Contents

Abstract 85

6.1 Introduction 86

6.2 Central Mediation of Feeding and Energy Homeostasis 86

6.2.1 Melanocortin System 86

6.2.2 Cannabinoid System 87

6.2.3 Ghrelin Receptor 87

6.2.4 Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Receptors 88

6.2.5 Serotonergic System 89

6.2.6 Orexin System 89

6.2.7 Potential Emerging Targets for Drug Discovery in

Metabolic Disease 90

6.3 Peripheral Signals Affecting Nutrient Sensing and Utilization 90

6.3.1 Satiety and Glucose Homeostasis 90

6.3.1.1 Cholecystokinin System 90

6.3.1.2 PP-Fold Peptide System 93

6.3.1.3 Calcitonin Receptors 94

6.3.1.4 Glucagon Receptor Family 94

6.3.1.5 Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor 95

6.3.2 Peripheral Energy Metabolism 96

6.3.2.1 p3-Adrenergic Receptor 96

6.3.3 Nutrient Sensing Receptors 96

6.4 Conclusions 97

References 97

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