Skin Cleansing

Bath additives usually contain a mixture of various anionic, nonionic, and amphoteric surfactants. Numerous superfatting agents, solubilizing agents, plant extracts, and perfumes are also found in products within this category. However, only an oil bath for elderly skin may provide skin cleansing and conditioning at the same time. For serious dry-skin conditions, oil baths are indispensable. A variety of shower products, meanwhile, also contain high amounts of superfatting agents, thus securing...

Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis

Photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) is an immunological response to a substance that requires the presence of light. The substance in the skin absorbs photons and is converted to a stable or unstable photoproduct, which binds to skin proteins to form an antigen, which then elicits a delayed hypersensitivity response. Examples of photoallergens present in cosmetics are musk ambrette and 6-methylcoumarin, which are present in fragrances. Photopatch testing is the diagnostic procedure for...

Hydroquinone 14dihydroxybenzene

Hydroquinone is a nonvolatile chemical used in the photographic, rubber, chemical, and cosmetic industries. In the late 1930s, it was observed that a chemical used in rubber manufacture, monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, caused depigmented skin in some workers 1 . The efficacy of hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) as a skin-lightening agent has been established in both human and animal studies. The chemical structure of hydro-quinone is shown in Figure 1. Clinically, hydroquinone is applied...

Protection Against Pathogenic Micro Organisms

After birth, the body of the baby is exposed to numerous germs. The skin barrier not only protects mechanically against invading micro-organisms, but also through the slightly acidic milieu of the hydrolipidic film on the surface of the skin. The surface of the skin is physiologically populated by specific germs (saprophytes), which are not pathogens but rather a vital microbial defense system on the skin's surface. For optimal living conditions, the saprophytes require an acidic milieu....

Active Ingredient

Melanin is a key factor determining the color of skin. The enzyme tyrosinase plays the most important role in melanin synthesis (melanogenesis) 1,2 . Several tyrosinase inhibitors (chemicals, plant extracts, animal products) have been proposed, based on the view that melanogenesis can be controlled and skin-whitening products developed if tyrosinase activity can be suppressed. However, few have been put to practical use. In practice, it is difficult to develop these candidate materials from in...

An Overview Of Emulsionbased Skincare Products

A variety of skincare products exist in today's marketplace. They fulfill a variety of functions by either acting directly on the skin (e.g., moisturizers) or being a cosmetically elegant vehicle for the delivery of specific active ingredients (e.g., sunscreens or antipure-tic or antiacne medicaments). In general, these products may be categorized into three functional groups Drugs. To Prevent or ameliorate diseases by altering the structure and or function of the body. Cosmetics. To beautify...

Epidemiological Studies

Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be attributable to different mechanisms. Hyperreactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area, causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals 4 . In 1977, Frosch and Kligman 5 , by testing different irritants, showed a 14 incidence of sensitive skin in the normal population, likely correlated to a thin permeable stratum corneum, which make these subjects more susceptible to chemical...

Strategy Of Making Antiirritant Cosmetics

Strictly by definition, an anti-irritant is an agent which, by its presence, minimizes the irritating effect of a cosmetic preparation on the skin. The anti-irritant could reflect all mechanisms that have an opposed effect to an irritant insult. Hence, the term could reflect actions such as skin calming, soothing, and healing, and assisting in the recovery of the skin from an irritation provoked by, e.g., contact with soaps and household cleaning products. As has been demonstrated earlier, very...

The Tissues of a Tooth

A tooth is made up of five different tissues, each with a specific and important function. Serious disease in any of these tissues can affect the entire tooth and result in its decay and or destruction. These tissues are as follows 1. Enamel, which is a hard white outer covering surrounds the crown of the tooth and protects it from wearing away as a result of the pressure of chewing. It consists largely (96 to 98 percent) of inorganic substances, mainly calcium and phosphate. Figure 1 The...

Adverse Reactionstoxicity

In a longitudinal prospective study of 603 subjects applying daily either an SPF 15+ broad-spectrum sunscreen containing octyl methoxycinnamate and avobenzone or a vehicle cream, 19 developed an adverse reaction 26 . Interestingly, the rates of reaction to both the active and vehicle creams were similar, emphasizing the importance of excipient ingredients in the vehicle. The majority of reactions were irritant in nature. Not surprisingly, a disproportionate 50 of the reacting subjects were...

The Future Of Liposomal Preparations

Liposomal dispersions have proved not only to be innovative and effective cosmetic ingredients, but also to be a very convenient form to work with phosphatidylcholine. In dermatology, they will be used with success for preventing and treating several skin diseases. Complementary formulations are established where liposomal dispersions come up against limiting factors. Table 2 shows liposomal and complementary formulations in a direct comparison. Generally, liposomes, nanoemulsions, and DMS are...

Excipients and Emulsifiers

Many excipients and emulsifiers are common ingredients to topical pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, the former being likely to induce sensitization. Typical examples are wool alcohols, fatty alcohols (e.g., cetyl alcohol), and propylene glycol 13 . They may also be sensitizing in cosmetics, as is the case with maleated soybean oil 44 . Emulsifiers in particular have long been regarded as irritants, but their sensitization capacities should not be overlooked. It is imperative, of course,...

The Structure and Properties of Hair

Hair follicles, which in tens of thousands are deeply invaginated in the scalp tissue, are the essential growth structures of hair. At the base of each follicle, the cells proliferate and, as they stream upwards, the complex and intertwined processes of protein synthesis, structural alignment, and keratinization transform the cytoplasm into the tough fibrous material known as hair. Hair is unique in that its structural and growth characteristics are different between races, sexes, individuals...

