Colorants

Gisbert Otterstätter

DRAGOCO Gerberding & Co. AG, Holzminden, Germany

The use of coloring agents for decorative purposes is one of the earliest cultural accomplishments of humankind. Even in prehistoric times, colorants could be found not only for art—the famous cave paintings in southern Europe, for example—but also especially for body painting, tattooing, or, to use the modern phrase, for decorative cosmetics. Although there were several historical periods in which those who wore cosmetics were scorned or condemned, its use has nevertheless remained a constant among cultures throughout history. In more recent times, decorative cosmetics have been joined by other cosmetic products whose colors are not intended to conceal or change the appearance of something; instead, these colorants must conform to the statement that a given product makes about itself. While it is true that many first-time purchases are heavily influenced by the way the consumer feels about the color of the product and the attractiveness of its packaging, we nevertheless have some very definite associations between certain products and the colors they should have. Blue would certainly be inappropriate for a soap perfumed with sandalwood; the only color that would do for a pine-scented bubble bath is green; and it is logical to give citrus scents psychological reinforcement by coloring them yellow or yellow-green.

Although the use of colorants* has a long history, a great deal of time passed before their role in cosmetics was legally established. This happened in Germany in 1887 with the enactment of the so-called Color Law, which banned the use of hazardous colorants. The issue of concern that led to this law was primarily pigments containing heavy metals; products of the then-developing color industry were not a genuine consideration. In 1906 a color law was passed in Austria that included various purity specifications and made the use of some coal-tar dyes illegal. In 1907 the use of the first certified food colorants were legalized in the United States, and at the same time purity specifications were also

* Colorants: general term for all materials that can be used to color. There are three kinds: (1) colorants that are soluble in the medium being colored (in the case of cosmetics, usually water- or oil-soluble), (2) pigments and color lakes that are not soluble in the medium being colored (the latter are usually aluminum hydroxide lakes of water-soluble colorants), and (3) water-dispersible pigments (pigments that yield stable dispersions in water when excipients are added; they can then be processed like soluble colorants).

Figure 1 Azo colorant yellow-orange S (FD&C Yellow No. 6), C.I. 15985.

determined. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 first outlined the use of colorants in food, drugs and cosmetics.

The dramatic boom in the development of the color industry led to numerous new colorants and pigments. Because it had become clear that it was not only heavy metals that were dangerous, but the colorants themselves or their initial products could pose a threat as well, after World War II scientific organizations [2] increased their systematic efforts to compile and publish [3] the results of toxicological and dermatological research and encourage further studies. Unfortunately, international cooperation was less intense then than it is today. That means that there are significant differences between the approved colorants for cosmetics in the European Union (EU), the United States, and Japan, for example. An illustration of this is the colorant patent blue V (C.I. 42051), [4] which is approved in the EU for all cosmetic products, [5] but not in the United States or Japan. The same is true of fast yellow (C.I. 13015) and many other European cosmetic colorants. Furthermore, to some extent even approved colorants have different restrictions on their use,* especially for use in the area around the eyes. Table 1 shows the cosmetic colorants in the EU that are also approved for use in the United States and/or Japan. Because they lack fastness, natural colorants (e.g., carotenoids, anthocyans, chlorophylls) play only a minor role in the process of coloring cosmetics. Carmine is an exception (C.I. 75470); the classic red pigment for lipstick is also the only red pigment in the United States that can be used for the eyes.

By comparison, inorganic pigments are used in large quantities. In coloring decorative cosmetics, several products are of vital importance: titanium dioxide (C.I. 77891) in particular—the most important white pigment—the iron oxides and iron hydroxides for the colors yellow (C.I. 77492), and red (C.I. 77491) and black (C.I. 77499), ultramarine (C.I. 77007)—especially in blue and violet—Prussian blue (C.I. 77510), manganese violet (C.I. 77742), coal black (C.I. 77268:1), pearlescent pigments (mica C.I. 77019), and bismuth oxychloride (C.I. 77163). By combining iron oxides, including the addition of titanium dioxide, various brown tones can be created in makeup and toning cremes. The most significant colorant, however, is composed of the organic colorants and pigments which belong to different chemical classes. Mainly these are azo, triarylmethane, anthraquinone, xanthene or phthalocyanine colorants or pigments; occasionally they include indigo derivatives (Figs. 1-6; and Table 1).

