Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-up For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Continue reading...

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Basic Us Regulatory Structure For Cosmetics Definitions Cosmetics Soaps and Drugs

For reasons discussed earlier in this book (see Chap. 2), the use of the term ''cosmetics'' refers not only to finished cosmetic products marketed to consumers, but also to constituent ingredients and other components of such finished products (for example, packaging). Under current legal standards, topical products functioning as cosmetics may cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, or alter appearance of the human body. The FDA Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program (VCRP) currently lists 13 subdivided cosmetic product categories, which appear in the codified regulations at 21 CFR 720.4 (see Chap. 2, Table 1). Cosmetics and OTC drug-cosmetics Liquid and solid product formulations consisting of synthetic detergents (''syndets''), combinations of soap and synthetic detergents (''combo'' bars) intended not only for cleansing but also claiming other cosmetic product performance attributes (e.g., ''beauty bars'' or ''body bars'' claiming to beautify, moisturize, soften, or smooth the...

Basic Us Legal Structure For Cosmetics

The FDA is the principal regulatory agency charged with the enforcement of the Laws governing the marketing of cosmetics in the United States. The Laws are the basic enabling authority enacted by Congress. For cosmetics, the agency is given the mandate for enforcing the statutory requirements of the 1938 Federal Food and Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD& C Act, also referred to as the ''Act''), the 1960 Color Additive Amendments to the Act, and the 1966 Federal Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (FPLA). Under the authority of these statutes, the FDA has promulgated Regulations (or Rules) to implement the mandate conferred by the Laws. Guidance Documents, which include Policy Statements (and those documents formerly termed Advisory Opinions) have also been issued by the agency. Although not legally binding on the public or on the agency, Guidance Documents none

Cosmetics In The Future

Licensing systems for companies manufacturing and importing cosmetics Maintenance of current systems in principle, while establishing new quality-control systems and simplifying requirements for license approval. 3. Ingredients labeling control Creation of regulations that force cosmetic manufactures and importing companies to include all ingredients on the label in order to give consumers sufficient information to help them evaluate and select the cosmetics. 4. Promotion of the appropriate uses of cosmetics, and collecting and releasing to the public information on the safety of cosmetics. Figure 1 Flow chart of the procedure for treating new ingredients for cosmetics. (From Refs. 4 and 5.)

Regulatory Controls on Cosmetics

Cosmetics marketed in the United States, whether manufactured domestically or imported from abroad, must be in compliance with the provisions of the FD&C Act, the FPLA, and the regulations published under the authority of these laws. Yet, cosmetics are arguably the least regulated category of articles subject to the jurisdiction of the FD&C Act 16 . There is no premarket approval requirement for cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients under the law. Other than color additives and those few ingredients restricted or prohibited by regulation from use in cosmetics, no mandatory regulatory controls exist on the chemistry and structure substantiation of the ingredients themselves, conditions of manufacture of the finished cosmetic products, or safety testing that the ingredients and products must undergo prior to marketing no premarket test results need be submitted to the FDA. The FDA has therefore promulgated regulations and guidance documents to help ensure that only...

Statutory Controls on Cosmetics

The FD&C Act not only defines the term ''cosmetic,'' but sets forth the basic requirement that cosmetic products introduced into interstate commerce within the United States must be safe for their intended use and properly labeled. The act accomplishes this by explicitly prohibiting the adulteration or misbranding of cosmetics, and the introduction into, or receipt in, interstate commerce of ''adulterated'' or ''misbranded'' cosmetics (see FD& C Act, Sections 601 and 602, respectively).

Definition of Cosmetics

Office of Cosmetics and Colors, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. Cosmetics are a category of consumer products marketed worldwide, the purpose and functions of which are universal to people of all cultures. The 1998 global cosmetics and toiletries market was valued at 125.7 billion 1 , including skincare, fragrance, haircare, personal hygiene, and makeup products. In the United States alone there are over 1400 domestic manufacturing and repacking establishments, which in the aggregate use more than 10,500 different cosmetic ingredients 2 and a corresponding number of fragrance ingredients to make over 25,000 product formulations 3 . Once considered luxuries by consumers of modest economic means, cosmetics and toiletries are seen today as necessities by growing numbers of consumers, regardless of their relative states of affluence 4 . Indeed, cosmetics are regarded not as mere pampered indulgences, but as key aids...

Strategy Of Making Antiirritant Cosmetics

The basic principle of development of general anti-irritant cosmetics or cosmetics for sensitive skin is to avoid as much as possible any risk of irritation 4, 42 . The safest way is to use well-tolerated, chemical compounds for the vehicle and active ingredients without history of ''skin problems.'' Allergic reactions and skin irritancy are generally provoked by known specific ingredients, mostly fragrances, colors, and preservatives. The easy task is to remove fragrances and coloring agents hypoallergenic cosmetics minimize the use of or do not contain these ingredients. Actually, a modern trend in cosmetics is to develop specific cosmetics without preservatives. This challenge can be partially answered in cosmetic preparations with none or low water content oils, fats, water oil emulsions, and lipogels using some synthetic lipids and or essential oils with bactericidal properties as preservatives. With aqueous solutions, hydrogels, and oil water emulsions, this goal is very...

Makeup Technology

Types of Color Cosmetics Foundation Blushers Mascara Eyeliner Eye shadow Lip color Nail color Purpose Powdered cosmetics are generally used to describe face powders, eye shadows, and blushers. When the product is applied to the skin, the shade must not significantly change as it is worn must feel smooth in use, making it easy to apply and adhere well for a reasonable time, without reapplication. Some of the attributes of a satisfactory face powder are the following (1) gives smoothness to overall texture, (2) gives added skin translucency when excess is buffed, (3) makes the skin appear more refined and finer textured, (4) helps set the makeup base and adds longevity to the makeup overall, and (5) suppresses surface oil and shine. Generally there is a wide range of raw materials used in powdered cosmetics and many of these carry over into the formulation of other decorative cosmetics. The attributes of blushers are as follows (1) add color to the face (2) can give more dimension to...


Innumerable cosmetic products exist, many of which claim to affect wrinkles and some of which may considerably minimize the appearance of wrinkles. Cosmetics of a simple, occlusive nature may essentially ''fill in'' the wrinkle valleys others are of a color or substance that changes reflected light from the wrinkle sufficiently to minimize its appearance. Some products currently regulated as cosmetic contain ingredients such as alpha-hydroxy acids or retinol with potential pharmacological actions, and could more logically be designated cosmeceutical. The effect of removing dead, loosely coherent surface kera-tinocytes, or of stimulating epidermal or dermal processes, may significantly improve the appearance of wrinkles. It is important to remember that, at least in the United States, if

Cosmetic Percutaneous Absorption And Toxicity

The potential toxicity of cosmetics has in the past been dismissed as an event unlikely to occur. The argument was put forth that cosmetics did not contain ingredients that could prove harmful to the body. The argument went further to say that, because cosmetics were applied to skin with its barrier properties, the likelihood that a chemical would become systemically available was remote. The argument was proven false when carcinogens were shown to be present in cosmetics, and subsequent studies showed that these carcinogenic chemicals could be percutaneously absorbed 12 . Table 2 shows the relationship between percutaneous absorption and erythema for several oils used in cosmetics. The investigators attempted to correlate absorbability with erythema. The most-absorbed oil, isopropyl myristate, produced the most erythema. The lowest-absorbing oil, 2-hexyldecanoxyoctane, produced the least erythema. Absorbability and erythema for the other oils did not correlate 13 . The lesson to...

Diagnosing Cosmetic Allergy

Taking the history of the patient and noting the clinical symptoms and localization of the lesions are critical. Allergen identification for a patient with a possible contact allergy to cosmetics is performed by means of patch testing with the standard series, specific cosmetic-test series, the product itself, and all its ingredients. We can only find the allergens we look for. For skin tests with cosmetic products the patients supply themselves, there are several guidelines 49 . Not only patch and photopatch tests but also semiopen tests, 1,

Two Concerns About Things Other Than Suffering

Turning to the first of these, genetic interventions, and particularly the production of transgenic animals, concern many observers. Often the animals themselves do not suffer as a result of having their genome modified. Even so, people feel uneasy at the thought of introducing spinach genes into the pig genome. In this unease, there seems to be a sense that the naturalness of an animal is important a pig should be a pig and nothing else. In trying to capture this attitude, the philosopher Bernard Rollin24 refers to the telos of an animal. Using this notion, we might say that the creation of transgenic animals is morally unacceptable because animals have the right to have their telos respected. Against this, it has been suggested that the idea that there is a genuine ethical issue here is an illusion human beings altered the genetic makeup of various animals through breeding long before anybody knew how to manipulate genes directly, and the only significant difference between...

Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Fragrances Epidemiology

In dermatitis patients seen by dermatologists, the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances is between 6 and 14 only nickel allergy occurs more frequently. When tested with 10 popular perfumes, 6.9 of female eczema patients proved to be allergic to them 10 and 3.2 to 4.2 were allergic to fragrances from perfumes present in various cosmetic products 11 . In cosmetics causing contact allergic reactions, perfumes account for up to 18 and deodorants antiperspirants for up to 17 of all cases. When patients with Patients allergic to fragrances are usually adult individuals of either sex. They mainly become allergic by the use of cosmetics and personal-care products occupational contact with fragrances is seldom important, not even in workers in the cosmetics industry 3 . Contact allergy to fragrances usually causes dermatitis of the hands, face, and or armpits 16-18 , the latter site being explained by contact allergy to deodorants and fragranced antiperspirants. In the face, the skin...

Clinical Evaluation of Sensory Irritation

A variety of chemical irritants used in cosmetics were used to induce sensory irritation. All clinical studies were conducted according to double-blind, vehicle-controlled, random treatment assignment protocols in which each subject served as her own control. Test subjects were healthy women, aged 18 to 65, who self-reported a history of sensitive skin and were sensitive to lactic acid facial challenge. Treated skin sites were first washed with Ivory bar soap, followed by sequential application of test materials and sensory irritation evaluation. Statistical analysis of the mean sensory irritation differences between vehicle and strontium-treated groups was conducted using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test for paired comparisons. All subjects provided informed consent and all protocols were reviewed by a safety committee.

Phenotyping And Genotyping Strategies For Association Testing

Wether the phenotype of interest has a binary or quantitative phenotype is also of interest for the association study design. When a binary trait is being investigated, case-control type populations are required for association analysis, where equivalent sized sub-populations of individuals that display the phenotype of interest (cases) and do not display the phenotype of interest (controls) are querried for allelic association of genetic loci with the case and control phenotypes in a statistically significant manner. The statistical test performed is simply a hypothesis test, that asks weather or not the allelic frequency distribution of a locus is the same or different for a given locus between the two sub-populations. Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA) type (Michelmore et al. 1991) bulked sample genotype screening methods for all the available marker loci may facilitate the candidate gene and association discovery, for binary traits (Shaw et al. 1998). The challange of case-control type...

Figure Emulsion Multiple

Sponge Like Structures Microparticles

The achievements of recent extensive research has resulted in the development of controlled delivery systems. Some of these systems have been extensively investigated for their therapeutic potential while simultaneously being examined for their possible cosmetic uses. One objective in the design of novel drug delivery systems is controlled delivery of the active to its site of action at an appropriate rate. Novel polymers and surfactants in different forms, sizes, and shapes can aid in this goal. Encapsulation techniques are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, veterinary application, food, copying systems, laundry products, agricultural uses, pigments, and other less well-known uses to control the delivery of encapsulated agents as well as to protect those agents from environmental degradation. No encapsulation process developed to date is able to produce the full range of capsules desired by potential capsule users. The methods, which are significantly relevant to the production of...

Nuclear Transfer To Generate Stem Cells

Most work on hES cells has taken place with a relatively small number of cell lines obtained from excess blastocysts donated from in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs. The genetic makeup of the cells is not controlled in any way, and genetic variation among lines needs to be considered when results from different lines are compared. Experience from research with mES cells shows that ES cell lines can differ markedly in their differentiation efficiencies. Being able to control the genotype of ES cells would be valuable for various reasons, most notably the desire to generate ES cells with genotypes known to predispose to particular diseases. In the case of single-gene defects, one could achieve that goal by deriving hES cells from discarded morulae or blastocysts that were identified with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) procedures (Verlinsky et al, 2005) as carrying mutations or by generating the appropriate mutation by gene targeting of established hES cell lines. However,...

Gender identity disorder

Gender identity and gender-appropriate behaviors are generally learned. This learning first occurs at home and later outside the home. Behavioral experimentation, particularly when a child is young, is considered normal. As they grow, children will often experiment with a variety of gender role behaviors as they learn to make the fine distinctions between masculine and feminine role expectations of the society in which they live. Some young boys occasionally exhibit behaviors that Western culture has traditionally labeled feminine. Examples of these behaviors include wearing a dress, using cosmetics, or playing with dolls. Such males frequently avoid playing with other boys, dress in girls' clothing, play predominantly with girls, try out cosmetics and wigs, and display stereotypi-cally feminine gait, arm movements, and body gestures. Although much less common, some girls may similarly reject traditionally feminine roles and mannerisms in favor of masculine characteristics....

The Cosmetic Care Of Elderly Skin

Cosmetics for elderly skin can usually be divided into the categories of facecare and bodycare. Currently, a multitude of product types can be found. Although the number of products is overwhelming, there are common features to be mentioned. The following two sections will deal with product characteristics in various segments for the cosmetic care of elderly skin. Concepts for cosmetics suited for elderly people are often based on the dry skin conditions

Color Additive Regulation

In the past, colorants had been used in cosmetics without any consideration being given to their possible toxicity. Today, all countries have regulations that control the type and purity of colors that may be used in cosmetics. 2. All cosmetic products, except those intended to be applied in the vicinity of the eyes, in particular eye makeup and makeup remover If a color index number is listed in Annex IV, then the pure color plus its salts and lakes are allowed, unless prohibited under Annex II (the list substances that cosmetics may not contain). Exceptions include barium, strontium, and zirconium. Comprehensive licensing standards of cosmetics by category (CLS)

Characterization Physical Characterization

Cosmetics and their relation to drugs. In Swarbrick J, Boylan JC, eds. Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol. 3. New York Marcel Dekker, 1990 361-373. 31. Vaughan CD. Using solubility parameters in cosmetics formulation. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1985 36 319-333. 38. Enigl DC, Sorrells KM. Water activity and self-preserving formulas. In Kabara JJ, Orth DS, eds. Preservative-Free and Self-Preserving Cosmetics and Drugs. New York Marcel Dekker, 1997 45. 39. Sabourin JR. A Perspective on Preservation for the New Millennium, Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide. Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom Aston Publishing Group, 1999 50-59.

Formulating Hydrating Creams And Lotions

Options with respect to formulating new products. When initiating formulation development, it is important to understand project product requirements, type of product(s), performance and aesthetic needs, formulation cost constraints, packaging needs, product claims, and formulation safety. To what part of the body will the formulation be applied What time of day, morning or overnight Will makeup be applied over the product, and will clothing come into contact with the product Will the targeted consumer apply a fragrance to the body after application of the product, and if so, will the fragrances conflict Once these requirements are defined, the formulator can consider active ingredients, emulsion systems, preservative systems, color, and fragrance.

Immunological Contact Urticaria

This term is a neologism for consumers' feelings about their intolerance to a variety of topical agents, be it topical medicaments or cosmetics and toiletries. Individuals present with very similar complaints, such as burning, stinging or itching sensations, on contact with certain cosmetic products that most people do not seem to react to, sometimes accompanied by slight erythema or edema. They frequently complain of a ''tight feeling'' in their skin, secondary to associated dry skin. Sensitive skin describes the phenotype noted by the consumer mechanisms include sensory irritation, suberythematous irritation, acute and cumulative irritation, contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, as well as photoal-lergic and phototoxic contact dermatitis. Sensory irritation and suberythematous irritation are believed to be far more common than the remaining mechanisms.

Description And Definition Of Main Vehicles Solutions

In general, true solutions used in cosmetics are either based on aqueous, or aqueous-alcoholic, media or on inert oily vehicles. Most organic solvents cannot be used because of their local or systemic toxicity, which causes skin irritation or permeation across the skin barrier into the body, respectively. Although good solvents for lipophilic substances, oils may not be used in every case because of their grassy characteristic, low acceptance, and exclusion for hairy application sites. However, for special applications oils are preferred, e.g., for massage. ''Massage oils'' contain essential oils and fragrances, compounds that are easily dissolved in the oily vehicle because of their lipophilic properties. Prerequisite for solution formulation is a sufficiently high solubility of the solute in the solvent. Classical examples for solutions used in cosmetics are ''eau de parfums'' and ''eau de toilettes.'' In order to enable solubilization of the lipophilic fragrances, alcohol or...

