Are Eye Movements Necessary

Rosen et al. (1998) cite Lohr, Tolin & Kleinknecht (1998) that eye movements add nothing to treatment outcome. However, three out of five studies drawn on by Lohr et al. for their conclusions actually provide some support for the role of eye movements in EMDR in the reduction of reports of symptoms (Lohr, Kleinknecht & Tolin, 1995; Lohr, Tolin & Kleinknecht, 1996; Montgomery & Ayllon, 1994). For example, Lohr, Kleinknecht & Tolin (1995): 'Only when the eye movement was added, was there a substantial reduction of SUD ratings.' Montgomery and Ayllon (1994) concluded from their study that: 'The addition of saccadic eye movements to the treatment package resulted in the significant decreases in self reports of distress previously addressed.'

As noted in multiple reviews, such as Chemtob et al. (2000), Feske (1998), Spector & Read (1999), the results concerning the importance of eye movements in EMDR are inconclusive. However, of particular interest in this debate are the results of independent researchers (Andrade, Kavanagh & Baddely, 1997) (a study now replicated by Van den Hout et al. (2001), and Kavanagh et al. (2001)), showing that eye movements significantly reduce the vividness of emotive and traumatic imagery. Studies by Kuiken et al. (2002) indicating that eye moments facilitate attentional orienting, and studies by Christman et al. (2003) indicating that eye moments enhance the retrieval of episodic memory, are highly relevant to the eye movement debate.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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