Undesirable Action

Hair cosmetics and shampoos in particular are formulated to be nontoxic, nonirritant, and nondamaging to the hair, skin, and eyes. These formulae should not of course, include substances that are systemically toxic following their percutaneous absorption. The integrity of the cuticle is degraded by perming, bleaching, and permanent dyeing, which lead to raising and softening of the cuticle thereby making it vulnerable to mechanical abrasion, e.g., during combing. Scalp hair may be under...

Clinical Visual and Tactile Assessments

Several skin modifications induced by irritants can be easily evaluated visually and tac-tilely, e.g., by skin redness (erythema), skin dryness with increased desquamation, scali-ness, and flakiness, and skin roughness or edema. Moderate to very intense signs of skin redness erythema are the visual manifestations of a skin inflammatory process with vasodilatation of the capillary system and increase of the blood flow. After contact with an irritant (particularly with soaps and detergents),...

Contact Urticaria Syndrome

Contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) represents a heterogeneous group of inflammatory reactions that appear, usually within a few minutes to an hour, after contact with the eliciting substance. Clinically, erythematous wheal-and-flare reactions are seen, and sensations of burning, stinging, or itching are experienced. These are transient, usually disappearing within a few hours. In its more severe forms, generalized urticaria or extracutaneous manifestations, such as asthma, nausea, abdominal...

Shampoos General Comments

Cleansing is clearly a dominant element of personal hygiene and, when reinforced by the aspect of attractive appearance, translates into a powerful and highly marketable stimulus. Shampooing has become, thus, a factor sine qua non in maintaining the aesthetics of hair. The cleansing task is formidable. A mass of 100,000 to 150,000 flexible fibers has to be cleansed of oily deposits of sebum, sweat, entrapped desquamated scalp cells, along with the residues of mousses, gels, and hair sprays. All...

Stinging Test

Stinging seems to be a variant of pain that develops rapidly and fades quickly any time the appropriate sensory nerve is stimulated. Although this method lacks objective criteria, it is widely accepted as a marker of sensitivity and has often been used in skin-irritation studies 5 . It provides information to establish those subjects experiencing invisible cutaneous irritation. It is performed by applying to the skin hydrosoluble substances such as lactic acid or capsaicin. The test is usually...

Causes Of Cellulite

Cellulite is probably a multicausal condition and many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin of fat lipodystrophy 1-11 . Sexual differentiation in the histological distribution of subcutaneous fat lobules in women and in men. The differences between the sexes can be found in the structure of the septal connective-fat tissue the fat lobules in women are larger and more rectangular, whereas men have diagonal septa and smaller lobules. Because cellulite is widely present in women,...

Comedogenicity

Comedone formation occurs when the pattern of keratinization inside the sebaceous follicle changes. Within the keratinocytes, these changes include the production of different keratins and a reduction in the number of lamellar granules 5 . There is also an increase in mitotic activity 6 . As a result the keratinocytes do not desquamate properly and the follicular duct is blocked. It is not known what causes these changes, but the result is a microcomedone. As further keratinized material...

Critical Review Of Clinical Anticellulite Studies1

Very few anticellulite studies that were performed under well-controlled experimental conditions (i.e., double-blind, vehicle-controlled) and under medical and paramedical su- s A clinical study on 27 female subjects with cellulite at the thighs involving a daily massage with a commercial preparation containing caffeine, Hedera helix and Butcher's broom (massage carried out by the subjects themselves) showed after 1 month a significant diminution of the thickness of subcutaneous fat tissues as...

Study Of The Effectiveness Of Five Products Containing Bisabolol Or Synthetic Bisabolol On Slsinduced Skin Irritation

Thirty female volunteers at the age of 18 to 63 years with healthy skin were included in the test. The participants were briefed on the study procedures and each gave written informed consent. Measurements were carried out at a temperature of 22 1 C and relative humidity of 60 10 . The test was carried out on the volar forearms. Skin irritation was induced in the test sites by applying sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 2 in distilled water under aluminum chamber occlusion. After 24 hours, occlusion...

Correlations With The Location Of The Lesions

Like many other contact allergens, cosmetics can reach the skin in several different ways 1,2 by direct application by airborne exposure to vapors, droplets, or particles that are released into the atmosphere and then settle on the skin 7 by contact with people (partners, friends, coworkers) who transmit allergens to cause ''connubial'' or ''consort'' dermatitis 8 by transfer from other sites on the body, often the hands, to more sensitive areas such as the mouth or the eyelids (ectopic...

Future Trends2

The evolution of cosmetic patches is something expected after the warm acceptance of new cosmetic delivery systems from consumers. There are three axes for their expansion 1. The technological field. It is expected that any new progress on patches, generally speaking, will strongly influence cosmetic patches as well. Even nonpassive cosmetic patches, like the iontophoretic ones, will find in the future several applications for the administration of more sophisticated cosmetic ingredients and...

Nonionic Surfactants

Nonionic surfactants do not dissociate into ions in aqueous medium. They generally deliver a weak to moderate foam. They are appreciated for their good skin and eye compatibility as well as for their anti-irritant potential when they are combined with anionics in appropriate concentration ratio. Therefore, numerous products for sensitive skin, babies, or the face incorporate nonionics as major surfactants. Fatty alcohols are primarily used as a chemical precursor for the production of several...