International Harmonization and Future Regulatory Challenges

The U.S. regulatory scheme for cosmetics is based on the axiom that cosmetics marketed in the U.S. are safe for their intended use and unlikely to present a major public health risk 47 , which is reflected in the lack of pre-market approval authority for cosmetics included in the original 1938 FD&C Act. ucts regulated as OTC drugs or OTC drug-cosmetics in the United States, such as sunscreens, skin bleaches, antiperspirants, and antidandruff shampoos 49 , are regulated as cosmetics under the EU Cosmetics Directive of 1976 27 . Japan, which currently regulates cosmetics according to a system of premarket approval and licensure rather than the postmarket surveillance system used by the United States or the notification system used by the EU, allows cosmetics to have some effect on the structure and function of the skin and hair, provided that the effect is ''mild'' and provides for a third ''quasi-drug'' category of product accommodating ''mild,'' borderline physiological effects, such...

Nonhuman Primate Models Old World Monkeys

Osteogenesis Imperfecta Life Expectancy

Nonhuman primates (NHP) are classified as Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and Great Apes. The Old World monkeys (OWM) are most commonly used in biomedical research, and, of these, the Asian macaques and the baboons of Africa are most frequently used. OWMs have a genetic makeup approximately 92.5 to 95 similar to humans and undergo similar reproductive processes as humans. The NHP reproductive cycle is approximately 28 to 30 days, with a follicular, prolif-erative, and luteal phase that results in a hormonal milieu similar to that in humans (Hendrickx et al., 1995) (see Figure 43.2). Additionally, in aging OWMs, as in humans, a decrease in fertility and changes in HPG hormone levels are accompanied by the onset of irregular menstrual cycles and finally, cessation of menses. However, OWMs spend a much shorter period (15-23 ) of their

Policy Goals and Objectives

Well-written laws always include clearly articulated goals and objectives that the law is intended to achieve, although clear goals and objectives are only part of the makeup of a good policy. When those with implementation responsibility know what the law is really intended to accomplish what its goals and objectives are it is easier to operate the programs and procedures embedded within it. In contrast, when the goals and objectives of a policy are not clear or when they are multiple or conflicting, successful operation is made more difficult, if not impossible, to achieve, even before the effort begins.

The Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program

The FD&C Act does not require cosmetic firms to register manufacturing establishments or formulations with the FDA, nor does it mandate that companies submit product adverse reaction report data. Nevertheless, the FDA has encouraged the voluntary registration of such data as being in the public interest and consistent with the spirit of responsible ''self-regulation'' advocated by the cosmetic industry. In the early 1970s, the FDA developed a three-part system of regulations, under which manufacturers or distributors of cosmetics may submit this information to the agency on a voluntary basis 33 . The three parts of the Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program (VCRP) originally comprised the following historically been the lowest of the three parts of the VCRP. Part III (PER) was discontinued in 1996 35 and the VCRP itself was temporarily put into operational abeyance in 1998 due to resource re-allocations within the FDA 36 . With partial funding restoration by the Congress...

Allergy and Dermatitis

Contact allergy to chemicals used in ear drops is the most common type of dermatologic otitis externa. Hairsprays, dyes, and cosmetics can also result in an eczematoid and draining otorrhea. If the source of external canal weeping is not obvious, routine patch testing is strongly suggested (20). The autoeczematization (ID) reaction, which is an autoimmune reaction that may involve only the external auditory canal, has been recorded for over 70 years in the otolaryngology literature. Recent studies confirm that this is due to a local reaction to distant fungus infections, most commonly dermatophytid in the feet and inguinal area. Control of the primary fungal infection with prolonged antifungal systemic treatment will nearly always control the ear reaction (21,22). There are other less-common dermatologic conditions that may focus on the ear. Atopic dermatitis, which has recently been found to result from a superantigen reaction to Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin, has been implicated in...

Cosmetic Ingredient Label Declarations

Section 5(c)(3) of the FPLA specifically authorizes FDA to promulgate regulations requiring the declaration of all cosmetic ingredients on product package labels of cosmetics considered ''consumer commodities'' (loc. cit., Ref. 24(b)) these regulations are codified at 21 CFR 701.3. Exempt from the ingredient declaration requirement are professional cosmetic products, such as hair and skin preparations or makeup products used by cosmetologists, beauticians, or aestheticians on clients at professional establishments such as salons, spas, and theaters, provided that these products are not also sold to consumers through the professional establishments, workplaces, or other miscellaneous beauty supply retail outlets for their consumption at home such cosmetics are not legally considered ''consumer commodities.'' Similar exemptions apply to ''free'' (gratis) samples, gifts, cosmetics distributed as free amenities at hotels, and cosmetics and toiletries made available to workers and visitors...

Activity Spectrum of a Preservative

Virucidal action is not considered for cosmetics. These facts restrict the spectrum of a cosmetic preservative to bacteria and fungi. According to the most widespread opinion, a bactericidal and a fungicidal effect is needed so that the contaminating organisms accidentally introduced in the preparation will be killed. A bacteriostatic or fungistatic action could eventually be accepted to stabilize a preparation during the shelf-life of a unidose, nonsterile product. For the fungicidal and bactericidal preservative must be toxicologicaly acceptable.

After Hair Treatments

And leave-on types, which remain in the hair. In Figure 9 an overview about the hair aftertreatments is listed. We studied the effects of typical conditioners (Table 8). After treatments are used to restructure and improve the hair quality. Such preparations must be effective not only superficially but also below the surface of the hair. Changing the properties of the hair surface can cause improvements in properties such as combability, feel, and manageability, and can reduce the build-up of static charge. Moreover, a protective action can be achieved with chemical hair treatments, and special additives that penetrate inside the hair can improve its mechanical strength. Therefore a schematic formulation makeup is based on the described general requirements derived from hair-damaging processes described in the introduction 16,17 .

Alternate Vendor Qualification

You may also elect to qualify alternate raw material suppliers for ingredients in the formula. It is desirable to have secondary sources for most raw materials to ensure a steady supply and competitive pricing. Unfortunately, even though raw materials from different suppliers may have the same CTFA (Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association) designation, they may not be chemically identical, because chemical feedstocks and processing conditions vary between suppliers. Therefore, a raw material from one supplier cannot always be automatically inserted into a formula developed with a different supplier's raw material. The impact of even seemingly inconsequential change in raw materials must be established by stability testing.

Antiirritant Applications2

Grove improved the method by defining the demographic profile of the subjects and recommending the exclusion of males and older individuals. He also established criteria limiting the frequency of use and determined that sensitive subjects often reported a history of problems with soaps, cosmetics, and other personal-care products. Subjects who repeatedly reported a stinging response to lactic acid applied under ambient conditions were also tested for a burning and itching response. A method for evaluating burning sensations using a 20 80 mixture of chloroform methanol pipetted into a greased aluminum cylinder covered and placed against the skin was used. To elicit itching, a 4 histamine base was also loaded into a grease-ringed cylinder and placed against the skin. Results found good correlation between burning and stinging, but individual response variability was rather high. A distinct correlation between itching and stinging was not observed 30 . as a history of allergic reactions....

Cosmetic Good Manufacturing Practices Guidelines

The FDA has never published current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) regulations for cosmetics, although the agency has actively promoted good manufacturing practices by firms marketing cosmetics in the United States. The agency has published Cosmetic Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines, patterned in pertinent part after the food cGMP regulations 13a but applicable to the cosmetic manufacturing environment, in the FDA's Cosmetics Handbook 13b the latter document references the FDA Investigation Operations Manual (IOM) 31 . The Cosmetic Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines is a guidance document reflecting FDA policy, but it is not legally binding, either on the cosmetics industry or on the agency. The FDA has also published drug cGMP regulations 32 , which apply to prescription drugs and cosmetic-drugs (i.e., OTC drug products making cosmetic claims).

Cosmetic Label Warnings

Cosmetics that may be hazardous to consumers when misused must bear appropriate label warnings and adequate directions for safe use. Manufacturers and marketers of cosmetics have a general responsibility to ensure that the labels of their finished cosmetic products bear a warning statement whenever necessary or appropriate to prevent a health hazard that may be associated with the product (21 CFR 740.1 a ). These warning statements must be prominent and conspicuous (21 CFR 740.2). Some cosmetics must also bear more specific label warnings or cautions prescribed by regulation. Specific cosmetic product categories requiring such statements currently include Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers (21 CFR 740.11)

Differences Between Classical Cosmetic Forms And Patches

It is known that from the moment classical cosmetics (creams, lotions, etc.) are applied to the skin, they start changing continuously. The air, atmosphere's pollution, humid or dry environment, dust, and anything that can be transferred with it as well as any other factors alter the composition and the form of the product, which results in significant changes to the product's action. Patches, on the other hand, are systems of occlusion even if there is sometimes the need, and we have the possibility, to manufacture breathable or porous patches. Because of this, permeation is getting easier, interactions with the environment are being considerably reduced, and we can expect a more ''accurate'' and ''controlled'' overall result.

