Instant Natural Colic Relief
Acute appendicitis (and its complications) is among the most common surgical emergencies encountered. Classically it presents initially with vague, colicky central abdominal (periumbilical) pain which is associated with vomiting and anorexia. When the inflammation becomes transmural a localised peritonitis is illicited and the pain becomes sharp in nature, localised in the right iliac fossa and associated with pyrexia. Palpation reveals signs of localised peritonitis in the vicinity of McBurney's point.
A 1 5-day open study Involving 24 subjects with chronic non-specific colitis Investigated whether a combination of lemon balm, St John's wort, dandelion, marigold and fennel could provide symptom relief (Chakurskl et al 1981). Excellent results were obtained by the end of the study, with herbal treatment resulting In the disappearance of spontaneous and palpable pains along the large Intestine In 95.83 of patients. A double-blind study using a herbal tea prepared from chamomile, lemon balm, vervain, licorice and fennel In Infantile colic has also been conducted. A dose of 150 ml_ offered up to three times dally was found to eliminate symptoms of colic In 57 of Infants, whereas placebo was helpful In only 26 after 7 days' treatment (Welzman et al 1993).
Fortner first presented extended lymphadenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma as a technique in 1973 (23). The regional pancreatectomy included a radical pancreaticoduodenectomy including the transpancreatic portion of the portal vein. The celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and the middle colic artery occasionally were included with the specimen and reconstructed. Extended lymphadenectomy has differed in many of the studies. Additional lymph nodes in regions not usually part of a pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen have included para-aortic nodes from the diaphragmatic hiatus to the inferior mesenteric artery laterally to the renal hila, hepatic hilum, and celiac and superior mesenteric arterial nodal regions (23-25). The goal is to remove all disease, including any lymph node metastases. This was supported by several Japanese studies that claimed a survival advantage for those patients undergoing a more aggressive surgical resection (26-30). The conclusion drawn from these...
Figure 8-1. (A) The major branches of the abdominal aorta. The abdominal vasculature has a fairly robust collateral circulation. Any blockage (X) between the superior mesenteric artery (SM at vertebral level L1) and inferior mesenteric artery (IM at vertebral level L3) causes blood to be diverted along either or both of two routes of collateral circulation. The first route uses the middle colic artery, which is a branch of the SM artery, which anastomoses with the left colic artery, a branch of the IM artery. The second route uses the marginal artery. CH common hepatic artery CI common iliac artery CT celiac trunk G gonadal artery LG left gastric artery RA renal artery S splenic artery. T12, L1, and L3 indicate the vertebral levels of the various branches. (B) Arteriogram showing other arteries in the vicinity. 1 catheter in aorta 2 catheter in celiac trunk 3 splenic artery 4 left gastric artery 5 common hepatic artery 6 hepatic artery proper 7 left hepatic artery 8 right hepatic...
Colorectal cancers may also result in intestinal obstruction necessitating stent placement to maintain the integrity of the visceral lumen. Occasionally a diverting colostomy will be required to bypass intestinal obstruction or fistula formation. If these procedures are not performed, intestinal colic can be palliated quickly with opioids. Opioids must be used carefully because they may worsen a partial bowel obstruction owing to their constipating effect. Anticholinergics like scopolamine, atropine, and loperamide also decrease peristalsis in the smooth muscle of the intestinal tract.
History of the Present Illness Duration of pain, pattern of progression exact location at onset and at present diffuse or localized location and character at onset and at present (burning, crampy, sharp, dull) constant or intermittent ( colicky ) radiation of pain (to shoulder, back, groin) sudden or gradual onset.
Ginger exerts several effects in the gastrointestinal tract. It stimulates the flow of saliva, bile and gastric secretions (Platel & Srinivasan 1996, 2001, Yamahara et al 1985) and has been shown to increase gastrointestinal motility without affecting gastric emptying in several animal models and human studies (Gupta & Sharma 2001, Micklefield et al 1999, Phillips et al 1993). Ginger has also been observed to have prokinetic activity in mice in vivo and antispasmodic activity in vitro (Ghayur & Gilani 2005) These findings appear to support the traditional use of ginger in the treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort, colic, diarrhoea and bloating and its use as a carminative agent.
History of the Present Illness Vomiting (bilious, feculent, bloody), nausea, obstipation, distention, crampy abdominal pain. Initially crampy or colicky pain with exacerbations every 5-10 minutes. Pain becomes diffuse with fever. Hernias, previous abdominal surgery, use of opiates, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, gallstones colon cancer history of constipation, recent weight loss.