Nonintended Contact with the Skin

Ideally, hair cosmetics should not have contact with the skin, but in practice this is hardly achievable. In some procedures, such as hair dyeing and hair bleaching, skin contact is unnecessary to perform the procedure itself but hardly avoidable during such a procedure. Many consumers report hair shedding with changes in the shampooing regime. This is not because of a biological process in particular but because of a detachment of telogen hairs, which may modify the usual daily shedding of...

Prevention Of Wrinkles Of Photoaging

Quite apart from specific products, elimination of UVR exposure essentially prevents wrinkles. The effect of lifelong UVR avoidance is easily shown by comparison of the never-exposed skin of the buttocks to even suberythrogenic exposed skin of the face in any individual of types I to III skin. Although wrinkles usually appear only after some years of exposure and are noticeable beginning in the second or third decade of life, other seemingly benign yet insidious signs of photoaging, such as...

Antiirritants for Surfactant Based Products

Colgate-Palmolive Research and Development, Inc., Milmort, Belgium In the scientific literature, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is regularly used as the ''gold'' model to induce skin irritation 1 . This is for several reasons 1. SLS is classified as a skin irritant, Xi-R38 2 , 2. SLS can be obtained in a very pure form, which allows different laboratories to work on the same material, 3. SLS can be easily formulated in various vehicles, 4. Although a few cases were reported 3 , allergic reactions...

Quality Management In Baby Care

Despite careful research with respect to the good skin tolerability of each individual ingredient in baby-care formulations, it should be made certain that this data will also apply to the final product after these ingredients are integrated into the formula. In order to rule out the possibility of contact allergies or sensitizing skin reactions, products are frequently tested using the repeated-insult patch test (RIPT). This test is a validated, recognized method for the testing of skin...

Quasidrugs In The Future

There has been a great demand by consumers for innovative cosmetic products with pharmacological action, i.e., pseudodrugs or cosmeceuticals such as skin antiaging products. To satisfy their demands, research on the skin has been undertaken to develop new active ingredients for skin antiaging products. How should those products be legally categorized Quasidrugs would seem to be suitable for such products to be categorized. However, all of the products have not always been approved as quasidrugs...

Cosmetic And Occupational Skin Irritants Occupational Skin Irritants

A broad definition of occupational contact irritant dermatitis is contact dermatitis caused wholly or partially by the occupation of the subject. Occupational irritants may cause an acute response that may take from 1 hour to 1 day to appear, and is usually traceable to a single factor. Chronic irritant contact dermatitis may take months or years to appear and is often multifactorial 33 . Hands are involved in 80 to 90 of all cases of occupational contact dermatitis, and in the minority of...

Establishment of Microbial Limits

For many years there have been discussions on whether total count would be sufficient to guarantee the microbiological quality of a cosmetic, or if the exclusion of specified microorganisms, pathogens, or potential pathogens would also be required. The current trend is to require quantitative and qualitative microbial limits. Acceptance criteria for cosmetics and control methods will be issued in the Seventh Amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive. Nevertheless, the acceptance criteria...

Hair Color Safety and Regulatory Issues

Because of the allergenic potential of some of the materials used in hair dyes (primarily p-phenylenediamine, or PPD), hair colorants in the United States display on the label as a legal requirement a warning, plus instructions for a 24-hour patch test with the precursors and hydrogen peroxide mixed in the same manner as in use. As required by Section 601(a) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the warnings reads as follows This product contains ingredients which may cause skin...

Frequent Skin Problems In Newborns Diaper Dermatitis

At the beginning of this century, in 1905, a French pediatrician by the name of Jacquet gave the peculiar frequently occurring skin rash in the diaper area the name diaper dermatitis 16 . The skin alterations subcategorized under the diagnosis diaper dermatitis can have a variety of causes. They can be directly related to the contact dermatitis, which is diaper dermatitis in a narrow sense. The occurence can also be unrelated to the use of diapers. Today the factors that enhance this irritating...

Nature Of Interactions Between Products And The Superficial Epidermis

Cosmetic products are intended for interaction with the superficial epidermis, and ideally create objective and visible changes. The importance of such changes to be visible to the naked eye and appreciated as improvements was highlighted in the introduction. The intended, beneficial interactions of cosmetic products with the epidermis are the traditional ones, namely improvement of scaling, improvement of skin color, improvement of wrinkles (fine and coarse), improvement of elasticity, and a...

Plant Cultivation Harvesting and Collecting

The process begins simply with the growing plant itself. This happens at random out in the fields or by cultivation. Although ''wild crafting'' is still a method used for some species, cultivated plants can be harvested much more easily. Wild crafting additionally leaves the risk of collecting the wrong species and getting impure plant material for extraction. By using analytical methods, one is able to identify the purity of the herb. To minimize contamination, the collectors should be well...

Test Organisms

As previously discussed, the range of organisms must contain bacteria and fungi. Within these we must find Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria because the structure of the bacterial wall influences the penetration and thus the efficacy of the preservating agent. For the fungi, representatives of the two fungal forms must be used, namely the vegetative yeast cell and the mould spore. The choice of species is directed by their skin and mucosal pathogenicity for cosmetics. Product degradation...

Tests for Skin Protection Barrier Effect

University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California Barrier creams (BC) may play an important role in the prevention of contact dermatitis 1-6 , and various in vitro and in vivo methods have been developed to evaluate their efficacy. In practice, their use remains the subject of lively debate some reports suggest that inappropriate BC application may exacerbate, rather than prevent, irritation 1-3, 69 . The accuracy of measurements depends on the use of...