Epidermis The Sublime Barrier

Sure), chemicals contained in products (cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and drugs), and the penetration of ultraviolet light, which is reflected or scattered in the superficial epidermis. The superficial epidermis also protects against microbes such as bacteria and fungi. These critically important interfaces in the epidermis are not a simple structure that can be visualized by histology, but by functions and gradients. The epidermis and the skin is also a neurosensory perceptive organ where negative sensations (pain, itching, stinging, burning, hot, cold) and positive sensations (touch, sexual stimulation) are elicited. Cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and drugs are designed to interact with the different layers of the skin. Cosmetics primarily aim to influence the visible, superficial epidermis, whereas drugs typically aim to influence the inner layers of the skin and heal disease. Some drugs, namely the transdermals, permeate the skin and are absorbed into the blood stream to exert their...

Frequency of Application and Cumulative Effects

Daily use or use several times a day of cosmetics may cause ingredients to accumulate in the skin and thus increase the risk of adverse reactions. In fact, the concentration of an ingredient may be too low to induce sensitivity in a single product but may reach critical levels in the skin if several products containing it are used consecutively. This may be the case for people who are loyal to the same brand of, e.g., day and night creams, foundations, and cleansing products, because a manufacturer will often use the same preservative system for all of its products. This should be taken into consideration by companies that use biologically active ingredients such as preservative agents, emulsifiers, anti-oxidants, and perfumes, because it might well account for many of the adverse reactions to these particular substances. In our experience, intense users of cosmetics are more prone to cosmetic dermatitis than others.

Function Of Vehicles Direct Intrinsic Effect

The term vehicle is used in pharmaceutics as well as in cosmetics in the area of formulation. In general, this term implies differentiation between active and inactive principles. The active principle is embedded into a matrix, the vehicle. With the aid of the vehicle the active principle is delivered to the application site or to the target organ, respectively, where the desired effect is achieved. As a matter of fact, however, when dermatological and cosmetical preparations are applied, sharp differentiation between active and inactive principle is generally not possible because of the so-called vehicle effect. The aim of application of both a pharmaceutical preparation as well as a cosmetic topical care product is to achieve a desired effect. Pharmaceutical preparations are effective because of a pharmacologically active compound delivered with the aid of a vehicle, whereas cosmetic formulations are not allowed to contain such compounds. Nevertheless, an effect is also achieved by...

Hypoallergenic Products2

Most of the cosmetic industry is making a great effort to commercialize products that are the safest possible. Some manufacturers market cosmetics containing raw materials having The latest trend is target marketing to people with hypersensitive skin an often-used term for the shadowy zone between normal and pathological skin. These would be people with increased neurosensitivity (e.g., atopics), heightened immune responsiveness (e.g., atopic and contact allergic individuals), or a defective skin barrier, i.e., people with irritable skin such as atopics or those suffering from seborrheic dermatitis 52 or rosacea. This means that part of the cosmetic industry is moving more into the area of pathological skin and that certain products are in fact becoming drugs, often called cosmeceuticals. This has caused a great deal of regulatory concern 53,54 both in the United States and the European Union because it suggests some middle category between cosmetics and drugs that does not yet...

Microbiological Control Of Raw Materials Microbial Health Hazards by Contaminated Products

The microbial spoilage of cosmetics has been reported in the literature for many years 1-3 . One of the first reported incidents 4 is the death by tetanus of four babies in New Zealand in 1946, the vector being a contaminated talcum powder. The same vector was the source of two other cases of tetanus in an English hospital 5 . Since the 1960s, cases of cosmetic-induced infections were described in parallel with the awareness of the problem for topical drugs 6-12 . The isolated organisms were Gram-negative bacteria from the genus Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Pseudomonas 13,14 . The organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a particularly virulent hospital pathogen transmitted by eye cosmetics, led to cases of infections and even blindness 15-20 , or folliculitis from sponges 21 . Studies were then conducted to evaluate the importance of the problem 2229 and to investigate the primary contaminating sources such as raw materials, personnel, water, and packaging, as well as secondary...

Properties Of A Vector Microparticles

Microencapsulation has been applied to solve problems in the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as in cosmetics for several purposes. These include the conversion of liquids to solids, separation of incompatible components in dosage form, taste masking, reduction of gastrointestinal irritation, protection of the core materials against atmospheric deterioration, and enhancement of stability and controlled-release of active ingredients.

Self Perception of Skin Irritations

Generally when a finished cosmetic product comes into contact with the skin of potential consumers, it is very unlikely that observable signs of irritation are noticed in normal use. However, the overall perception of the finished product by the consumer is an important criterion for accepting its cosmetic use. In this global perception many different parameters may play a role, some independant of the potential irritancy of ingredients, such as feeling of aesthetic nature, ease of spreading on the skin, viscosity, perfume, and color. However, the subjective perception of skin feel is closely related to the composition of the cosmetic product. Skin feel attributes, such as self-perception of dryness (feels tight, rough, and dry), or irritation (itching and burning), softness, and smoothness are easily perceived by the subjects. In most cases, the subjects are able to perceive very early on the effects of some cosmetics on the skin well before they become clinically observable or...

Solventtype Skin Cleansers

Solvent-type cleansers are designed to remove oily residues from cosmetics. Normally these cleansers are applied by hand to remove oily deposits of colors or pigments from the skin, and are then wiped out with tissue or cloth. Water-oil (W O) emulsions or simple oils work satisfactorily for this purpose but leave skin oily. Thus surfactant-type cleansers are quite often applied after this treatment. The widespread trend of long-lasting cosmetics requires stronger and laborious cleansing with solvent-type cleansers. In order to avoid excess burden to the skin and achieve effective cleansing of oily deposits, (1) solubilization and dispersibility, and (2) washability with water are key properties of solvent-type cleansers, while mildness is mandatory requirement for the product. For the former need, the product should be more lipophilic, and on the contrary for the latter purpose it is better to be rather hydrophilic. To overcome these contradictory tasks, there are several different...

Stability Considerations

Microcapsules are somewhat fragile physically and care must be taken to avoid premature rupture and release of the contents. Excessive temperature should be avoided by adding microencapsulated ingredients late in the manufacturing process. Likewise, refrain from formulating with materials that may act as solvents on the capsules walls. Finally, avoid high-shear processing, such as milling and homogenizing, which can physically disrupt the capsules. Additional techniques for enhancing the stability of microcapsules can be found in the technical literature. Fox refers to an interesting Shiseido patent for improving the stability of gelatin microcapsules by coating the surface of the capsule with a basic amino acid or its polymer 10 . In general, microcapsules are a stable, efficacious method of delivering chemicals in cosmetics. In fact, when properly formulated, microcapsules can actually enhance stability of systems by protecting the ingredients they carry from external forces. For...

Tamper Resistant Packaging

The FDA is given the authority under Sections 601 (a) and (c) and 701 (a) of the FD&C Act to issue package security requirements for cosmetics. Requirements for tamper-resis- tant packaging for cosmetic liquid oral hygiene products (e.g., mouthwashes and breath fresheners) and all cosmetic vaginal products (e.g., douches and tablets) were promulgated at 21 CFR 700.25. Details about such packaging is found in the FDA's Cosmetics Handbook 30 and at the FDA website, http

The Ideal Antisensory Antiirritant

The idea antisensory anti-irritant would effectively inhibit stinging, burning, and itching caused by a broad range of acidic, neutral, and basic chemical irritants by reducing the sensitivity of type-C nociceptors. In contrast, it would not inhibit the warning symptom of pain mediated by A-delta nerves, nor would it affect other nerve sensors that mediate tactile, temperature, or vibratory sensations. Since most cosmetic-induced sensory irritation occurs within several minutes after application, the ideal anti-irritant should work within seconds when formulated with the irritant. For broad product use, it should also work when applied as a pretreatment before the irritating formulation and it should work when applied after irritation has occurred. Because cosmetics use a wide range of chemicals, the anti-irritant should be stable in many chemical environments and inexpensive enough to be used in low-cost products. With repeated daily use, the ideal anti-irritant should provide the...

