Neuroendocrine Function

In the CNS, hormone secretion from the pituitary is regulated by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. GPCRs are abundant in the hypothalamus, many of which interact with peptide neurotransmitters to regulate hunger, thirst, water balance, body temperature, and blood pressure. Table 7.1 shows a large number of receptors expressed in hypothalamus, and additional examples include somatostatin, orexin, and angiotensin receptors. The hypothalamus has been an area of major interest in the study of orphan receptors, and two examples of recently deorphanized GPCRs in the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system are neuromedin U-2 and galanin-like peptide receptors,194 Many of the remaining human orphan GPCRs have been detected in the hypothalamus by in situ hybridization and await further characterization.1

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