Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 29, 30-31, 41 of the brain, in esophageal cancer evaluation, 234, 243 clinical applications of, 34 gadolinium-enhanced, 30 of gastrointestinal stromal tumors,

275, 275f, 276 limitations of, 30-31 of liver cancer, 198, 214-215 of liver masses, 35 of liver metastases, 168 Malignant carcinoid syndrome,

175-176 Mangafodipir trisodium, 35 Mast cell cancer, Kit receptor tyrosine kinase expression in, 285 Mayo Clinic/North Central Cancer

Treatment Group trial, 143, 144, 145f

Mediastinal masses, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of, 54-55

Meglumine diatrizoate, 319 Melanoma anal, 250

Kit receptor tyrosine kinase expression in, 285 Mesenchymal tumors, gastrointestinal, 15,17f, 272 gastrointestinal stromal tumors as, 272, 279-280

Metal coils, use in portal vein embolization, 206 Metastases. See also under specific types of cancer gastrointestinal stromal tumor-

related, 272-273, 282 lymph node, anal cancer-related,

248, 249/ pelvic palliative treatment of, 301-305 symptoms of, 301-303 peritoneal, 223

gastric cancer-related, 221 prevalence of, 299 Metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary origin, 18 Methotrexate, as advanced gastric cancer treatment, 225-226 Methylcellulose (Citrucel), 321-322 Metoclopramide, 343 Microsatellite instability, 14-15 colorectal cancer-associated, 19-20,

21-22, 23 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-associated, 139,139/ Microspheres, use in portal vein embolization, 206 Milk, as bowel gas cause, 332, 333 Mineral oil, as constipation treatment, 328, 329

Minnesota Colon Cancer Control

Study, 140 Mismatch repair gene abnormalities, colorectal cancer-associated, 22, 23/, 139 Mitomycin C as advanced gastric cancer treatment, 225 as anal cancer treatment, 253, 254-255f, 256, 258 in HIV-positive patients, 258 side effects management in, 264, 266

coadministration with iodized oil, 217

as gastrointestinal stromal tumor treatment, 290 as hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, 216

Mitoxantrone, 289 MOSAIC study, 125-126,127 Mucosal resection, as Barrett's esophagus treatment, 363-365 Mucositis, chemotherapy-related, 158

Muir-Torre syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-associated, 105 Myofibroblastic tumors, differentiated from gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 279-280

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