Vesicular Systemsliposomes And Niosomes Definition Description

Vesicular systems encompass a number of delivery technologies, including liposomes and niosomes. Both of these systems employ a ''vessel'' to contain active ingredients within a formula and to provide controlled delivery of these ingredients. Nacht defines controlled delivery as a ''system that would result in a predictable rate of delivery of its active ingredients to the skin'' 1 . Liposomes are a classic example of this technology, in which phospholipids are used to create lipid ''capsules'' that can be loaded with various ingredients. Although liposomes are enjoying tremendous popularity in cosmetics today, they have their roots back in the early 1960s. At that time Professor Bangham, at the Institute for Animal Physiology in Cambridge, U.K., was one of the first to speculate that lipids such as phosphatidyl choline could be used to create sealed vesicles with bilayer membranes similar to cell membranes 1 . Niosomes are another delivery technology related to liposomes the...

Ionic Surfactants Anionic Surfactants

Alkyl sulfates are used in cosmetics and personal-care areas (e.g., DEA lauryl sulfate in shampoos) they are associated with other surfactants and improve foaming characteristics of detergent systems. Pure SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) is used in oral care and incorporated in dental creams, essentially as a foaming agent. Sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a very cost-effective surfactant that is extensively used in a broad variety of detergents for household, fabric care, and institutional and industrial products. Because of its too-high detersive action, LAS has a relatively low compatibility with skin and is only scarcely used in cosmetics except in some antiseborrheic preparations.

Methods And Measures Measuring Infant Mortality

Infant mortality is often subdivided into neonatal mortality (deaths to infants under 28 days) and postneonatal mortality (deaths during the remainder of the first year). By the last decade of the 20th century, about 65 of all infant deaths in the U.S. occurred during the first month of life, with the majority of the latter (about 80 ) occurring during the first week (National Center for Health Statistics 1996 Table 23). While there is reason to be interested in the timing of infant death, per se, researchers have also used this dichotomy to proxy cause of death structure. Specifically, neonatal mortality has been used to approximate deaths due to endogenous causes, i.e., conditions that are related to genetic makeup or that are a consequence of circumstances occurring during the prenatal period and or the birth process'' (Frisbie et al. 1992 535). Exogenous infant mortality is due to environmental or external causes, such as infections, accidents, etc. (Bogue 1969). Although the...

Regulatory Environment

The cosmetic regulations in Japan are extensive and complex 1 . The legal classification of topically applied products is different from the United States and the European Union, where they are divided into only two categories drugs and cosmetics. In Japan, there are additional regulations covering cosmetic products with pharmacological action, called quasidrugs, which are ranked between cosmetics and drugs 2 . Under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, cosmetics, as well as drugs and quasidrugs, are also subject to premarket clearance by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) 1 . The definitions of drugs, cosmetics, and quasidrugs in the regulations 3 read as follows 3. Articles (other than quasidrugs and cosmetics) that are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or animals, and that are not equipment or instruments (Paragraph 1, Article 2 of the Law).

Cosmetic Skin Irritants

Cosmetics are complex mixtures of chemical compounds. The abundance of commercially available ingredients has created endless variety in cosmetic formulation. The cosmetic substances used in cosmetic products may be arbitrarily divided in great categories of product and or function. The principal categories of cosmetic irritants are listed in Table 2. Intolerance to some ingredients is related to symptoms of contact dermatitis and allergic dermatitis. There is not always a clear distinction between these problems. Some cosmetic ingredients present both an irritant character with the additional possibility of allergic reaction (e.g., cinnamic acid derivates). An overview of cosmetic categories causing irritant side effects in descending importance has been given by A. C. de Groot and coworkers 1-3 and are summarized briefly in Table 3. It has clearly been shown that certain categories of cosmetics, taking into account their composition, frequency of use, mode of application on the...

Clinical Applications of Topical Iontophoretic Transport

Iontophoresis has been successfully used in medicine to achieve topical delivery of drugs and actives. Most of the clinical applications of iontophoresis were developed in physical therapy and dermatology. The key areas include local anesthesia, hyperhidrosis, and local treatment of inflammation. Efficacy has been shown in clinical studies. In some cases, notably for the delivery of cosmetics, the ability of the medication to penetrate the target tissue in sufficient quantities to produce a clinical effect was not studied in controlled clinical trials.

Factors That Influence Skin Responsiveness To Irritants

Many factors can influence the responsiveness of a consumer's skin to a potential irritant. Some factors are intrinsic, inherent to the subjects themselves (e.g., sensitive skin, atopic skin), the body site, and previous traumas to the considered skin area. Other factors are external, such as composition of product, conditions of exposure, occupation of the subject, and climatic factors 4,5,7 . The reason why these factors are covered in this chapter are evident. Some cosmetics with anti-irritant ingredients are designed for some specific skin sites, such as the face, or considered as seasonal products, such as cosmetics against winter dryness of the skin. external factors, such as the use of personal care products. Subjects with sensitive skin tend to more readily develop skin reactions to cosmetics and other topical drugs than do normal persons. Many attempts have been made by cosmetic scientists and dermatologists to describe and demonstrate in a scientific way what sensitive skin...

The Psyche Skin And Cosmetic Product Triangle

There is in cosmetic-product use a triangle with the psyche at the top and the skin and the product at the bottom (Fig. 1). The consumer spontaneously coexists with her or his skin and develops her or his degree of self-esteem relative to the skin depending on her or his intellect and society's coding of her or his psyche. There are many examples of how use of cosmetics vary in different cultures and in different historical periods, and this is, of course, not explained by a different biology of the skin. Already the application of a cosmetic product is a venue of pleasure and relaxation. The person can for a brief period concentrate on herself or himself and relax, and the massage maneuvre, while spreading an elegant, fragrant scent, is coupled with pleasure and mental satisfaction. Such daily life dreamy meditation is often displayed in announcements for cosmetics where beautiful ladies apply wonderful creams, wordless in their happiness, almost flying in the cosmos. By promoting...

Present Role Of Laboratory Animals

The development of genetically engineered mice is one of the most significant achievements that is moving biomedical research forward into a new area. This accomplishment, combined with the publication of the first drafts of the human and murine genome maps (see Murine Genome Map Completed ), represents a pivotal step in understanding the genetic components of human diseases. Such understanding of the contributions of genes and their products to the pathogenesis of disease will further help identifying illnesses earlier, leading to advances in prevention, prognostication, and therapeutic development. The potential of altering the genetic makeup of laboratory mice allows researchers to create animal models that are not just workable approximations, but are, in fact, close replicas of the human disease under study. Genetic alterations in animal models allow the study of single or multiple gene effects of human diseases. However, since many complex diseases are multifactorial, not every...

History and Uses of Plant Biotechnology

Improvements in selection and detection (such as the use of genetic markers) has given new impulse to mutation-based breeding strategies. The power of the selection of mutations for breeding purposes can be illustrated by an example of maize lines that were mutated to gain resistance to a herbicide compound. By itself this an unremarkable event since such lines had been produced before in other crops. But a remarkable finding was that herbicide resistance was due to a single amino acid replacement in the enzyme targeted by the herbicide. This example demonstrates that unexpected properties may arise from seemingly trivial changes in the genetic makeup of an organism that cannot be predicted. It is clear that, while a proper method for inducing mutations is important, an essential step is the design of a clever system to select the desired plant lines.

Personalityguided Context

As the great neurological surgeon psychologist Kurt Goldstein (1940) stated, patients whose brains have been altered to remedy a major neurological disorder do not simply lose the function that the disturbed or extirpated area subserved. Rather, the patient restructures and reorganizes his brain capacities so that he can maintain an integrated sense of self. In a similar way, when one or another major domain of ones habitual psychological makeup is removed or diminished (e.g., depression), the patient must reorganize himself, not only to compensate for the loss, but also to formulate a new reconstructed self.

Sensory Irritation Scale

Alpha-hydroxyacids (AHAs) including lactic and glycolic acids are used in cosmetics and in professionally applied chemical peels to reduce the visible signs of skin aging. To maximize AHA efficacy, the formulation must be acidic, which increases the active ''free acid'' form of the AHA molecule and, unfortunately, directly contributes to their irritation potential 11,12 . To evaluate the ability of strontium salts to reduce lactic acid sensory irritation, either lactic acid alone (7.5 in 10 ethanol water vehicle, pH 1.9), or an identical vehicle at the same pH containing various concentrations of strontium nitrate or strontium chloride was applied (0.1 g) to cheek sites using cotton swabs (6 swipes) extending from the nasolabial fold to the outer cheek. Test materials were applied to the right or left side of subjects' faces sequentially followed by sensory irritation assessment on each side for 10 minutes. A typical time-response curve for lactic acid (7.5 , pH 1.9) on the face is...

