Suggested Readings

1. Arthur W, Kaye GC. The pathophysiology of common causes of syncope. Postgrad Med J. 2000; 76:750-3.

2. Kapoor WN. Syncope. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343:1856-62.

3. Meyer MD, Handler J. Evaluation of the patient with syncope: an evidence based approach. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1999; 17:189-201.

4. Shammas RL, Movahed A. Sarcoidosis of the heart. Clin Cardiol. 1993; 16:462-72.

5. Sekiguchi M, Yazaki Y, Isobe M, Hiroe M. Cardiac sarcoidosis: diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic considerations. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1996; 10:495-510.

6. Cina SJ, Smialek JE, Burke AP, Virmani R, Hutchins GM. Primary cardiac tumors causing sudden death: a review of the literature. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996; 17:271-81.

7. MsAllister HA Jr. Primary tumors and cysts of the heart and pericardium. In: Current Problems in Cardiology. Harvey WP, ed. Chicago; Year Book; 1979.

8. Shapiro LM. Cardiac tumours: diagnosis and management. Heart. 2001; 85:218-22.

9. Reynen K. Cardiac myxomas. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333:1610-7.

10. Pinede L, Duhaut P, Loire R. Clinical presentation of left atrial cardiac myxoma. A series of 112 consecutive cases. Medicine (Baltimore). 2001; 80:159-72.

Figure 63. Sarcoidosis, histologic section. Non-necrotizing granuloma (Hematoxylin and Eosin, 20X. Courtesy of Dr. Sui Zee, Albert Einstein College of Medicine).
Figure 64. Cystic tumor of the A-V node, histologic section. Nodules and small cysts focally infiltrate the A-V node (Hematoxylin and Eosin, 10X).
Figure 65. Myxoma. The resected tumor has a polypoid, gelatinous appearance. Foci of hemorrhage are present (arrow).

Figure 66. Myxoma, histologic section. The tumor is composed of delicate capillaries and stellate-shaped cells eEmbedded in a myxoid material (Hematoxylin and Eosin,

Figure 67. Atrial myxoma. CTscan with contrast reveals a large, lobulated intracavitary mass in the right atrium (arrow). Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis as

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Chapter 10

THE PERICARDIUM

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