* In the EU there are four areas of applications: (1) approved for all cosmetic products; (2) not for use around the eyes; (3) not for use near the mucous membranes; and (4) only for brief contact with the skin.

Figure 2 Triarylmethane colorant brilliant blue FCF (FD&C Blue No. 1), C.I. 42090.
Figure 3 Xanthene colorant sulforhodamine B, C.I. 45100.

Figure 4 Anthraquinone colorant alizarin cyanine green (D&C Green No. 5), C.I. 61570.

Figure 5 Indigo pigment indanthrene brilliant pink R (D&C Red No. 30), C.I. 73360.

Figure 6 Phthalocyanine pigment heliogen blue B (phthalocyanine blue), C.I. 74160.

Regardless of their chemical class, cosmetic colorants are sorted into three groups; this classification is based on their solubility, which determines how they are used: (1) colorants that are soluble in the medium being colored (usually water- or oil-soluble), (2) pigments and color lakes that are not soluble in the medium being colored, and (3) water-dispersible pigments.

Because of the extensive differences in national laws, two major factors must be considered in the development of colored cosmetics: one is technical, and the other is a legal matter. There are three phases to the procedure:

1. After the formulation of the uncolored product has been developed, the decision must be made about the countries in which the product will be marketed.

2. Because not all colorant groups are appropriate for all cosmetics, some are selected (Table 2) and then examined to see which colorant of the respective category is approved in all of the countries where the cosmetic product will be marketed.

3. At this point, the product is colored, and stability tests are then conducted (original packaging, light, heat, etc.). Changing the formulation after successful completion of these tests is strongly discouraged. The testing must be repeated if the risk of unpleasant surprises is to be ruled out.

Although there are approximately 160 approved cosmetic colorants in the EU—many more than in the United States, for example—only a limited number of them is really used. Table 3 shows selected cosmetic product and the colorants that are often and usually added in industry.

Hair-toning and hair-coloring products have a special status among the cosmetics |

in the EU because the EU guidelines for cosmetics do not apply to these products, especially because common cosmetic colorants have little or no affinity to hair. _§

Two different kinds of colorants are used to color hair:

1. Oxidation hair colors, which permanently color the hair. s

2. Substantive colorants, which only affect the outside of the hair and can be washed out again (semipermanent coloring).

In oxidation hair colors, a colorless initial product penetrates the hair, where a reaction s takes place with the aid of hydrogen peroxide (hence the term oxidation hair colors) and

Table 1 Cosmetic Colorants in the EU That Are Also Approved in the United States and/or Japan* (as of July 1998)

Color Index Number or name, color, colorant category, solubility

10020 green, water-soluble nitro-sonaphthol colorant

10316 yellow, water-soluble nitro colorant

11680 yellow, azo pigment (also water dispersible)

11725 orange, azo pigment

12085 red, azo pigment

12120 red, azo pigment

14700 red water-soluble azo colorant

15510 orange, water-soluble azo colorant

15620 red, water-soluble azo colorant

15630 red (sodium salt), not easily water-soluble azo colorant

15630: 1 red (barium salt) azo pigment

15630: 2 red (calcium salt) azo pigment

15630: 3 (strontium salt) azo pigment

15800: 1 red (calcium salt) azo pigment

Japan*

Green No. 401 approved

(Category III) Yellow No. 403 approved

(Category III) Yellow No. 401 approved

(Category III) Orange No. 401 approved

(Category III) Red No. 228 approved

(Category III) Red No. 221 approved

(Category III) Red No. 504 approved

(Category III) Orange No. 205 approved (Category II)

Red No.

506

approved

(Category

Ill)

Red No.

205

approved

(Category

II)

Red No.

207

approved

(Category

II)

Red No.

206

approved

(Category

II)

Red No.

208

approved

(Category

II)

Red No.

219

approved

(Category

Not approved

Ext.-D&C Yellow No. 7 not for eyes and lips

Not approved

Not approved

D&C Red No. 36 not for use near eyes

Not approved

FD&C Red No. 4 not for eyes and lips

D&C Orange No. 4 not for eyes and lips

Not approved

Not approved

Not approved

Not approved

Not approved

D&C Red No. 31 not for eyes

Application area in the EU, examples of use

EU: 3 tenside products EU: 2 soap, tenside products EU: 3 soap EU: 4 soap

EU: 1 soap, alcohol-based perfume products EU: 2 tenside products, soap

EU: 1 (max.