Gastrointestinal Assessment

Several strains of transgenic or gene-targeted mice develop chronic intestinal inflammation or tumors. These mice make an excellent model for the study of cellular and molecular makeup of preneoplastic stages of intestinal tumorigenesis. Thus, gross pathology and histopathology are critical for assessing preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are possible precursors for colon cancer. They serve as excellent biomarkers for preneoplastic lesions. At necropsy, the small and large bowel should be longitudinally cut open and flushed with saline. The samples are fixed in formalin x 24 h then dipped in 0.2 solution of methylene blue in distilled water and rinsed. Using a light microscope at 40x, the samples are examined mucosal side up for ACF. ACF are distinguished by their increased size, prominent epithelial cells, and increased pericryptal space from surrounding normal crypts.41 GEM are also important models for microbial-based diseases such as Helicobacter...

Individual Uv Filters

Some of the original sunblocks were opaque formulations reflecting or scattering UVR. Color cosmetics containing a variety of inorganic pigments function in this fashion. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are chemically inert and protect through the full spectrum of UVR. They offer significant advantages. Poor cosmetic acceptance limited the widespread use of these two ingredients until recently, when microsized forms have become available. By decreasing particle size of these materials to a microsize or ultrafine grade it is less visible on the skin surface. Micropigmentary sunblocks function differently than opaque sunblocks of pig-mented color cosmetics by absorbing and not simply reflecting or scattering UVR 13 . By varying and mixing particle sizes, differing levels of photoprotection are achieved throughout the UV spectrum. In addition to avobenzone, micropigmentary TiO2 and ZnO offer the best available protection in the UVA II range.

Future Directions For Laboratory Animals In Biomedical Research

The recent explosion of research tools and technologies available to biomedical scientists has created unprecedented opportunities. The capacity to modify the genetic makeup of biologic models and explore gene function provide powerful tools to determine gene function and its modulation by a host of factors. The resulting proliferation of genetically modified research animals, including zebrafish, mice, and other species, has significantly increased the need for centralized repositories for genetically altered animals, with special emphasis on genetic monitoring, phenotyping, and the control of intercurrent infections. Recently established repositories for transgenic and knockout mice and for zebrafish have only begun to address this rapidly increasing need. There are other species, such as Drosophila, that can be maintained only as reproductive colonies. Cryopreservation technologies could significantly reduce the cost and labor of maintaining animals of this type. It is essential...

Stress and Personality

Reactions to stressful situations are a function not only of the severity of the event but also of the physical and psychological makeup of the affected individual. In a longitudinal study of men who had been psychologically examined as college students, those who were diagnosed as poorly adjusted were much more likely to become seriously ill and die in middle adulthood than those who had been diagnosed as well adjusted (Valliant, 1979). These findings led Valliant to conclude that personality adjustment in young adulthood influences a person's physical health in midlife. Good adjustment and positive mental health appear to slow the physical decline that begins in midlife, whereas poor adjustment hastens it.

Personality Development and Disorders

Personality is the sum total of all the qualities, traits, and behaviors that characterize a person's individuality and by which, together with his or her physical attributes, the person is recognized as unique. As witnessed by the persistence of temperament or psychological reaction patterns from birth to adulthood, heredity plays an important role in shaping personality Active, outgoing children and passive, inhibited children tend to retain those same characteristics in adulthood. This does not mean that the roles of environment and experience are not as important as heredity in shaping personality. The society and culture into which a child is born interact with his or her genetic predispositions in determining the kind of person the child becomes, that is, how those predispositions are molded and expressed. Like the cognitive abilities discussed in Chapter 4 and, in fact, all human characteristics, personality is the product of the dynamic interaction between genetic makeup and...

Multicultural Assessment And Treatment Practices

The failure to assess ethnic identity and cultural identity in our patients is to leave out much about who our patients are as human beings. Dana and others believe that one's sense of self is formulated from our experiences, our cultural upbringing, membership in racial and ethnic groups, as well as other commitments and ideologies. Ethnic identity is more salient for some people than others. It is particularly salient for some racial ethnic groups (Phinney & Ali-puria, 1990), and is an important part of the psychological makeup of all human beings.

Ammunition Myths and Facts

From the introduction of the .38 Special cartridge in 1902 until the late 1970s, handguns chambered for this cartridge were used by most police agencies in the United States. The traditional .38 Special cartridge was loaded with a 158-gr., all-lead, round-nose bullet, propelled at velocities of 700 to 850 ft sec. In the mid-1960s, many police organizations began to complain about this cartridge. They felt that this round did not have any stopping power. They cited numerous instances in which officers, firing this cartridge in self-defense, were unable to stop their attacker before they injured the officer or an innocent bystander. What police agencies desired was a pistol cartridge that would stop a person dead in his tracks. There is, of course, no such pistol cartridge and there never will be. Stopping an individual depends not only on the characteristics of a cartridge but also on the organ(s) injured, the severity of the wound (s) and the physiologic makeup of the person who is...

Establishment of Microbial Limits

For many years there have been discussions on whether total count would be sufficient to guarantee the microbiological quality of a cosmetic, or if the exclusion of specified microorganisms, pathogens, or potential pathogens would also be required. The current trend is to require quantitative and qualitative microbial limits. Acceptance criteria for cosmetics and control methods will be issued in the Seventh Amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive. Nevertheless, the acceptance criteria will be minimal criteria that fulfill the public health expectations, such as

Epidemiology Prion Diseases

The evidence that vCJD may have resulted from contamination of the human food supply with BSE-infected beef has raised fears of BSE and vCJD worldwide. Intense efforts are underway around the world to identify BSE-infected animals and prevent BSE-infected products from being consumed by humans as food, medications, biological products, or cosmetics. Risk of contracting vCJD from cattle with BSE in the United States is thought to be very low because no known cases of BSE have occurred in the United States and a ban on entry of foreign sources of BSE is in place. In addition, there is a belief that adequate guidelines exist to prevent similar outbreaks of BSE in cattle in the United States and that appropriate guidelines are in place to monitor cattle for BSE and prevent the human consumption of BSE-infected materials if an outbreak were to occur (Tan, Williams, Khan, Champion, & Nielsen, 1999).

Total Extrinsic Denervation

Following extrinsic denervation of the human respiratory tract by heart-lung transplantation, there are significant changes to the neurochemical makeup of the intrinsic neurons that remain namely, there is the appearance of NPY- and TH-positive neurons that are not found in nontransplanted respiratory tract. This may be another example of adaptive phenotypic plasticity of the ANS (213). Auto-nomic function tests indicate that parasympathetic reinnervation of transplanted hearts occurs more readily than sympathetic reinnervation (214).

Greek And Roman Spice Traders

During this period, the Romans sailed from Egypt to India to bring back spices such as black pepper and turmeric for food, wine, cosmetics, and medicine. The Romans became the first Europeans to cook with spices and used them lavishly. Black pepper was the most popular and most expensive spice during this period. Cumin and coriander were used for preserving meats and sausages. Fish were preserved with salt and leafy spices such as dill, mint, and savory, and flavored with pepper, cumin, and mint.

Products Available

Two commercial forms of the herb are available. White ginseng consists of the dried root and red ginseng is prepared by steaming the fresh, unpeeled root before drying (9). Many different formulations of the herb are available including capsules, gelcaps, powders, tinctures, teas, slices to eat in salads, and whole root to chew. There are also a wide variety of products that claim to contain ginseng such as ginseng cigarettes, toothpaste, cosmetics, soaps, beverages (including beer), candy, baby food, gum, candy bars, and coffee. Prices vary widely based on the quantity and quality of the ginseng root used (10). Tinctures are more expensive but last for years. Powder capsules are cheaper but have a shelf-life of only 1 year (11).

Assessing the Dimensions of Personality Disorder

For the Greek physician Hippocrates (460-400 b.c.), personality consisted of four dimensions and its disorders in their excesses or imbalances. Too much yellow bile resulted in an irritable temperament too much black bile, in melancholia too much blood, in an overly optimistic makeup and too much phlegm, in an apathetic nature. Centuries later, Sigmund Freud dealt with the same question the basic dimensions of personality in the section of his 1915 metapsychology paper that he called Instincts and Their Vicissitudes. Our mental life as a whole is governed by three polarities, he wrote, identifying them as active versus passive, pleasure versus pain, and self versus other (1915 1925, pp. 76-77). Frustration or reinforcement of one or another of these elements resulted in potentially maladaptive personality styles skewed too much toward impacting the environment or accommodating to it, seeking new experiences or avoiding threat, or focusing on self versus concentrating on the welfare of...

