Renal Calculi

Path of the Stone

Olivia Stone (45) has been referred by her general practitioner for investigation of recurrent left-sided renal colic. The colicky pain radiates into the left groin. The GP already suspected renal calculi, but they have not been treated successfully. Initially an intravenous urogram was requested, but after discussion with a friendly older colleague it was decided to perform a CT scan for diagnosis of calculi. Paul stares spellbound at the unenhanced thin CT sections appearing one after the other on the monitor. He knows that most renal calculi can be demonstrated on ultrasound scan (Fig. 10.18a). But on CT they are—as in the case of Mrs. Stone—even more likely to be detected in the

I Renal Calculi

Fig. 10.18 On US (a) renal calculi are strongly echogenic structures (arrow) with posterior shadowing. On CT they are very dense and are demonstrated in the renal pelvis (b, arrow) as well as in the ureter (c, arrow) and down to the ureterovesicular junction (d, arrow). The structures with high density anteriorly are vessels enhanced by contrast.

Baby Sleeping

Baby Sleeping

Everything You Need To Know About Baby Sleeping. Your baby is going to be sleeping a lot. During the first few months, your baby will sleep for most of theday. You may not get any real interaction, or reactions other than sleep and crying.

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