3%)

EU: 1 (max.

3%)

soap, lipstick.

makeup

EU: 1 (max.

3%)

soap, lipstick.

makeup

EU: 1 (max.

3%)

soap, lipstick.

makeup

EU: 3

Color Index Number or name, color, colorant category, solubility

15850 red (sodium salt) not easily water-soluble azo colorant 15850: 1 red (calcium salt) azo pigment

15865: 2 red (calcium salt) azo pigment

15880: 1 red (calcium salt) azo pigment

15985 orange, water-soluble azo colorant, also as aluminum lake 16035 red, water-soluble azo colorant, also as aluminum lake

16185 red, water-soluble azo colorant, also as aluminum lake 16255 red, water-soluble azo colorant, also as aluminum lake

17200 blue-red, water-soluble azo colorant, also as aluminum lake

18820 yellow, water-soluble azo colorant

19140 yellow, water-soluble azo colorant, also as aluminum lake 20170 yellow-brown, water-soluble azo colorant 20470 blue-black, water-soluble azo colorant

Japan*

Red No. 201 approved (Category II)

Red No. 202 approved (Category II)

Red No. 405 approved (Category III)

Red No. 220 approved (Category II) Yellow No. 5 approved (Category I) Not approved

Red No. 2 approved (Category I) Red No. 102 approved (Category I)

Red No. 227 approved (Category II)

Yellow No. 407 approved (Category III)

Yellow No. 4 approved (Category I)

Brown No. 201 approved, also as aluminum lake (Category II) Black No. 401 approved (Category III)

Application area in the EU, U.S.f examples of use

D&C Red No. 7 not for eyes Not approved

D&C Red No. 34 not for eyes

FD&C Yellow No. 6 not for eyes

FD&C Red No. 40 also approved for eyes

Not approved

Not approved

D&C Red No. 33 not for eyes Not approved

EU: 1 soap, lipstick, makeup

EU: 1 soap, lipstick, makeup

EU: 1 soap, lipstick, makeup

EU: 1 (food colorant E 110)

alcohol-based perfume products EU: 1 (food colorant E 129) tenside products, alcohol-based perfume products, mouthwash EU: 1 (food colorant E 123) tenside products

EU: 1 (food colorant E 124) tenside products, alcohol-based perfume products EU: 1 mouthwash, alcohol-based perfume products, tenside products EU: 4

FD&C Yellow No. 5 also approved for eyes

D&C Brown No. 1 not for eyes and lips Not approved

EU: 1 (food colorant E 102) tenside products EU: 3 tenside products

EU: 4 tenside products, soap

26100 red, soil-soluble azo colorant

40800 yellow-orange, oil-soluble

( also water-dispersible ) 42053 blue-green, water-soluble tri-arylmethane colorant, also as aluminum lake 42090 blue (sodium salt), water-soluble triarylmethane colorant, also as aluminum lake 42090 blue (ammonia salt), water-soluble triarylmethane colorant, also as aluminum lake 45100 red, fluorescent water-soluble xanthene colorant, also as aluminum lake 45190 red-violet, water-soluble xanthene colorant, also as aluminum lake

45350 yellow, xanthene colorant fluorescent, water-soluble salts, also as aluminum lake; free acid oil-soluble 45370 orange, xanthene colorant, fluorescent, as sodium salt and free acid (45370:1), water-soluble, also as aluminum lake 45380 red, xanthene colorant, fluorescent, salts and free acid (45380:2) water-soluble, also as aluminum lake

Red No. 225 approved (Category II) Beta-carotene approved (Category I) Green No. 3 approved (Category I)

Blue No. 1 approved (Category I)

Blue No. 205 approved (Category II)

Red No. 106 approved (Category I)

Red No. 401 approved (Category III)

Yellow No. 201 free acid. Yellow No. 202 (1) sodium salt. Yellow No. 202(2) potassium salt, all approved (Category II)

Orange No. 201 free acid, approved (Category II)

Red No. 223 free acid. Red No. 230(12) sodium salt. Red No. 230(2) potassium salt, all approved (Category II)

D&C Red No. 17 not for eyes and lips

Beta-carotene (no FDA certificate)

also approved for eyes FD&C Green No. 3 not for eyes

EU: 3 oil products

EU: 1 (food colorant E 160a)

cremes EU: 1 mouthwash

FD&C Blue No. 1 also approved for eyes

D&C Blue No. 4 not for eyes and lips

Not approved

Not approved

D&C Yellow No. 7 free acid, D&C Yellow No. 8 sodium salt, both not approved for eyes and lips

