Contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) represents a heterogeneous group of inflammatory reactions that appear, usually within a few minutes to an hour, after contact with the eliciting substance. Clinically, erythematous wheal-and-flare reactions are seen, and sensations of burning, stinging, or itching are experienced. These are transient, usually disappearing within a few hours. In its more severe forms, generalized urticaria or extracutaneous manifestations, such as asthma, nausea, abdominal cramps, and even anaphylactic shock, may occur. Diagnosis may be achieved by a variety of skin tests—the open test is the simplest of these and is the ''first-line'' test.
CUS may be divided into two categories on the basis of pathophysiological mechanisms: nonimmunological and immunological. There are also urticariogens that act by an uncertain mechanism.
Nonimmunological Contact Urticaria -a
Nonimmunological contact urticaria (NICU), which occurs without prior sensitization, is |
the most common class of CUS. The reaction usually remains localized. Examples of i|
cosmetic substances known to produce NICU are preservatives (e.g., benzoic acid and sorbic acid) and fragrances (e.g., cinnamic aldehyde).
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