Suggested Readings

1. Drouet L. Atherothrombosis in diabetes--its evolution and management. Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999; 1 (Suppl 2):S37-47.

2. Calles-Escandon J, Cipolla M. Diabetes and endothelial dysfunction: a clinical perspective. Endocr Rev. 2001; 22:36-52.

3. Mazzone T. Current concepts and controversies in the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of the macrovascular complications of diabetes. J Lab Clin Med. 2000; 135:437-43.

4. Donnelly R, Emslie-Smith AM, Gardner ID, Morris AD. ABC of arterial and venous disease: vascular complications of diabetes. BMJ. 2000; 320:1062-6.

5. Goldberg RB. Cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Med Clin North Am. 2000; 84:81-93.

6. Modena MG, Barbieri A. Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular complications: pathophysiological peculiarities and therapeutic implications. Cardiologia. 1999; 44:865-77.

7. Factor SM, Okun EM, Minase T. Capillary microaneurysms in the human diabetic heart. .N Eng J Med 1980; 302:384-8.

8. Factor SM, Bhan R, Minase T, Wolinsky H, Sonneblick EH. Hypertensive-diabetic cardiomyopathy in the rat: an experimental model of human disease. .Am J Pathol 1981; 102:219-28.

9. Factor SM, Sonneblick EH. Microvascular spasm as a cause of cardiomyopathies. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1983; 4:1177-82.

10. Eng C, Cho S, Factor SM, Sonneblick EH, Kirk ES. Myocardial micronecrosis produced by microsphere embolization. Role of an alpha adrenergic tonic influence of the coronary microcirculation. Circ Res 1984; 54:74-82.

Figure 11. Silicone rubber (Microfil) perfused diabetic heart after "clearing" the tissue so that it is semi-translucent. The microcirculation vessels are examined with epiillumination, thereby providing a 3-dimensional appearance. There are several fusiform microaneurysms (arrows) in arterioles and capillaries characteristic of diabetic human hearts, and similar to microaneurysms in the diabetic retina and

Figure 11. Silicone rubber (Microfil) perfused diabetic heart after "clearing" the tissue so that it is semi-translucent. The microcirculation vessels are examined with epiillumination, thereby providing a 3-dimensional appearance. There are several fusiform microaneurysms (arrows) in arterioles and capillaries characteristic of diabetic human hearts, and similar to microaneurysms in the diabetic retina and

Figure 12. Silicone rubber (Microfil) perfused diabetic heart photographed with trans

with focal narrowing (arrow) consistent with microvascular spasm that persisted

Figure 13. Left ventricular cross section demonstrating typical features of hypertensive and diabetic cardiomyopathy. There is left ventricular hypertrophy, extensive multifocal myocytolytic necrosis (the darker areas in the subendocardium and mid-wall), and multifocal fibrosis (the paler areas involving the papillary muscle, trabeculae, and ventricular wall). The recent and organizing necrosis, together with remote scarring, leads to replacement of large areas of functional myocardium, equivalent to myocardial infarction.

Figure 13. Left ventricular cross section demonstrating typical features of hypertensive and diabetic cardiomyopathy. There is left ventricular hypertrophy, extensive multifocal myocytolytic necrosis (the darker areas in the subendocardium and mid-wall), and multifocal fibrosis (the paler areas involving the papillary muscle, trabeculae, and ventricular wall). The recent and organizing necrosis, together with remote scarring, leads to replacement of large areas of functional myocardium, equivalent to myocardial infarction.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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