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Dementia of the Alzheimer type: Alzheimer dementia is the most frequent of the dementias. Morphologically it is characterized by global brain atrophy—that is, irreversible shrinkage of the brain and resulting dilatation of the inner and outer CSF spaces (Fig. 11.42a).

Pick disease: This entity is also associated with dementia and is caused by a pronounced atrophy of the frontal brain (Fig. 11.42b).

Binswanger disease: This form of a dementia is caused by a subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE or Binswanger encephalopathy; Fig. 11.42c), which tends to develop on the basis of chronic arterial hypertension. Characteristic findings on CT and MRI include degenerative changes in the periventricular white matter and lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia. Often there is associated ex vacuo dilatation of the ventricles.

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