Vitamin E

More than other tissues, the skin is exposed to various aggressive effects of the environment. Chemical and physical agents, such as ultraviolet (UV) light, ozone, heavy metals, and many others, cause permanent stress to the outermost cell layers of the skin. In particular, regular and excessive exposure to UV light induces damage and disease in the tissue. The skin becomes wrinkled, appears older, the immune system is weakened, and, more seriously, skin cancer can develop. Up to 20 of the...

Individual Uv Filters

Sunscreen ingredients may be considered by dividing them into larger overall classes by chemical structure. They may also be classified by their absorption spectrum. Although the lists of UV filters approved by the various regulatory agencies may seem quite extensive, fewer are used with any degree of frequency. The discussion that follows will concentrate on those listed in Table 4. Para-aminobenzoic acid, or PABA, was one of the first sunscreen chemicals to be widely available. Several...

Sensory Irritation Scale

Each minute for 10 to 60 minutes, depending on the study, subjects reported the magnitude of sensory irritation (stinging, burning, and itching) according to the following scale 1 slight Transient, barely perceptible irritation 2 mild Definite and continuous irritation 3 moderate Distinctly uncomfortable irritation Bothers them and interferes with concentration 4 severe Continuous, intensely uncomfortable irritation Intolerable and would interfere with daily routine Lactic Acid (7.5 , pH 1.9)...

Introduction

Skin-feel additives are substances conferring sensorial properties to a skincare product, triggering pleasant perception during application to the skin and after use. Effectiveness of sensory triggers is governed by their substantivity to the skin which occurs either by hydrophobic interaction, charge attraction, or a combination of these two factors. A large variety of cosmetic ingredients function as skin-feel conditioning additives, comprising lipophilic materials, silicones, water-soluble...

References And Notes

Consumer products cosmetics and topical over-the-counter drug products. In Chengelis CP, Holson JF, Gad SC, eds. Regulatory Toxicology. New York Raven Press, 1995 117-119 b) McEwen GN, Murphy EG. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Regulation of Cosmetics. In Schlossman, ML, ed., The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics, Volume I, Basic Science, Carol Stream, IL Allured Publishing Corporation, 2000, p. 82. 2. Hobbs CO. Advertising for foods, veterinary products,...

Summary And Conclusions

Skincare products now exist that have various degrees of utility for preventing, minimizing the appearance of, or treating wrinkles caused by UVR. Conscientious use of sunscreens can minimize photoaging and wrinkle formation. Rigorous consumer-panel testing can show consistent improvement of the appearance of wrinkles with many products of a purely cosmetic nature. Application of well-established clinical methodologies and increasingly sophisticated instrumental techniques have conclusively...

Kojic Acid

Kojic acid, a fungal metabolic product, is increasingly being used as a skin-lightening agent in skincare products marketed in Japan since 1988. It was first isolated from Aspergillus in 1907 31 . The structure is shown in Figure 1. The mode of action of kojic acid is to suppress free tyrosinase, mainly attributable to chelation of its copper 11,16,31 , and it has been shown to be responsible for therapy and prevention of pigmentation, both in vitro and in vivo 11,31 . In Japan it is used in...

The Psyche Skin And Cosmetic Product Triangle

It was known for many years that skin well being correlates with physical, social, and mental well functioning. Consumer's use of a cosmetic product on their skin is overall in perspective, and not used by the consumer specifically to improve elastic fibers, electrical conduction, or transepidermal water loss, to maintain a pH of 5.5, or to give her or his kerotinocytes a bigger and rounder shape or whatever the intellectual or pseudointellectual argument for the product might be. Basic biology...

Factors That Influence Skin Responsiveness To Irritants

Many factors can influence the responsiveness of a consumer's skin to a potential irritant. Some factors are intrinsic, inherent to the subjects themselves (e.g., sensitive skin, atopic skin), the body site, and previous traumas to the considered skin area. Other factors are external, such as composition of product, conditions of exposure, occupation of the subject, and climatic factors 4,5,7 . The reason why these factors are covered in this chapter are evident. Some cosmetics with...

Evaluation Of Itching Response

Recent studies show that a new class of C fibers with an exceptionally lower conduction velocity and insensitivity to mechanical stimuli can likely be considered as afferent units that mediate the itchy sensation 23 . Indeed, this subjective feeling has been extensively investigated but no explanation of the individual susceptibility to the itching sensation, without any sign of coexisting dermatitis, has been found. Laboratory investigation of the itch response has also been limited. An itch...

Skin Whitening Products

University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California Skin-whitening products have been widely used in the cosmetic field and clinic therapy. They are supposed to either lighten skin (individuals who wish to change or modify their skin color) or depigment skin (treatment for abnormal-hyperpigmentation skin such as melasma, freckles, and senile lentigines). Whitening agents, such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, and ascorbic acid derivatives have shown efficacy in a...

Clinical Applications of Topical Iontophoretic Transport

Iontophoresis has been successfully used in medicine to achieve topical delivery of drugs and actives. Most of the clinical applications of iontophoresis were developed in physical therapy and dermatology. The key areas include local anesthesia, hyperhidrosis, and local treatment of inflammation. Efficacy has been shown in clinical studies. In some cases, notably for the delivery of cosmetics, the ability of the medication to penetrate the target tissue in sufficient quantities to produce a...

