Applications

Today, most of the experts working in the field of liposomal dispersions agree that liposomes do not penetrate as intact vesicles into the skin or permeate through the skin. Liposomes are believed to be deformed and transformed into fragments as a rule. Therefore size, shape, and lamallarity are not so relevant for the application, but for the chemical composition of the total formulation.

The multifunctional properties of phosphatidylcholines lead to a number of different applications. So, formulations with unsaturated phosphatidylcholine are preferred to support skin regeneration, antiaging, acne preventing, and penetrating other active agents like vitamins and their derivatives into the skin. Formulations with hydrogenated phosphatidyl-choline may be used for skin and sun protection, but it should be emphasized that in this

Figure 4 Main components of "natural" formulations.

Figure 4 Main components of "natural" formulations.

Table 2 Phosphatidylcholine-Containing Formulations

Parameter

Liposomes

Nanoemulsions

DMS

Conventional emulsions

Phosphatidylcholine

+ +

+

Used as additive

( + )

Phosphatidylcholine hydro-

Rarely used

+

+ +

Rarely used

genated

Lipophilic ingredients

Limited

+

+

+

Hydrophilic ingredients

+

+

+

+

Amphiphilic ingredients

Limited

Limited

+

+

Auxiliary compounds

As few as possible

As few as possible

Rarely used

+ +

Preparation (usual)

Usual and high pressure

High pressure homogenizer

High pressure homogenizer

Phase conversion method

homogenizers

Physical stability

( + )

+

+

+

Chemical stability

Depending on pH

Depending on pH

Depending on pH

Depending on pH

Preservation

Glycols

Glycols

Glycols

Glycols

Penetration

+ +

+

+

( + )

Skin protection

-

( + )

+ +

( + )

(Unsaturated PC)

Convenient particle size

100-300 nm

50-200 nm

Not detectable

Usual droplets

Cosmetic applications

Antiaging, regeneration

Versatile

Skin protection, sun pro

Versatile

tection

Prevention of skin diseases

+ +

+ +

+ +

( + )

Abbreviations: DMS, derma membrane structure; PC, phosphatidylcholine.

Abbreviations: DMS, derma membrane structure; PC, phosphatidylcholine.

Copyright © Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved.

respect nanoemulsions and DMS are still more convenient. The main components of choice to prepare ''natural'' formulations, which are compatible with horny layer, sebum constituents, and their functions are illustrated in Figure 4. About the role of mineral salts see Ref. 15.

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