Impact On Health Services

In the health service, individuals with difficulties encompassed by the DSM-IV Cluster B categories make the heaviest demands on services - often presenting in crisis. A few recent studies have attempted to quantify these demands (Seivewright et al., 1991; Saarento et al., 1997). Smith et al. (1995) calculated that the cost to the NHS of treating individuals with personality disorders was £61.3 million in 1986. Much of the discussion about the cost of treating personality disorder has focussed, quite reasonably, on secondary and tertiary services. However Rendu and colleagues recently investigated the economic impact of personality disorders in UK primary care attenders in a prospective study that recruited from four general practices in London (Rendu et al., 2002). Personality disorders were not independently associated with increased health or non-health costs (lost productivity costs due to illness or unemployment) in this sample but non-health service costs were significantly associated with an interaction between personality disorder and psychological morbidity assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1972). This finding highlights the importance of considering the economic impact of personality disorder in the broadest terms (encompassing primary, secondary and tertiary care in the health service and both health service and non-health service costs) and underlines the contribution of comorbid conditions to the impairment of those with personality disorders (see below).

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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