Deodorant Sticks

Deodorant sticks are solidified by 6 to 8 of sodium stearate. The deodorizing agent and a fragrance are dissolved in a hydrophilic carrier. Two stick categories can be differentiated, the ethanol based and the propylene glycol based sticks 50 . Transparency is usually achieved by usage of a high polyol content. Clarifying agents for sticks like PPG-14 butylether, Cocamide DEA, Lauramide DEA, Steareth-100 have been patented 51,52 . Ethanol based sticks are preferred if it is the intent of the...

Hair

Ghassan Shaker and Dominique Van Neste Hair is a symbol of good looks and beauty in some areas of the human body. So much time, effort, and money are spent in caring for it, especially in the case of scalp hair. In some other areas, like the beard, daily care by shaving is necessary for the majority of males. In females, abundant scalp hair is very much welcomed, unlike leg hair, facial hair, and armpit (axillary) hair. Hair distribution in certain body regions is a secondary sex characteristic...

Factors Predisposing To Cutaneous Irritation

The skin of different individuals differs in susceptibility to irritation in a remarkable manner, and a number of individual factors influencing development of irritant dermatitis that have been identified include age, genetic background, anatomical region exposed, and preexisting skin disease. Although experimental studies did not support sex differences of irritant reactivity 26,27 , females turned out to be at risk in some epidemiological studies 28,29 . It is probable that increased...

Vitamin E2

Vitamin is the major lipophilic antioxidant in skin, and it is the most commonly used natural antioxidant in topical formulations. It is found in all parts of the skin, the dermis, and epidermis, as well as in the stratum corneum, and is believed to play an essential role in the protection of biomolecules from oxidative stress. Vitamin E is a family of 8 naturally occurring isoforms four tocopherols (a-, 0-, Y-, 8-form) and four tocotrienols (a-, 0-, y-, 8-form) (Fig. 1) 1 . All forms consist...

Oral Malodor Efficacy

Currently, oral malodor efficacy studies are conducted with toothpastes, cleansers, powders, mouth rinses, toothbrushes, breath mints, tongue scrapers, and any oral treatment whose primary or secondary function is to reduce or control halitosis. Oral treatments are designed to control, mask, or eliminate sulfur-producing bacteria, the primary component of bad breath. To accommodate the large variety of consumer products currently available for treating halitosis, clinical studies vary in their...

Cosmetic Skin Irritants

Cosmetics are complex mixtures of chemical compounds. The abundance of commercially available ingredients has created endless variety in cosmetic formulation. The cosmetic substances used in cosmetic products may be arbitrarily divided in great categories of product and or function. The principal categories of cosmetic irritants are listed in Table 2. Intolerance to some ingredients is related to symptoms of contact dermatitis and allergic dermatitis. There is not always a clear distinction...

Differences Of Untreated Asian And Caucasian Hair

Because of the differences in cross-section, we found different wet and dry tensile strengths of single hair fibers. Asian hair shows higher values than Caucasian hair. The application of a perm, bleach, or both results in decreasing tensile forces for both hair types (Fig. 3). The higher values for dry combing forces are found again for Asian hair (Fig. 4). The wet combing work shows comparable results for the untreated hair types. In addition to these results we measured the bounce of curls....

The Future Of Mousses

Although it is easy to describe the various characteristics and attributes of mousse products, it is difficult to entirely separate this technology from that of other product forms. There are obvious overlaps between mousse technology and the technologies pertinent to solutions, emulsions, and suspensions. The mousse product evolved from a combination of these overlaps as well as an appropriate type of packaging being available. The propel-lant can be considered simply as a low-boiling point...

Summary

Synthetic bisabolol and natural (-)-a-bisabolol have protective and beneficial effects, which were demonstrated by two new clinical studies. The grade of inflammation was measured with the help of a Minolta Chromameter and the a*-value was used to determine the grade of inflammation. The transepidermal water loss was used to reflect the damage of the skin barrier. The studies proved that (- )-a-bisabolol and synthetic bisabolol reduces the development of an erythema and reduce erythema set by...

Standardization

If the beneficial constituents of an extract are known, establishing specific quality standards is not difficult. It has to be assured by a suitable analytical technique that the extract contains a certain level of these active constituents. By way of an example, the antiinflammatory constituents of oat extract (Avena sativa) have recently been discovered 2 . This was a difficult task because the chemistry of oat is quite complex. The active in oat belongs to a group of compounds called...

Shampoo Additives

These are materials incorporated into a shampoo formulation to enhance its aesthetics as well as improve its performance. Thickeners comprise a broad variety of compounds that are used to increase viscosity of the formulations, modifying their consistency from viscous liquids to thick gels. Among the most frequently used are electrolytes, such as sodium chloride, alkanolamides and water-soluble cellulose derivatives, such as carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellu-lose, carboxy vinyl polymers...

Safety

The visible color change associated with the use of artificial tanning products might suggest to some users that these products are hazardous. Based on the chemistry of DHA and its toxicological profile, it can be considered nontoxic. It reacts quickly in the stratum corneum minimizing systemic absorption. The acute toxicity of DHA was investigated for diabetics in the 1920s with their oral intake well tolerated 6 . The phosphate of DHA is found naturally as one of the intermediates in the...

Regulatory Environment

The cosmetic regulations in Japan are extensive and complex 1 . The legal classification of topically applied products is different from the United States and the European Union, where they are divided into only two categories drugs and cosmetics. In Japan, there are additional regulations covering cosmetic products with pharmacological action, called quasidrugs, which are ranked between cosmetics and drugs 2 . Under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, cosmetics, as well as drugs and quasidrugs,...

