Squamous-cell cancer (SCC) of the anal canal is an uncommon malignancy, with an annual incidence in the heterosexual population of one to two per 100,000. It occurs more frequently in women, with an increasing incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected individuals. The majority of patients present with locoregional disease, of these 20% to 30% will develop distant metastases. What constitutes the most appropriate therapy for anal cancer has undergone significant evolution over the past three decades.
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