Renal stones nephrolithiasis affects 2-10 of the population and symptoms (renal colic) arise as these calculi become impacted within the ureter as they pass toward the urinary bladder. Types of renal calculi include calcium stones (75 ), magnesium ammonium phosphate stones (15 ) and cystine stones (2 ). Plain abdominal film may diagnose and locate the stone. Treatments include extracorporeal lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostomy, open nephrostomy and, less commonly, nephrectomy (chronic pain, large staghorn calculi, poorly functioning).
Renal problems occur particularly on indinavir treatment, and are caused by indina-vir crystals, which may be found in the urine of up to 20 of patients. Approximately 10 of patients develop nephrolithiasis, which is not visible on X-ray, accompanied by renal colic. Nephrolithiasis is primarily caused by high indinavir levels in relation to a low body mass index (Meraviglia 2002), drug interactions and individual fluctuations of the drug plasma level. In one study, the intake of indina-vir ritonavir 800 100 mg with a light meal reduced the indinavir nephrotoxic maximum plasma concentration, probably reflecting a food-induced delay in the absorption of indinavir (Aarnoutse 2003). More than 20 of patients have persistent asymptomatic leukocyturia associated with a gradual loss of renal function without urological symptoms (Dielemann 2003). However, renal failure is rare (Kopp 2002). Symptoms of acute colic include back pain and flank pain as well as lower abdominal pain, which may...
Cinnamon has been traditionally used by ancient healers from many backgrounds for stomach cramps, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, infant colic, common infections and also female reproductive problems such as dysmenorrhoea, menor-rhagia, lactation, and pain in childbirth. It has also been used as an ingredient in topical preparations for pain and inflammation. Cinnamon is often used in combination with other herbs and spices for most of these indications. In TCM it is considered to warm the kidneys and fortify yang, so is used for impotence among other indications.
Historical note Echinacea was first used by Native American Sioux Indians centuries ago as a treatment for snakebite, colic, infection and external wounds, among other things. It was introduced into standard medical practice in the USA during the 1 800s as a popular anti-infective medication, which was prescribed by eclectic and traditional doctors until the 20th century. Remaining on the national list of official plant drugs in the USA until the 1 940s, it was produced by pharmaceutical companies during this period. With the arrival of antibiotics, echinacea fell out of favour and was no longer considered a 'real' medicine for infection. Its use has re-emerged, probably because we are now in a better position to understand the limitations of antibiotic therapy and because there is growing public interest in self-care. The dozens of clinical trials conducted overseas have also played a role in its renaissance.
History of the Present Illness Quantity of RBCs found on urinalysis. Repeat testing. Color, timing, pattern of hematuria Initial hematuria (anterior urethral lesion) terminal hematuria (bladder neck or prostate lesion) hematuria throughout voiding (bladder or upper urinary tract). Frequency, dysuria, suprapubic pain, flank pain (renal colic), perineal pain fever. Recent exercise, menstruation bleeding between voidings.
Most patients present late in the course of their disease. In fact, 75 of patients present with the cancer beyond the borders of resection (134). Two-thirds of the patients present with abdominal pain biliary colic. Approximately one-third will present with jaundice and 10 will have significant weight loss (135). The majority of gallbladder cancers will be associated with cholelithiasis. The diagnosis is usually made for early-stage cancers upon pathologic examination of a cholecystectomy specimen resected under the pretense of a benign condition. Preoperative diagnosis should be suspected for any mass or irregularity of the gallbladder wall noted on radiologic exam (CT or ultrasound). In any patient suspected of having a gallbladder malignancy, a duplex ultrasound exam should be performed to evaluate the extent of disease and possible involvement of the portal vasculature. In addition, abdominal cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) should be performed to evaluate for nodal disease or...