Biomedical Demography

Demographers over the past half century have increasingly become involved with the design of surveys and the analysis of survey data, especially pertaining to fertility or morbidity and mortality. Recently, various kinds of physical measurements (height and weight), physiological measurements (of blood pressure and cholesterol levels), nutritional status (assessed by the analysis of blood or urine and other methods), physical performance (hand-grip strength or ability to pick a coin up from the floor), and genetic makeup (as determined by analysis of DNA) have been added to surveys, including those conducted by Christensen, Goldman, Weinstein, Zeng, and others. Such biological measurements can be used as covariates in demographic analyses in much the same way that social and economic information is used. These kinds of analyses are an important activity of biomedical demographers (Finch et al. 2000).

The Future More Predictable Death

Will it be a good thing to inhabit a future world in which, routinely, we know our complete genetic makeup and hence as is my specific conjecture here have a far more Some initial objections might be entered to assembling information about a person's overall genetic makeup or to divulging it to people in a routine way. For example, it might be argued that divulging such information to people would be undesirable because it would alter their risk-taking and health-maintenance behavior believing they will live to 90, they will not protect themselves in their 20's. But such behavior would involve a logical error that someone expects to die of Alzheimer's disease in her 90's does not mean that she cannot die of a skydiving accident in her 20's. On the other hand, at least some health-maintenance behavior would, presumably, be altered favorably to try to arrest the course of a known though not yet symptomatic disease people testing positive for hemochromatosis, for example, would refrain...

Evolution and systematics

The taxonomy of these four families is under dispute, and several studies are under way to iron out the relationships. In fact, some taxonomists feel the scarids and odacids, which are believed to have evolved from labrids, should actually be listed as subfamilies within Labridae. Other researchers have focused their work on the evolutionary relationships among genera within families. As the genetic makeup of individual species becomes a more prominent tool in defining evolutionary relationships, there is little doubt that some shaking looms ahead for these branches of the tree of life.

Antiirritants for Surfactant Based Products

Fortunately, nowadays many systems have been developed to minimize the risks of intolerance in hygiene cosmetics or surfactant-based products. This is extremely important because hygiene habits have strongly evolved over the years. Not so long ago, people came into contact with surfactants only once a day maximum with the only objective being to clean themselves today it is not unusual to see people having several showers

Dermatological Effects

Oil of bergamot (C. aurantium spp. bergamia) was a relatively frequent cause of dermatitis prior to the banning of this aromatic substance from cosmetics (37). The phenomena of Berloque dermatitis has been extensively reviewed (38,39) and is thought to be caused mainly by the furocoumarin bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) (40-42). This photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic substance has been largely removed from the cosmetic

Early Gene Enzyme Associations

Geneticists ridiculed Bateson's presence and absence theory for leading to absurd evolutionary conclusions if gene mutations were a principal source of evolutionary change, and most mutations were recessive lacking some factor that the dominant had, then evolution must proceed by the loss of genetic elements. And if evolution proceeded by loss of genes, then simpler organisms such as worms or microbes would have a more complex genetic makeup than humans.15

Epigenesis and Maturation

Makeup of the individual interacting with the environment. Biologists applied the term epigenesis to the progressive sequence by which the genetic substrate of an organism is expressed in physical structure and function. Epigenesis does not stop at birth, but, coupled with the experiences of the individual in a sociocultural context, continues to affect development throughout the individual's lifetime.

Impulse versus Control

Another major feature in analyzing and reporting the nature of the dynamic interplay between impulse and control concerns the level of maturation in the structure and makeup of the personality. For example, extremely poor controls that enable powerful impulses to initiate immediate behavior sequences reflect a relatively primitive maturational level. On the other hand, the presence of stronger inhibitions indicates other clinical implications. The relation of impulse-control features to maturational aspects of the personality also has a direct bearing on intrapsychic functioning and on diagnostic considerations. Because of the more detailed discussion permitted by analysis of issues stemming from impulse control findings, the initial broad, differential diagnostic concern with reality testing and the possibility of psychosis can be developed, and narrower categories of diagnostic possibilities can be established. Thus, in the sequence of sections within the report, a refinement takes...

Estimating Potential Levels of Intellectual Functioning

A discussion of the results of intelligence testing can be considerably enhanced by including estimates of the person's potential level of intellectual functioning. An analysis and discussion of the individual's potential broadens the usefulness of the report on several grounds. The reader of the report learns about an exceedingly important yet not readily visible dimension of the person's makeup. This information specifies the strength that is potentially attainable if impediments did not hamper a fuller expression of the patient's capacity. Thus, the subject's potential for growth is suggested by estimating optimal intellectual functioning. The information about this aspect of the person's potential for growth consequently enriches the perception of the individual in both present and future considerations.

Nonintended Contact with the Skin

Ideally, hair cosmetics should not have contact with the skin, but in practice this is hardly achievable. In some procedures, such as hair dyeing and hair bleaching, skin contact is unnecessary to perform the procedure itself but hardly avoidable during such a procedure. Contact dermatitis to cosmetics in general and to hair cosmetics in particular is not uncommon in clinical dermatology. Following are leading examples from a long list of hair cosmetics reported to be skin sensitizers hair dyes (p-phenylenediamine, resorcinol), shampoos (surfactants, zinc pyrithione, hydroxyquinolines), hair creams and gels (lanolin, parabens), hair lacquers (benzoin, cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin), hair lotions (quinine, resorcinol), deodorants (hydroxyquinolines, Irgasan DP 300), bleachers, and shaving lotions (musk ambrette, antimicrobial agents) 9 . Acute and chronic allergic contact dermatitis have been associated with significant though usually transient or reversible hair loss 6 . This is a...

Correlations With The Location Of The Lesions

Like many other contact allergens, cosmetics can reach the skin in several different ways 1,2 by direct application by airborne exposure to vapors, droplets, or particles that are released into the atmosphere and then settle on the skin 7 by contact with people (partners, friends, coworkers) who transmit allergens to cause ''connubial'' or ''consort'' dermatitis 8 by transfer from other sites on the body, often the hands, to more sensitive areas such as the mouth or the eyelids (ectopic dermatitis) and by exposure to the sun with photoallergens.

Jeffrey L Salisbury Introduction

Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are defining features of most aggressive breast cancers (BC). One consequence of CIN is a constantly changing genetic makeup of cancer cells - this in turn is a major driving force behind cancer cell heterogeneity, tumor progression, and acquisition of resistance to chemotherapeutics. How CIN arises in cancer and the mechanisms underlying this process have become a topical focus of cancer research. Yet it was nearly a century ago that Theodor Boveri first recognized that aneuploidy in cancer cells could arise through defects in the machinery for chromosomal segregation (1). Based on observations of abnormal chromosomal segregation in early sea urchin embryo development following dispermic fertilization and similarities to chromosomal anomalies seen in cancer, Boveri proposed that malignant tumors arise through centrosome defects that result in improper cell division (1). At about this same time, Galeotti came to a similar conclusion from...

Discussion and Conclusions

Arterial tree morphometry is an important application of image processing and analysis in clinical practice and the biomedical sciences. The severity of coronary artery disease is routinely assessed in the clinic with the aid of sophisticated image processing software to quantify stenoses. Presurgical planning for vascular abnormalities such as cerebral aneurysms is facilitated by segmentation and visualization of the intracerebral vasculature. Clinical studies provide information about arterial morphology on a macro scale. On the other end of the scale continuum, histological and electron microscopic methods have a long history of providing valuable insights into the cellular makeup and ultrastructure of vessel walls, and the many forms of medial hypertrophy. Micro-CT techniques such as those developed in our laboratory and others 120,121 and micro-MR methods under development have the potential to shed further light on the mechanisms implicated in diseases such as pulmonary and...

Excipients and Emulsifiers

Many excipients and emulsifiers are common ingredients to topical pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, the former being likely to induce sensitization. Typical examples are wool alcohols, fatty alcohols (e.g., cetyl alcohol), and propylene glycol 13 . They may also be sensitizing in cosmetics, as is the case with maleated soybean oil 44 . Emulsifiers in particular have long been regarded as irritants, but their sensitization capacities should not be overlooked. It is imperative, of course, that patch testing be properly performed to avoid irritancy and that the relevance of the positive reactions be determined. This is certainly the case for cocamidopropylbetaine, an amphoteric tenside mainly present in hair-and skin-cleansing products. Whether the compound itself or cocamidopropyl dimeth-ylamine, an amido-amine, or dimethylaminopropylamine (both intermediates from the synthesis) are the actual sensitizers is still a matter of discussion 45,46 . It is also not clear whether...