References

Death from skin cancer among the elderly epidemiological patterns. Arch Dermatol 1997 133 1207-1209. 2. Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Aging versus photoaging postulated mechanisms and effectors. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 1998 3 47-51. 3. Naylor MF, Farmer KC. The case for sunscreens a review of their use in preventing actinic damage and neoplasia. Arch Dermatol 1997 133 1146-1154. 4. Gurish MF, Roberts LK, Krueger GG, et al. The effect of various sunscreen agents on skin damage and the...

Others

Some other vitamins and vitamin precursors used in cosmetic products are biotin, niacinamide, vitamin D, vitamin B6, beta-carotene, and, in a few products, vitamin K. For all these substances there exists a rationale for their use in cosmetics but there are either no studies or insufficient studies available that prove their efficacy when topically applied. Systemic use of 2.5 mg biotin per day has shown good effect on brittle nails and has improved hair quality 46-49 . As it has good effect on...

Other Agents

Various systemic drugs and natural products may be used as protective agents, such as chloroquine, indomethacin, vitamin C and E, fish oil, and green tea, etc. Topical agents include azelaic acid and melawhite except where previously described 38 . Recently, Kobayashi et al. 39 reported that neoagarobiose could be useful as a novel whitening agent as it has shown moisturizing and whitening effects with low cytotoxicity. Ando et al. 40 evaluated the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on...

Indications

Even with recent improvement in DHA formulations, the color achieved remains dependent on skin type. Individuals of medium complexion with skin phototypes II or III 14 , as opposed to those who are lighter or darker, will obtain a more pleasing color. Individuals with underlying golden skin tones will achieve better results than individuals with rosy, sallow, or olive complexions. Older consumers with roughened, hyperkeratotic skin or mottled pigmentation with freckling may be less pleased with...

Conclusions

Sensitive skin represents a widespread condition of susceptibility to exogenous factors. The reason why some subjects react with subjective symptoms like itching, burning, stinging, prickling, or tingling is unclear. However, a correlation of increased reactivity in subjects with a history of dermatitis and the association of increased reactivity with skin type I has been reported. Noninvasive evaluation of sensitive skin may successfully predict individual susceptibility to cosmetic-related...

Additives

Soap manufacturers have developed a variety of formulation approaches to deliver products that better meet the consumer needs of today. Even though the base soap composition has not changed, consumer needs are met by the inclusion of various additives. As with any other product, the stability (physical and chemical state) of the soap-base-additive or even additive-additive mix must be considered during the formulation. There are a variety of additives that are formulated into soap bars to...

Hair Soiling and Soil Removal

In the course of its residence on the scalp, hair is exposed to a variety of events that contribute to its soiling. Among them are the innate processes of scalp desquamation, sweating, and sebum secretion, which are supplemented by deposition of extraneous substances arising either from environmental pollution (dust and other airborne contaminants) or from hair-grooming preparations, such as oils, waxes, hair spray, and mousse residues. Of all these, sebum, because of to its steady...

Soap Raw Materials Fats and Oils

The naturally occurring fats and oils used in soap making are glycerides with three fatty acid groups randomly esterified with glycerol (trihydroxy alcohol). The difference between fats and oils is merely one of their physical states fats are solids and oils are liquids. Fats and oils typically comprise both saturated and unsaturated fatty acid molecules containing between 7 and 21 carbons randomly distributed on the glycerol backbone. Overall, the reaction of caustic (lye) with triglycerides...

Ionic Surfactants Anionic Surfactants

In aqueous solution, anionic surfactants form a negatively charged ion provided the composition pH is neutral to alkaline. The ionized moiety can be a carboxylate, sulfate, sulfonate or phosphate. Among most frequently used surfactants in skin care products, the alkyl sulfates and alkyl ethoxylated sulfates can be mentioned for their high foaming capacity. Anionics are generally used in association with other surfactants (nonionics or amphoterics), which bring improvements in the skin...

Formulations Regular Soaps Combars And Syndets

Syndet Bar Formulations

Soap bars are formulated with a combination of longer carbon chain length fats (tallow, palm oil, palm stearin) and shorter carbon chain length oils (palm kernel oil, coconut oil). Common nomenclature for bar soaps is the ratio of the longer carbon chain length fat to the shorter carbon chain length oil. For example, a bar containing 80 tallow and 20 coconut oil as its soap base would be referred to as an ''80 20'' soap bar. Ratios used typically range from 90 10 to 60 40. The higher coco or...

Strontium Mechanism Of Action

Burning Strontium Nitrate

Simple salts of the element strontium can effectively suppress sensory irritation caused by chemically and biologically unrelated chemical irritants over a pH range of 0.6 to 12. Because strontium acts within seconds after application, it is likely that it is acting directly on the type-C chemical sensors that transmit stinging, burning, and itching. In animal studies, strontium salts have been reported to directly suppress neuronal depolarization 25,26 . In vivo, strontium is a divalent ion...

Categories Of Claims

However they are used (e.g., label, television, or magazine advertising), claims related to cosmetic products can be subdivided into several categories. Table 1 summarizes these categories and provides some examples for each. As previously explained, all claims are not applicable everywhere in the world for cosmetic products and can fall under different regulations in some places. Claims related to physical and chemical properties Claims related to the test procedure or to an endorsement...