Olivia Stone (45) has been referred by her general practitioner for investigation of recurrent left-sided renal colic. The colicky pain radiates into the left groin. The GP already suspected renal calculi, but they have not been treated successfully. Initially an intravenous urogram was requested, but after discussion with a friendly older colleague it was decided to perform a CT scan for diagnosis of calculi. Paul stares spellbound at the unenhanced thin CT sections appearing one after the other on the monitor. He knows that most renal calculi can be demonstrated on ultrasound scan (Fig. 10.18a). But on CT they are as in the case of Mrs. Stone even more likely to be detected in the
Trichinosis is a zoonotic infection associated with the colonization of worms in muscles. It is often found in humans because of the consumption of uncooked or insufficiently cooked pork products (though other animals are also potential sources). Trichinella is the third most common worm that infects humans. They cause nausea, dysentery, puffy eyes, and colic. They also cause pain and more severe problems such as edema, cardiac and pulmonary problems, deafness, delirium, muscle pain, muted reflexes, nervous disorders, and pneumonia. Their natural hosts are flesh-eating animals, especially humans, pigs, rats, and other mammals. Humans are considered accidental hosts because, under normal conditions, the parasite ends its cycle that is, no other animals eat humans in order to transfer their larvae to other hosts. But concern for trichinosis is not as great today with improved pork production practices. Still, an estimated 5-6 million human infections are present at any one time in North...
Intussusception is the diagnosis that should be foremost in one's mind with a child aged between 3 months and 2 years presenting with sudden onset of severe colicky abdominal pain, coming at intervals of about 15 minutes and lasting 2-3 minutes. Early diagnosis, within 24 hours of the onset, is essential, for after this time there is a significant rise in morbidity and mortality. It is due to telescoping of the segment of bowel into the adjoining distal segment, e.g. ileocaecal segment, resulting in intestinal obstruction. pale child severe 'colic' vomiting Impacted faeces can lead to spasms of colicky abdominal pain usually an older child with a history of constipation.
History of the Present Illness Biliary colic (constant right upper quadrant pain, 30-90 minutes after meals, lasting several hours). Radiation to epigastrium, scapula or back nausea, vomiting, anorexia, low-grade fever fatty food intolerance, dark urine, clay colored stools bloating, jaundice, early satiety, flatulence, obesity.
Therapeutic Uses and Folklore Egyptians and Greeks brewed dill seed into a magic potion used against witchcraft. They also used it for treating hiccups and many ailments. Asian Indians use dill seed to relieve stomach pains and hiccups because of its soothing effect on the digestive system. It is an important ingredient in a tonic that is given to babies in England, India, and Southeast Asia to relieve colic pains. Chewing on the seeds clears halitosis, stimulates appetite, and induces sleep.
Sometimes mislabeled as lovage seeds, ajowan, also referred to as royal cumin, Ethiopian cumin, Egyptian black caraway, or caraway. In India, similar names are given to ajowan, nigella and celery. Ajowan is an essential ingredient in a Bengali seasoning called panchphoron. Omam water, an infusion of ajowan seeds, has been used since ancient times in India for stomach pains, colic, diarrhea, and other disorders. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore ajowan is highly valued in India as a gastrointestinal medicine and an antiseptic. It is combined with salt and hot water and taken after meals to relieve pain in bowel or colic pain, and to improve indigestion. Ajowan was also a traditional remedy for cholera and fainting spells. Westerners generally use it against coughs and throat issues. Ajowan is an ingredient in mouthwashes and toothpastes because of its antiseptic properties.
Therapeutic Uses and Folklore Indians chew cardamom pods to sweeten and clean their breaths after meals and also after dinner to help settle their stomachs and aid in digestion. Cardamom also prevents nausea and vomiting. It soothes colicky babies, induces sweating, and cools the body during summer months. Arabs traditionally used cardamom as an aphrodisiac. In Scandinavia, it is used to mask the smell of alcohol, fish, and garlic.
Soy has been used as an alternative for cow's milk in infant feeding for more than 30 years and may account for as much as 25 of infant formula (Mendez et al 2002). Soy formula is commonly used for infants with cow's milk allergy and there is evidence to suggest that soy milk may be effective in reducing infant colic (Garrison & Christakis 2000). There are few studies, however, examining the effects of phyto-oestrogens in infants. Although infants consuming soy formula may be exposed to 6-11 mg kg day of phyto-oestrogens and have plasma levels of isoflavones an order of magnitude higher than adults consuming soy foods (Setchell & Cassidy 1999), there is no obvious evidence to suggest any negative effects (Mendez et al 2002, Setchell & Cassidy 1999).
In Europe, caraway was chewed after a starchy meal to help digestion. Simmered with milk and honey, caraway was a remedy for colic. It has also been used as a sedative, to relieve uterine and intestinal cramps, and to help calm a queasy stomach after taking medicines that cause nausea.
