After Hair Treatments

Modern preparations are divided into rinse-off types, which are rinsed off after being left to take effect for a certain time, possibly with the help of a slight increase in temperature,

Table 6 Shampoo for Fine and Greasy Hair

Decyl glucoside 10.0

Sodium laureth sulfate 14.3

Cocamidopropyl betaine 10.0

Potassium abietoyl hydrolyzed 5.1

collagen (PAHC) Polyquaternium-10 0.2

Laureth-3 1.0

Sodium chloride 1.0

Water q.s. 100

^ shampoo and hair rinse ill mild surfactant bases specific cationic surfactants ^ silicone derivatives I emollients

Figure 8 Formulation concept for 2-in-l shampoo.

and leave-on types, which remain in the hair. In Figure 9 an overview about the hair aftertreatments is listed. We studied the effects of typical conditioners (Table 8). After treatments are used to restructure and improve the hair quality. Such preparations must be effective not only superficially but also below the surface of the hair. Changing the properties of the hair surface can cause improvements in properties such as combability, feel, and manageability, and can reduce the build-up of static charge. Moreover, a protective action can be achieved with chemical hair treatments, and special additives that penetrate inside the hair can improve its mechanical strength. Therefore a schematic formulation makeup is based on the described general requirements derived from hair-damaging processes described in the introduction [16,17].

Cationic surfactants act by being adsorbed onto the surface of negatively charged hair [19,20]. In contrast, active agents such as cationic protein hydrolysates, protein hy-drolsates, panthenol, and glucose penetrate at least partially below the surface of the hair.

In order to evaluate differences between conditioners we applied several formulations containing 1.0% active distearoylethyl hydroxyethylmonium methosulfate and 2.5% cetearyl alcohol to Asian and Caucasian hair. The combing work was measured before and after the application of the conditioner. The absolute values for the combing work of Asian and Caucasian hair are different as shown previously in Figure 4. For testing the efficacy it is not important to see the absolute values of combing work; it is more important to know the degree of reduction. This means a residual combing work of 40% is a relative reduction of 60%. All formulations have the same efficacy on Asian and Caucasian hair. There is no significant difference in the relative change of the combing work.

Table 7 Example of a 2-in-1 Shampoo



Sodium laureth sulfate (and) lauryl glucoside


Glycol distearate (and) glycerin (and) laureth-4


(and) cocamidopropyl betaine

PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate


Guar hydroxypropyl trimonium chloride



q.s. 100



residual combing work dry


Asian hair 87%


Caucasian hair 87%


Pretrcatments for waving preparations

Intermediate treatments tor waving prep.

Keratin hardeners

Hot-oil treatments

Leave-on conditioners

Thermal conditioners

Rinse-off conditioners

Hair tip fluids


Slow-drying lotions

Hair-setting lotion

Hairspray, lacquer

Hair gels

Hair tonic

Prophylaxis Prophylaxis Repair Repair

Repair I Prophylaxis





Hair styling

Hair styling

Hair styling

Hair styling

Hair styling

Figure 9 Overview of hair treatment preparations.

Table 8 General Conditioner Formulation

Use Hair rinses Amount %

Formulation auxiliary Emulsifier 0-2

Consistency, conditioning agent Consistency factors 1-5

Emollient, care component Oily components, auxiliaries 0-3

Conditioning agent Cationic components 0.5-1.5

Sensorial acceptance Perfume oil 0-2 Microbiological stability Color

Preservative Water pH value: 3-5

Figure 10 Formulation with emollients in conditioners.

Figure 10 Formulation with emollients in conditioners.

without G PEEH4 GTE H NPC 302 SN-1 TPEH3 Figure 11 Wet combing work/emollients in conditioners.

Further improvements in wet combability properties of hair rinses or hair conditioners can be achieved by adding suitable emollients [18]. The influence of emollients on the conditioning effect of hair aftertreatment preparations was studied with the help of the model formulation DE/92/197/6 shown in Figure 10.

Various emollients were blended into the formulation so that they formed 2% of the total components. The effect of these emollients on wet combability was determined. It can be seen from Figure 11 that the addition of emollients can facilitate a further enhancement of hair-conditioning action.

Relative to emollient-free formulations, a further reduction of 10 to 20% is achieved in the combing work of wet hair. The most marked reduction in wet combing work is

Table 9 Conditioners with Active Ingredients

Distearoylethyl hydroxyethylmonium methosulfate (and) cetearyl alcohol Cetearyl alcohol Glyceryl stearate Ceteareth-20 Soya sterol Hydrolyzed collagen Methyl hydroxypropyl cellulose Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1%

swelling) Laurdimonium hydroxypropyl hy-

drolyzed wheat protein Water, preservation Tensile strength of tresses Significance (t-test)


Table 10 Leave-On Conditioner

Polyacrylamide (and) C13-14 isoparafin 3.0 (and) laureth-7

CocamideDEA 1.0

Lauryl glucoside 0.5

Oleyl erucate 0.5

Tocopherol 0.2

Hydrolyzed sweet almond protein 3.0

Laurdimonium hydroxypropyl hydrolyzed 0.8 wheat protein

Water, preservation q.s. 100

pH 7.0 Viscosity (Brookfield RVF, 23°C, spindle 4, ca. 3000 mPa.s 10 rpm)

brought about by high molecular emollients. When the influence of these emollients on the combability of dry hair was studied, it was found that they cause almost no changes.

Not only the hair's characteristics were favorably influenced by the oils in hair rinses, but the physicochemical properties of hair rinses that contain fatty alcohol were also improved. Emollients generally have the effect of stabilizing viscosity during storage.

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