Acute ICD

Acute ICD is caused by contact to a potent irritant. Substances that cause necrosis are called corrosive and include acids and alkaline solutions. Contact is often accidental at the workplace. Cosmetics are unlikely to cause this type of ICD because they do not contain primary irritants in sufficient concentrations. Symptoms and clinical signs of acute ICD develop with a short delay of minutes to hours after exposure, depending on the type of irritant, concentration, and intensity of contact....

Backing Film

The backing film is one of the three layers of a matrix patch. It is the layer that is apparent after the adhesion of the patch on the specific site of the skin. Its main role is to protect the adhesive layer from the influence of external factors it also provides such characteristics as flexibility, occlusivity, breathability, and printability. Several materials have been used as backing films. The selection of a specific film for use in a cosmetic patch may depend on the following factors...

Neurodermatitis

Neurodermatitis, also called atopic dermatitis, is a skin disease that may occur at a very early age. It can be identified by the so-called milk crust on the reddened, damp skin of the head and cheeks of the newborn. As the first indication of an outbreak of neurodermati-tis, the milk crust often provides the starting point for other skin disorders. The skin becomes cracked and transparent, and the permeability increases. Once the skin is damaged, the risk of infection is higher. The skin...

Definition of Cosmetics

Bailey, and Allen R. Halper Office of Cosmetics and Colors, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. Cosmetics are a category of consumer products marketed worldwide, the purpose and functions of which are universal to people of all cultures. The 1998 global cosmetics and toiletries market was valued at 125.7 billion 1 , including skincare, fragrance, haircare, personal hygiene, and makeup products. In...

Sensory Testing

Hill Top Research, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona Although most individuals don't realize it, they conduct sensory tests on a daily basis. Throughout the day, personal sensory assessments are made about the taste acceptability or liking for different foods for many different attributes. Individuals evaluate haircare products for various properties, not only while using the product but also for feel of the hair after shampooing. Every time a cosmetic product, moisturizer, or any other skincare...

Why Is Testing Being Done

Why is testing necessary Are you concerned with product appearance or do you want to determine if specific performance characteristics change over time The reasons for doing the tests will determine what kind of tests are required. Therefore it is critically important to approach this testing with a scientific mind set and to have a clearly defined hypothesis to be tested. Take, for example, the case of a skin lotion formula that develops an unpleasant odor. The reason for the test is to...

What Is Soap

Soap is generally defined as an alkali salt of a long-chain fatty acid. When a fat or oil is saponified, the sodium or potassium salt formed from the long-chain fatty acids is called a soap. The term ''soap'' refers to a group of neutralized long-chain carboxylic acids, which result from two primary ingredients an alkali and a triglyceride (fat or oil). The chain length of the aliphatic group is typically between 7 and 21 carbons with one carbox-ylate carbon, yielding a molecule containing 8 to...

Washing And Exaggerated Immersion Tests

The aim of these tests is to identify a subpopulation with an increased tendency to produce a skin response. In the washing test 27 , subjects are asked to wash their face with a specific soap or detergent. After washing, individual sensation for tightness, burning, itching, and stinging is evaluated using a point scale previously determined. The exaggerated immersion test is based on soaking the hands and forearms of the subjects in a solution of anionic surfactants (such as 0.35 paraffine...

Vitamins

Many vitamins, including vitamins A, C, D, and E, are vital in normal metabolic processes, and clinical skin changes resulting from their deficiencies were identified in many cases even in the 1800s. Some of these changes have been shown to be secondary to abnormal keratinization, altered differentiation, or impaired collagen synthesis. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to scientifically confirm cosmeceutical activity or utility of these vitamins under the conditions of normal nutritional...

Vitamin A

Vitamin A (Fig. 2) and its derivatives belong to a large class of structurally related compounds, the retinoids. The term vitamin A is generically used for all derivatives of 0-ionone that possess the biological activity of all-trans retinol or are closely related to it. The biological activities of the vitamin A derivatives are expressed in IU (international units.) One IU corresponds to 0.3 g retinol, 0.34 g vitamin A acetate, and 0.55 g vitamin A palmitate. Vitamin A is best known for its...

Vesicular Systemsliposomes And Niosomes Definition Description

Vesicular systems encompass a number of delivery technologies, including liposomes and niosomes. Both of these systems employ a ''vessel'' to contain active ingredients within a formula and to provide controlled delivery of these ingredients. Nacht defines controlled delivery as a ''system that would result in a predictable rate of delivery of its active ingredients to the skin'' 1 . Liposomes are a classic example of this technology, in which phospholipids are used to create lipid ''capsules''...

Vehicle Influence On Percutaneous Absorption

A cosmetic can be a single ingredient or a mixture of chemicals in a vehicle. The vehicle can have a great effect on skin absorption of the chemical(s). Lidocaine was applied to human skin in an in vitro absorption study. Figure 5 shows receptor fluid (circulating under the skin to collect absorbed lidocaine) accumulation with time. Initially the vehicle had a great influence on the partitioning of lidocaine into the skin. With time, the influence of the vehicle decreased and lidocaine...

Surfactants And Wetting Agents For Toilet Preparations And Detergents Mail

Monoesters disodium salts are the most common sulfosuccinates used in cosmetic applications. Monoesters of alkanolamines (sulfosuccinamates) are milder than monoesters of fatty alcohols (sulfosuccinates). Monoesters derived from ethoxylated alcohols or alkanolamides are extensively used in personal products and especially in shampoos they are known for their mildness and skin-irritation reduction when used in association with other anionic surfactants. Sulfo Fatty Acid Esters. These surfactants...

