-24.

9. Ferguson, S.S. and Caron, M.G. G protein-coupled receptor adaptation mechanisms. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 1998; 9:119-127.

10. Ahlquist, R.P A study of the adrenotropic receptors. Am. J. Physiol. 1948; 153:586-600.

11. Lands, A.M., Arnold, A., McAuliff, J.P., Luduena, F.P, Brown, T.G., Jr. Differentiation of receptor systems activated by sympathomimetic amines. Nature 1967; 214:597-598.

12. Langer, S.Z. Presynaptic regulation of catecholamine release. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1974; 23:1793-1800.

13. Starke, K., Endo, T., Taube, H.D. Pre- and postsynaptic components in effect of drugs with alpha adrenoceptor affinity. Nature 1975; 254:440-441.

14. Starke, K. Presynaptic alpha-autoreceptors. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1987; 107:73-146.

15. Docherty, J.R. Subtypes of functional alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1998; 361:1-15.

16. Ruffolo, R.R., Jr., Nichols, A.J., Stadel, J.M., Hieble, J.P Structure and function of alpha-adrenoceptors. Pharmacol. Rev. 1991; 43:475-505.

17. Piascik, M.T., Soltis, E.E., Piascik, M.M., MacMillan, L.B. Alpha-adrenoceptors and vascular regulation: molecular, pharmacologic and clinical correlates. Pharmacol. Ther. 1996; 72:215-241.

18. Tanoue, A., Koshimizu, T.A., Tsujimoto, G. Transgenic studies of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor subtype function. Life Sci. 2002; 71:2207-2215.

19. Cotecchia, S., Kobilka, B.K., Daniel, K.W., Nolan, R.D., Lapetina, E.Y., Caron, M.G., Lefkowitz, R.J., Regan, J.W. Multiple second messenger pathways of alpha-adrener-gic receptor subtypes expressed in eukaryotic cells. J. Biol. Chem. 1990; 265:63-69.

20. Surprenant, A., Horstman, D.A., Akbarali, H., Limbird, L.E. A point mutation of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor that blocks coupling to potassium but not calcium currents. Science 1992; 257:977-980.

21. Handy, D.E., Flordellis, C.S., Bogdanova, N.N., Bresnahan, M.R., Gavras, H. Diverse tissue expression of rat alpha 2-adrenergic receptor genes. Hypertension 1993; 21:861-865.

22. Rosin, D.L., Zeng, D., Stornetta, R.L., Norton, F.R., Riley, T., Okusa, M.D., Guyenet, PG., Lynch, K.R. Immunohistochemical localization of alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors in catecholaminergic and other brainstem neurons in the rat. Neuroscience 1993; 56:139-155.

23. Scheinin, M., Lomasney, J.W., Hayden-Hixson, D.M., Schambra, U.B., Caron, M.G., Lefkowitz, R.J., Fremeau, R.T. Distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtype gene expression in rat brain. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1994; 21:133-149.

24. Philipp, M., Brede, M., Hein, L. Physiological significance of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtype diversity: one receptor is not enough. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2002; 283:R287-R295.

25. Tavares, A., Handy, D.E., Bogdanova, N.N., Rosene, D.L., Gavras, H. Localization of alpha 2A- and alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor subtypes in brain. Hypertension 1996; 27:449-455.

26. Richman, J.G. and Regan, J.W. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptors increase cell migration and decrease F-actin labeling in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Am. J. Physiol. 1998; 274:C654-C662.

27. Eason, M.G. and Liggett, S.B. Human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtype distribution: widespread and subtype-selective expression of alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 mRNA in multiple tissues. Mol. Pharmacol. 1993; 44:70-75.

28. Makaritsis, K.P., Handy, D.E., Johns, C., Kobilka, B.K., Gavras, I., Gavras, H. Role of the alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor in the development of salt- induced hypertension. Hypertension 1999; 33:14-17.

29. Hein, L., Altman, J.D., Kobilka, B.K. Two functionally distinct alpha 2-adrenergic receptors regulate sympathetic neurotransmission. Nature 1999; 402:181-184.

30. Trendelenburg, A.U., Philipp, M., Meyer, A., Klebroff, W., Hein, L., Starke, K. All three alpha(2)-adrenoceptor types serve as autoreceptors in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 2003; 368:504-512.

31. Brede, M., Wiesmann, F., Jahns, R., Hadamek, K., Arnolt, C., Neubauer, S., Lohse, M.J., Hein, L. Feedback inhibition of catecholamine release by two different alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes prevents progression of heart failure. Circulation 2002; 106:2491-2496.

32. Evans, W.E. and Relling, M.V. Pharmacogenomics: translating functional genomics into rational therapeutics. Science 1999; 286:487-491.

33. Drysdale, C.M., McGraw, D.W., Stack, C.B., Stephens, J.C., Judson, R.S., Nanda-balan, K., Arnold, K., Ruano, G., Liggett, S.B. Complex promoter and coding region beta 2-adrenergic receptor haplotypes alter receptor expression and predict in vivo responsiveness. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2000; 97:10483-10488.

34. Kirstein, S.L. and Insel, P.A. Autonomic nervous system pharmacogenomics: a progress report. Pharmacol. Rev. 2004; 56:31-52.

35. McNamara, D.M., Holubkov, R., Janosko, K., Palmer, A., Wang, J.J., MacGowan, G.A., Murali, S., Rosenblum, W.D., London, B., Feldman, A.M. Pharmacogenetic interactions between beta-blocker therapy and the angiotensin-converting enzyme deletion polymorphism in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation 2001; 103:1644-1648.

36. Roden, D.M. and George, A.L., Jr. The genetic basis of variability in drug responses. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2002; 1:37-44.

37. Iaccarino, G., Smithwick, L.A., Lefkowitz, R.J., Koch, W.J. Targeting G-beta gamma signaling in arterial vascular smooth muscle proliferation: a novel strategy to limit restenosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1999; 96:3945-3950.

38. Housman, D. and Ledley, F.D. Why pharmacogenomics? Why now? Nat. Biotechnol. 1998; 16:492-493.

39. Crooke, S.T. Optimizing the impact of genomics on drug discovery and development. Nat. Biotechnol. 1998; 16 Suppl.: 29-30.

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Do You Suffer From High Blood Pressure? Do You Feel Like This Silent Killer Might Be Stalking You? Have you been diagnosed or pre-hypertension and hypertension? Then JOIN THE CROWD Nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States suffer from High Blood Pressure and only 1 in 3 adults are actually aware that they have it.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment