Suggested Readings

1. Dossa CD, Pipinos II, Shepard AD, Ernst CB. Primary aortoenteric fistula: Part I.Ann Vasc Surg. 1994; 8:113-20.

2. Grey TC, Mittleman RE, Wetli CV, Horowitz S. Aortoesophageal fistula and sudden death. A report of two cases and review of the literature. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1988; 9:19-22.

3. Coady MA, Rizzo JA, Goldsstein LJ, Elefteriades JA. Natural history, pathogenesis, and etiology of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Cardiol Clin. 1999; 17:615-635.

4. Amin S. Aortoesophageal fistula: case report and review of the literature. Dig Dis Sci. 1998; 43:1665-1671.

Figure 74. Syphilitic aortitis involving the root of the aorta and the aortic arch. Notice the wrinkling of the intima known as "tree-barking".
Figure 75. Aorto-esophageal fistula. Syphilitic aortitis that caused a fistulous tract between the aorta (Ao) and the esophagus (Eso). A mass of clotted blood is present at the esophageal lumen
Figure 76. Obliterative endarteritis in syphilis, histologie section. This vessel from the aortic vasa vasorum is rimmed by an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma
Figure 77. Syphilis, histologic section. Spirochete (arrow) (Steiner stain, 100X).
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