D&C Orange No. 5 free acid, not for eyes, in lipstick max. 5%

EU: 1 (food colorant E 133) tenside products, oral and dental care products

EU: this ammonia salt is not approved

EU: 4 tenside products

EU: 4 tenside products, soap

EU: 1 (max. 6%) basically only the sodium salt is used: tenside products

EU: 1 lipstick

D&C Red No. 21 free acid, D&C EU: 1 lipstick Red No. 22 sodium salt; sodium salt also approved as color lake; none approved for eyes

Table 1 Continued

Color Index Number or name, color, colorant category, solubility

45410 red, xanthene colorant, fluorescent, water-soluble salts, also as barium lake and aluminum lake, free acid (45410:1) soluble in ethanol and oils 45425 red, xanthene colorant, fluorescent, sodium salt water-soluble, free acid (45425:1) soluble in ethanol and oils, also as aluminum lake 45430 red, water-soluble xanthene colorant, also as aluminum lake 47000 yellow, oil-soluble quinoph-

thalone colorant 47005 yellow, water-soluble quin-ophthalone colorant, also as aluminum lake 59040 green, fluorescent, water-soluble pyrene colorant, also as aluminum lake 60725 blue-violet, oil-soluble anthra-

quinone colorant 60730 violet, water-soluble anthra-

quinone colorant 61565 green, oil-soluble anthraqui-

none colorant 61570 green, water-soluble anthra-quinone colorant, also as aluminum lake

Japan*

Red No. 218 free acid. Red No. 231 potassium salt, both approved (Category II); Red. No. 104(1) sodium salt approved (Category I)

Orange No. 206 free acid. Orange No. 207 sodium salt, both approved (Category II), No. 206 not approved as aluminum lake

Red No. 3 approved, also as aluminum lake (Category I) Yellow No. 204 approved

(Category I) Yellow No. 203 approved also as aluminum lake, barium lake and zirconium lake (Category II) Green No. 204 approved also as aluminum lake (Category II)

Purple (Violet) No. 201 approved

(Category II) Purple (Violet) No. 401 approved

(Category III) Green No. 202 approved (Category II)

Green No. 201 approved (Category II)

Application area in the EU, examples of use

D&C Red No. 27 free acid, D&C Red No. 28 sodium salt, both not for eyes

D&C Orange No. 10 free acid, D&C Orange No. 11 sodium salt, both also approved as color lakes, but not for eyes and lips

FD&C Red No. 3 not approved for cosmetics

D&C Yellow No. 11 not for eyes and lips

D&C Yellow No. 10* not for eyes

D&C Green No. 8, max. 0.01%, not for eyes and lips

D&C Violet No. 2 not for eyes and lips

Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 not for eyes and lips

D&C Green No. 6 not for eyes and lips

D&C Green No. 5 approved for eyes as well

EU: 1 lipstick

EU: 1 lipstick

EU: 1 (food colorant E 127) aluminum lake in lipstick

EU: 1 (food colorant E 104) tenside products, soap, permanent and semi-permanent hair products

EU: 3 tenside products, soap

EU: 1 oil products

EU: 3 hair, alcohol-based perfume products

EU: 1 oil products

EU: 1 tenside products, soap

73000 blue, pigment (indigo, vat-

blue colorant) 73015 blue, water-soluble indigo colorant 73360 red, indigo pigment 74160 blue, phthalocyanine pigment

(also water dispersible) 75120 yellow to orange, oil-soluble carotenoid (also water-dispersible) 75130 see 40800 75170 white, natural organic pigment

75470 red, natural anthraquinone pigment, also water-soluble 75810 see 75815

75815 green, water-soluble porphy-rine colorant

77000 silver-colored, inorganic pigment

77004 white, pigment

77007 blue, violet, pink, red and green inorganic pigments

Blue No. 201 approved (Category

Blue No. 2 approved, also as aluminum lake (Category I) Red No. 226 approved (Category II) Blue No. 404 approved (Category

III)

Annatto, approved (Category I)

Guanine, approved (Category I) Carmine, approved (Category I)

Sodium copper chlorophylline, approved (Category I)

Aluminum powder approved (Category I)