A larger study that involved 30 women who were taking St. John's wort and breastfeeding compared results to women who were not taking St. John's wort. There were no differences in maternal events, including duration of breastfeeding, decreased lactation, or maternal demographics. Women taking St. John's wort did report a significantly higher level of infant side effects, such as lethargy and colic, vs one case of infant colic in 97 women not taking St. John's wort. None of these infants required medical attention (94).
Site number size number involved limit node extracapsular spread. Regional nodes pericolic, perirectal, those located along the ileocolic, colic, inferior mesenteric, superior rectal and internal iliac arteries. A regional lymphadenectomy will ordinarily include a minimum of 12 lymph nodes. Lymph node yield varies greatly even after careful dissection. It is related to variation in individual anatomy, site (mesorectum yields few nodes), the extent of resection performed, and history of pre-operative adjuvant therapy. External iliac, common iliac and superior mesenteric artery nodes are distant metastases.
An uncontrolled study of 553 patients with non-specific digestive disorders (dyspeptic discomforts, functional biliary colic, and severe constipation) experienced a significant reduction of symptoms after 6 weeks of treatment with artichoke extract. Symptoms improved by an average of 70.5 , with strongest effects on vomiting (88.3 ), nausea (82.4 ), abdominal pain (76.2 ), loss of appetite (72.3 ), constipation (71.0 ), flatulence (68.2 ), and fat intolerance (58.8 ). In 85 of patients the global therapeutic efficacy of artichoke extract was judged by the physicians as excellent or good. (Fintelmann 1996).
This is the case of a 43 year old Hispanic woman with more than a 20 years history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. She developed nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy secondary to her diabetes, and was legally blind and wheelchair bound. She was brought to the hospital after 24 hours of localized colic-type epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting of coffee-ground material. Her medications before admission included NPH insulin, furosemide and atenolol.
Historical note Damiana is a wild deciduous shrub found in the arid and semiarid regions of South America, Mexico, United States and West Indies. It is believed that Mayan Indians used damiana to prevent giddiness, falling and loss of balance, and as an aphrodisiac. It has also been used during childbirth, and to treat colic, stop bed wetting and bring on suppressed menses. Today its leaves are used for flavouring in food and beverages, and infusions and other preparations are used for a variety of medicinal purposes.
Therapeutic Uses and Folklore traditionally, Europeans used anise to treat epilepsy and to ward off evil. The Aztecs drank tea made from its flowers and leaves to relieve coughing and to dispel gas. Anise aids digestion, improves appetite, alleviates cramps and nausea, and soothes colic in infants. Anise is commonly used in lozenges and cough syrups because it is a mild expectorant. It also soothes insect bites and is chewed to induce sleep. In India, anise seeds are served after meals to aid digestion and sweeten breath.
The pain patterns are presented in Figure 30.3 . Colicky pain is a rhythmic pain with regular spasms of recurring pain building to a climax and fading. It is virtually pathognomonic of intestinal obstruction. Ureteric colic is a true colicky abdominal pain, but so-called biliary colic and renal colic are not true colics at all. ureteric colic iHiary JcoliC intestinal colic ureteric colic iHiary JcoliC intestinal colic Fig. 30.3 Characteristic pain patterns for various causes of 'colicky' acute abdominal pain
History of the Present Illness Severe, colicky, intermittent,, lower abdominal pain flank pain, hematuria, fever, dysuria prior history of renal stones. Abdominal pain may radiate laterally around abdomen to groin, testicles or labia. History of low fluid intake, urinary tract infection, parenteral nutrition. Excessive calcium administration, immobilization, furosemide.
Historical note Chamomiles have been used as medicines since antiquity and traditionally grouped in botanical texts under the same general heading. They were probably used interchangeably. Roman chamomile was reportedly used to embalm the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramses II, and is thought to have been introduced into Britain bythe Romans during their conquests. The Anglo-Saxons used chamomile, presumably the Roman chamomile, as one of their nine sacred herbs. Culpeper lists numerous ailments for which chamomile was used, such as jaundice, fevers, kidney stones, colic, retention of urine and inflammation of the bowel (Culpeper 1 995). It was also widely used to treat common conditions in children including colic in infants, teething pains and fever (Grieve 1976). It is used in the treatment of gout and to reduce the severity of sciatic pain, either taken internally or applied as a poultice externally (Culpeper 1995). Today, chamomile tea is one of the most popular herbal teas in Australia and...
Everything You Need To Know About Baby Sleeping. Your baby is going to be sleeping a lot. During the first few months, your baby will sleep for most of theday. You may not get any real interaction, or reactions other than sleep and crying.