Aversion Therapy

Aversion therapy includes a variety of specific techniques based on both classical and operant conditioning paradigms. Aversion therapy used to be widely employed in the treatment of alcohol abuse/ dependence, but is currently more of historical interest. With aversive conditioning in alcohol-dependent subjects a noxious stimulus (UCS) is paired with actual drinking (CS) or with visual or olfactory cues related to drinking, with the aim of establishing a conditioned aversion for drinking. A variety of aversive stimuli have been used, the most popular of which were electric shocks and nausea- or apnea-inducing substances. Covert sensitization is a variant of aversive conditioning wherein images (for example of drinking situations or of deviant sexual stimuli) are paired with imaginal aversive stimuli (for example a scene in which the patient vomits all over himself). It is called 'covert' because neither the undesirable stimulus nor the aversive stimulus is actually presented, except in the imagination. 'Sensitization' refers to the intention to build up an avoidance response to the undesirable stimulus. Aversion therapy has been ethically controversial and research has not supported its efficacy (Emmelkamp & Kamphuis 2002).

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

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