Kaolin approved (Category I)

Ultramarine approved (Category I)

77019 white to opaque, inorganic Mica, approved (Category I) pearlescent pigment (mica)

Not approved

FD&C Blue No. 2 not approved for cosmetics D&C Red No. 30 not for eyes Not approved

Annatto (no FDA certificate) for eyes as well

Guanine (no FDA certificate) for eyes also Carmine (no FDA certificate) for eyes also

Potassium sodium copper chloro-phylline, (no FDA certificate) max. 0.1%, only approved for oral and dental care products Aluminum powder (no FDA certificate) external application, also for eyes (limitation of the particle size)

Kaolin (no FDA certificate), considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant Ultramarine (no FDA certificate), also for eyes, but not in products for mouth and lips Mica (no FDA certificate), also for eyes

EU: 1 (food colorant E 132) aluminum lake for eye makeup

EU: 1 toothpaste, lipstick

EU: 1 eye makeup, toothpaste, soap, tenside products

EU: 1 (food colorant E 160b) oil products, creams

EU: 1 decorative cosmetics

EU: 1 (food colorant E 120) makeup, lipstick

EU (listed as C.I. 75810) (food colorant E 141): 1, oral and dental care

EU: 1 (food colorant E 173)

EU: 1 No known use as a colorant

EU: 1 makeup, eye cosmetics, lipstick, soap

EU (summarized in the EC Guideline with CL 77891): decorative cosmetics

Table 1 Continued

Color Index Number or name, color, colorant category, solubility

77120 white, inorganic pigment

77163 white inorganic pearlescent pigment 77220 white, pigment

77231 white, inorganic pigment

77266 black, inorganic pigment

77288 green, inorganic pigment

77289 green, inorganic pigment

77400 copper-colored, inorganic pigment

77491 red-brown, inorganic pigment

77492 yellow, inorganic pigment 77499 black, inorganic pigment

Japan*

Barium sulfate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Bismuth oxychloride approved (Category I)

Calcium carbonate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Calcium sulfate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Carbon black approved (Category I)

Chromium oxide green, approved for eyes as well, but not around mouth and lips

Hydrated chromium oxide, approved for eyes as well, but not around mouth and lips

Not approved

Red oxide of iron approved (Category I)

Yellow oxide of iron approved (Category I)

Black oxide of iron approved (Category I)

Barium sulfate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant Bismuth oxychloride (no FDA certificate) also for eyes Calcium carbonate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Calcium sulfate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant Not approved

Chromium oxide greens (no FDA certificate), also for yes, but not around mouth and lips Chromium hydroxide green (no FDA certificate), also approved for eyes, but not around mouth and lips

Copper powder (no FDA certificate), for external application and also for eyes Synthetic iron oxide (no FDA certificate) also for eyes

Application area in the EU, examples of use

EU: 1 no known use as a colorant EU: 1 decorative cosmetics EU: 1 no known use as a colorant

EU: 1 no known use as a colorant

EU: 1 decorative cosmetics EU: 1 decorative cosmetics, soap

EU: 1 decorative cosmetics, soap

EU: 1 decorative cosmetics

EU: 1 (all food colorant E 172) creams, makeup, lipstick, soap z § s r

77510 blue, inorganic pigment

77713 white, inorganic pigment

77742 violet, inorganic pigment

77820 silver-colored inorganic pigment

77891 white, inorganic pigment

77947 white, inorganic pigment

Ferric ferrocyanide approved (Category I)

Magnesium carbonate approved (Category I)

Manganese Violet approved for eyes but not around mouth and lips

Not approved

Titanium dioxide approved (Category I)

Zinc oxide approved (Category I)

Considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Aluminum stearate, calcium stea-rate, and magnesium stearate white, oil-soluble

Lactoflavin (riboflavin, vitamin B2) Riboflavin approved (Category I)

yellow, water soluble Caramel sugar brown, water-soluble Caramel approved (Category I)

Ferric ferrocyanide (no FDA certificate), also for eyes, but not around mouth and lips

Magnesium carbonate considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Manganese Violet (no FDA certificate) also for eyes