United Kingdom

Directive implemented June 1996, nonconform products accepted until January 1, 1999. Notification for manufacturing site and importation per categories perfumes, decorative cosmetics, skincare, haircare, and toiletries. Animal testing forbidden from 1998, but the delay will be regulated soon. Qualification Safety certificates must be signed by pharmacist or a physician holding a United Kingdom diploma. Poison Information Center via competent authorities Consumer Safety Unit, Department of Trade...

Types And Configuration

There are several ways to describe and categorize a cosmetic patch. It can be characterized from the patch form (e.g., matrix, reservoir), the application purpose and the expected result (e.g., moisturising, anti-wrinkle), the type of its structural materials (synthetic, natural, hybrid), the duration of application (e.g., overnight patch, half-hour patch). Cosmetic marketing is always more inventive in finding attractive terms to characterize a cosmetic product, but even scientifically there...

TIME hours

Figure 5 Release of BPO dispersed in vehicle ( ) abd BPO entrapped in porous microspheres and dispersed in vehicle ( ). Results are the average of two determinations. Formulations applied to silastic membrane. Receiving fluid 1 1 mixture of water and acetone. (From Ref. Cumulative 14-day irritancy scores in human volunteers are shown in Figure 6 and Table 1. In this study involving 29 patients, total irritaancy of four commercial products, three containing free BPO and one containing entrapped...

Thiol Antioxidants

Thiols share an oxidizable sulphhydryl (SH) group. Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide (Fig. 3) whose SH group at the cysteine can be oxidized, forming a disulphide (GSSG) with another GSH molecule. Physiologically, more than 90 of the GSH is in the reduced form. Glutathione peroxidases use GSH oxidation to reduce H2O2 and other water soluble peroxides. The synthesis of GSH by the human cell is stimulated by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), which is hydrolyzed to cysteine intracellularly. Moreover NAC...

The Normal Nail

Free University of Brussels and H pital Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium The nail plate, also abbreviated to ''nail,'' is a hard keratin plate, slightly convex in the longitudinal and transverse axes. It is set in the soft tissues of the dorsal digital extremity, from which it is separated by the periungual grooves (proximal, lateral, and distal) (Fig. 1) 1,2 . It stems from the nail matrix located in the proximal part of the nail apparatus. The nail plate and matrix are partly covered by a skin...

The Microscopic Structure of the Epidermis and Its Derivatives

University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California A general review of the microscopic structure of the epidermis and those epidermal derivatives that are distributed widely over the skin and, therefore, may be of interest in considerations of mechanisms of percutaneous absorption, will be presented here. Both light and electron microscopic information will be discussed in order to give an integrated brief summary of the basic morphological picture. The...

The Ideal Antisensory Antiirritant

The idea antisensory anti-irritant would effectively inhibit stinging, burning, and itching caused by a broad range of acidic, neutral, and basic chemical irritants by reducing the sensitivity of type-C nociceptors. In contrast, it would not inhibit the warning symptom of pain mediated by A-delta nerves, nor would it affect other nerve sensors that mediate tactile, temperature, or vibratory sensations. Since most cosmetic-induced sensory irritation occurs within several minutes after...

The Future Of Encapsulation

What can we expect from encapsulation in the future Trying to predict what the future will be is not easy. When one addresses future developments in the field of encapsulation, one has to realize that, at present time, application-oriented research is mainly focused to solve problems. If the number of published articles on encapsulation (liposomes, nanopar-ticles, microparticles, microemulsions, multiple emulsions, and nanoemulsions) under the heading of drug therapy is a reliable indicator of...

The Development Of Baby Skin

The development of skin usually begins 7 to 8 days after fertilization, during which an outer blastodermic layer, the ectoderm, is formed. During the embryonic phase of development, two layers evolve from the ectoderm, the underlying basal layer from which the uppermost skin layer the epidermis and the cutaneous appendages develop, along with the periderm, which faces the fetal cavity. When the epidermis is keratinized between week 22 and 24 of pregnancy, the periderm separates itself from most...

The Antioxidant Network

When an antioxidant reacts with an oxidant, it is converted to a form that no longer functions as an antioxidant, and is said to be consumed. In order for the oxidized product to function again, it needs to be recycled to its native form. The antioxidant network describes the ability of the antioxidants to recycle and regenerate oxidized forms of each other thereby providing extra levels of protection (Fig. 5). Thus the process is synergistic the net antioxidant protection is always greater...

Tests For Sensitive Skin

Recently, because no visible clinical signs of irritation are detected in sensitive skin, new methods of sensory testing have been increasingly used to provide definite information. QUANTITATION OF CUTANEOUS THERMAL SENSATION 2 The superficial skin layer includes sensory nerve fibers connected to specialized receptors such as corpuscles or naked nerve endings. A Beta fibers, myelinated (conduction velocity 2 of 2-30m sec), mediate the touch, vibration, and pressure sensation. A Delta fibers,...

Test Methods

Sufficiently large field studies proving the efficacy of BP products under real-life conditions are scarce. In fact, the only study that shows the efficacy of a product in this respect is a field study in kitchen workers and cleaners, which showed protective properties of the O W fatty cream previously mentioned 19 . The availability of reliable laboratory test methods is, therefore, essential, both for classification of products and for the development of new products. Suitable tests should...