The Future Of Liposomal Preparations

Generally, liposomes, nanoemulsions, and DMS are more compatible with the skin structure than conventional emulsions usually applied. Compatible means that formulations do not disturb the integrity of the skin lipid bilayers and are not washed out while cleaning the skin. In the sense of modern strategies of cosmetics, these formulations get by with a minimum of auxiliary compounds, which put only a strain on the skin. Moreover, compatibility means embedding lipids and hydrophilic agents in the horny layer and being in accordance with the natural situation. Lasic DD. Liposomes and niosomes. In Rieger MM, Rhein LD, eds. Surfactants in Cosmetics. 2d ed. New York Marcel Dekker, 1997 263-283. Wendel A. Lecithins, phospholipids, liposomes in cosmetics, dermatology and in washing and Wendel A. Lecithins, phospholipids, liposomes in cosmetics, dermatology and in washing and

Heterozygous Advantage

More recently, a mutation in another gene called G6PD (glucoses-phosphate dehydrogenase), which codes for an enzyme necessary for red blood cells to obtain energy from glucose, has also been found to exhibit heterozygous advantage. Certain mutations in G6PD, which in the homozygous state causes anemia, also provide resistance to malaria infection in the heterozygous state. Similarly, mutations in other genes for proteins found in red blood cells are thought to confer selective advantage in resistance to malaria. Malaria may have been quite prevalent for a long time and thus a strong selective force acting on the genetic makeup of peoples from tropical regions.

Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis

Photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) is an immunological response to a substance that requires the presence of light. The substance in the skin absorbs photons and is converted to a stable or unstable photoproduct, which binds to skin proteins to form an antigen, which then elicits a delayed hypersensitivity response. Examples of photoallergens present in cosmetics are musk ambrette and 6-methylcoumarin, which are present in fragrances. Photopatch testing is the diagnostic procedure for photoallergy.

Noninstrumental Responses

Noninstrumental responses to knowing information about the likely end of one's life are far harder to understand. These are situations in which knowing information is significant, though not because it is to be put to any practical use. Where the information is information about one's own genetic makeup and so information about the likely cause and timing of one's death this may contribute, in some intangible way, to one's sense of self, of who one is, what sort of person one is, what one's life is like. Self-knowledge is often painful, and this form of self-knowledge may be so as well. But it may also contribute to what we think of as the quintessential way of being human in the world. It is far harder to talk about the value of being able to comprehend and reflect about one's own circumstances as a human being, and there is even disagreement about whether it is a value or a disvalue (though the maxim better Socrates dissatisfied than a pig satisfied still rings in our ears), but it...


Historical note With the exception of cellulose, chitin is the most abundant natural polysaccharide on Earth. It is produced by different crustaceans, molluscs, insects, algae, fungi and yeasts. Recently, the commercial value of chitin has increased because of the beneficial properties of its soluble derivatives, which are used in chemistry, biotechnology, agriculture, food processing, cosmetics, veterinary science, medicine, dentistry, environmental protection, and paper or textile production. The most useful chitin derivative is chitosan.

Prebred Stocks

Collections of prebred stocks are maintained by the TGRC and are popular for mapping and breeding purposes. These include introgression lines (ILs), alien substitution lines, monosomic alien addition lines, and backcross (BC) recombinant inbreds. The introgression libraries were derived from S. pennellii (Eshed and Zamir 1994a Liu and Zamir 1999), S. habrochaites (Monforte and Tanksley 2000a), or S. lycopersicoides (Canady etal. 2005). An entire genome of S. pennellii is covered by 50 overlapping introgressions 26 additional sublines provide increased mapping resolution in some regions (see Sect. 1.8.3). Each line is homozygous for a single introgression from S. pennellii (LA0716) in the background of S. lycopersicum cv. M82. The S. habrochaites and S. lycopersicoides prebreds have a similar genetic makeup but with less complete genome coverage and in some cases more than one introgressed region per line. Because of sterility factors, some of the S. lycopersicoides lines are...


The identification of cosmetic allergens is challenging because of the extreme complexity of the problem. This applies not only for the dermatologist who is trying to identify the culprit and advise his patient but also certainly for cosmetic manufacturers, who are extremely concerned about assuring the innocuousness of their products. Precise, current, and rapid information about adverse reactions to cosmetic products is critical in product design. Apparently, premarketing studies are unable to identify all the pitfalls. Therefore, the fruitful communication that is developing between dermatologists and cosmetic manufacturers must be encouraged. Sensitivity to cosmetics can never be totally avoided, but its incidence can be substantially reduced.

Citrus aurantium

Historical note The root word for orange is the Arabic, narandj (Sellar 1992). The orange is a symbol of innocence and fertility. Some scholars believe the 'golden apple' Paris presented to Venus was actually an orange. In return, Venus bestowed Helen on Paris as a reward for selecting her in a beauty contest, which eventually caused the Trojan War. The tree is indigenous to eastern Africa, Arabia and Syria and it is believed that the crusaders may have introduced the orange to Europe when they returned from the crusades. Unripe dried fruits and the fruit peel are incorporated into various products, including foods such as marmalade, alcoholic beverages such as Curacao and medicinal products. The essential oil is used in perfumes, cosmetics and aromatherapy (Leung & Foster 1 996), and also used as food flavouring and to disguise the unpleasant taste of medicines. Orange blossom water has been used for centuries in Mediterranean countries to flavour cakes and beverages (Jeannot et al...

Mate choice

Mete provides half of the genetic material of the offspring, the choice of mate has direct implications on the resulting genotype (genetic makeup) of the offspring. For this reason, animals do not mate randomly and instead choose mates. Mate choice is among the most important pressures affecting the evolution of species because failure to be able to select a good mate results in poor offspring quality (offspring that may be less adept to survive or reproduce), or worse yet, no offspring. Animals that fail to reproduce disappear from the gene pool, so mate choice is a critical factor.

Once in a Blue Moon

In the summer of 1985, a female mule named Krause, who was pastured with a male donkey, was observed with a newborn foal. There were no other female horses or donkeys in the pasture so it seemed unlikely that the mule had adopted the foal. Blood samples were collected from Krause, her horse and donkey parents, and her male foal, which was appropriately named Blue Moon. A team of geneticists led by Oliver Ryder of the San Diego Zoo examined their chromosomal makeup and analyzed 17 genetic markers from the blood samples.

Mental Disorders

Severe, unremitting stress does not invariably lead to a mental disorder, but when combined with a particular biological and experiential predisposition, it is quite possible for stress to precipitate a disorder. As with all personality and behavioral patterns, most mental disorders are the results of interactions between the hereditary makeup of the individual and the physical and psychological environment. Among the biological factors that contribute to mental disorders are cerebral trauma, neurochemical imbalances, and maturational differences. Other significant predisposing factors include psychosocial and socioeconomic variables such as child-rearing practices, family stability, poverty, and discrimination.

Research Direction

Finally, future technology may alter the characteristics and experiences of pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting and thus contribute to making the future trends and differentials uncertain. For instance, postponed childbearing increases the risk of sub-or infecundity. But these risks can be partly offset by assisted reproductive technologies. Will new innovations and discoveries make this technology less intrusive, more effective, and more acceptable and thus virtually eliminate infecundity as an antinatalist factor Also, genetic engineering, techniques that allow parents to choose the genetic makeup of their children, could have far reaching effects on reproduction, the family, and society (e.g., Silver 1998). But it remains unclear whether such technology will become available and whether it will be widely used. The debates over these new technologies will be among the most interesting and important of the coming decades.


Microisolation Cage

Animal facilities must have dedicated supply and exhaust air handling units. The supply air must be 100 outside makeup air. The ventilation rate that has proven effective for most animal rooms expressed in terms of fresh air changes per hour (cph) is around 15 cph. However, this varies between 10 and 20 cph depending on the heat load as well as microbial, particulate, and gaseous contaminants generated in the room, which is dependent on the species and density of animals to be housed in the room. Control of the heat load in the room is the most critical concern, because high temperatures are stressful for all animals and may be lethal for laboratory species, especially rodents, not adapted to high temperatures, even at temperatures not normally dangerous for most species. The minimal lethal temperature for laboratory rodents is time and relative humidity dependent but may start at temperatures as low as 29.4 C (85 F). It is important to note that the temperature in the animal's...

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