Silver (no FDA certificate), max. 1% only for use on nails

Titanium dioxide (no FDA certificate) also for eyes

Zinc oxide (no FDA certificate) for external application and also for eyes

Considered cosmetic raw material and not colorant

Not approved

Caramel (no FDA certificate) also used for eyes

EU: 1 decorative cosmetics especially eye makeup

EU: 1 powder

EU: 1 decorative cosmetics

EU: 1 (food colorant E 174) no known use as a cosmetic colorant EU: 1 (food colorant E 171)

creams, makeup, lipstick, powder, soap, toothpaste EU: 1 no known use as a colorant

EU: 1 no known use as a cosmetic colorant

EU: 1 (food colorant E 101) no known use as a cosmetic colorant EU: 1 (food colorant E 150a-d) rarely also in creams

* Japan: Category I—approved for all cosmetic products. Category II—for external use. Category III—not for use on mucous membranes. f Unless otherwise indicated and if chemically possible, the corresponding aluminum color lake is also approved.

* Because of its perceptual composition of mono-, di-, and trisulfonic acid, D&C Yellow No. 10 does not correspond to the specification of EU-approved food colorant E 104, which is also listed under CI 47005.

Table 2

Colorant group

Cosmetic products

Water-soluble colorants

Oil-soluble colorants

Pigments

Color lakes

Water dispersible pigments e.g., bath products (shampoo, shower gel, and bubble bath), creams, soap, toothpaste gel, mouthwash e.g., oil products, soap e.g., makeup, powder, lipstick, toothpaste, soap e.g., eye makeup, lipstick soap

Table 3

Cosmetic products (selection)

Color

Recommended colorant

Bubble bath

Recommended dose Shampoo, shower gel, liquid soap

Recommended dose Bath salts

Recommended dose Oil products

Recommended dose blue yellow C.I. 42045, 42051, 42090

C.I. 13015, 19140, 47005, 45350 (fluo-green rescent)

C.I. 61570, 59040 (fluorescent) as well as by mixing blue and yellow color-orange ings

C.I. 16255, 15985 as well as by mixing pink/red yellow and red colorants brown C.I. 16255, 16035, 16185

can be created by mixing red and yel-violet low or orange and blue colorants by mixing red and blue, especially C.I.

42090 and 16185. 0.05-0.3% colors as for bubble bath and also blue C.I. 61585 and pink C.I. 45100

yellow C.I. 47005, 45350 (fluorescent) green C.I. 61570, also as mixture of blue and yellow colorants pink C.I. 45430

yellow C.I. 40800 green C.I. 75810

orange C.I. 75120 turquoise C.I. 61565 red-orange C.I. 12150 0.01-0.05%

Table 3 Continued

Cosmetic products (selection)

Color

Recommended colorant

Soap

blue

C.I. 61585, 74160, 77007

yellow

C.I. 10316, 11680, 11710, 21108, 47005, 77492

green

C.I. 10006, 10020, 59040 (fluorescent), 61570, 74260

orange

by mixing red and yellow

red

C.I. 12490, 77491

black

C.I. 77499, 77268:1

violet

C.I. 51319 and by mixing blue and red

white

C.I. 77891

Recommended dose

water-soluble colorants or water dispers-

ible pigments 0.01-0.05% pigments 0.05-0.5%

Toothpaste

blue

C.I. 74160

green

C.I. 74260

red

C.I. 73360

white

C.I. 77891

Recommended dose

0.02-0.05%

Toothpaste gels

blue

C.I. 42051, 42090

Recommended dose

C.I. 0.02-0.05%

Mouthwash

blue

C.I. 42090

green

C.I. 61570 or a mixture of C.I. 42090 and C.I. 47005

red

C.I. 16035

Recommended dose

5-20 ppm

Alcoholic perfume products

blue

C.I. 42051, 42090

yellow

C.I. 47005, 13015, 19140

orange

C.I. 15985

red

C.I. 16035, 17200

Recommended dose

5-20 ppm

Lipstick

all pigments (cosmetic application area 1 in the EU)

Recommended dose

1-10%

Makeup, powder

brown

mixtures of C.I. 77491, 77492, 77499, 77891

Recommended dose

2-10%

Eye makeup

blue

C.I. 77510, 77007

yellow

C.I. 77492

red

C.I. 77491, 75470

violet

C.I. 77742

black

C.I. 77266, 77268:1, 77499

Recommended dose

5-30%

another colorless initial product. No colorants are used; the color is first created on the inside of the hair.

Substantive colorants are largely cationic and cannot penetrate the hair because their molecules are too large; therefore they only adhere on the outside and can be removed again comparatively easily.

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