Cracking

Guide To Creating Spa Products

Handcrafter's Companion Guide

Get Instant Access

Cracking is the splitting of a bar along the side seams or at any part in the bar during use. Cracking of a soap bar in use conditions is a perceived as a negative by consumers.

Cracking is evaluated by partially submerging bars in water of fixed hardness and temperature for a set period of time. The bars are then dried and evaluated for cracking after one to two days. Ideally, there should be no cracks present in the soap bars.

Hardness

Bar hardness is a mechanical measure of how resistant the bar is to physical pressure. Bar hardness can be mechanically measured in finishing trials for machineability as well as during routine lab evaluations. Bars that are too soft may be difficult to extrude on the finishing line without significant surface defects.

Bar Feel and Sandiness

Bar soaps are typically evaluated for dry specks and drag. Specks of dry soap (insoluble soap) can occur during the manufacture of the base soap or syndet or from the additives in the soap bar. These specks show up as distinct bumps on the surface of the bar. The bar is washed under controlled water conditions with cooler water bringing out more obvious dry specks. The bar is both evaluated during wash and after drying for feel and appearance and rated against standard quality bars.

Sensory Skin Evaluations

Clearly, next to the fragrance preference at the point of purchase, skin feel and lather are the most important attributes for consumers. Various skin feel attributes from bar soaps are evaluated by a trained panel of experts. These groups of panelists are trained to evaluate small (or large) differences in products focusing on a set of defined attributes. Products are usually compared with a reference product. Examples of attributes evaluated by a trained panel for skin feel include time to rinse, skin slip, tightness of skin after drying, and smoothness of skin.

Clinical Evaluations

Clinical Evaluations of soap products are used to determine how effective the products are on certain attributes, primarily mildness/irritation, skin dryness/tightness, antibacterial efficacy, and deodorancy. There are several methods of measuring the clinical attributes of a soap bar ranging from trained panels to biophysical instrumentation [1,2,23].

REFERENCES

1. Spitz L, ed. Soap Technology for the 1990's. Champaign: American Oil Chemists Society,

2. Spitz L, ed. Soaps and Detergents: A Theoretical and Practical Review. Champaign: American

Oil Chemists Society, 1996. -c

3. Woolatt E. The Manufacture of Soaps, Other Detergents and Glycerin. New York: Halstead,

1985. 4

4. Thomsenn EG, Kemp CR. Modern Soap Making. New York: MacNair-Dorland, 1937. J

6. Jungerman E, Hassapis T, Scott R, Wortzman M. U.S. Patent, 4,758,370 (1988). |

7. Johnson RW, Fritz E, eds. Fatty Acids in Industry: Process, Properties, Derivatives, Applica- S tions. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1989. 2

8. Patterson HBW. Bleaching and Purifying Fats and Oils: Theory and Practice. Champaign: American Oil Chemists Society, 1993.

9. Ferguson RH, Rosevear FB, Stillman RC. Solid soap phases. Ind & Engineer Chem 1943; 35:1005-1012.

10. Wenninger JA, McEwen GN. CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 7th ed. Washington, D.C: The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, 1997.

11. Zaidman B, Kisilev A, Sasson Y, Garti N. Double bond oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1988; 65:611.

12. Rojas-Romero AJ, Morton ID. J Sci Fd Agric 1977; 28:916.

14. Payne R, Hwang A, Subramanyam R. U. S. Patent, 5,843,876 (1998).

15. Blake-Haskins JC, Scala D, Rhein LD, Robbins CR. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1986; 37:199-210.

16. M Hollstein, Spitz L. J Oil Chemists' Soc October 1982; p. 442.

17. Soap and Detergent Association. Soaps and Detergents Handbook, 2nd ed. 1994.

18. Krawczyk T. Soap Bars Inform May 1996; pp. 478-486.

19. Milwidsky B. Syndet Bars, Happi, May 1985:58-70.

21. Toma K, Hassapis TJ. U. S. Patent, 3,864,272 (1975).

22. Wood-Rethwill JC, Jawarski RJ, Myers EG, Marshal ML. U. S. Patent, 4,879,063 (1989).

23. Kajs TM, Gartsein V. Review of the instrumental assessment of skin: effects of cleansing products. Soc Cosmet Chem 1991; 42(4):249-279.

Copyright © Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Sultry Skin

Sultry Skin

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Sultry Skin. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Having Beautiful Skin.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment