Radiology

A. Radiograph of the stomach and small intestine after a barium meal (Figure 9-7)

B. Anteroposterior radiograph of the large intestine after a barium enema (Figure

C. Ultrasonography and hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan of gallstones (Figure 9-9)

Cross Sacral Spine

AB: Abdominal aorta AG: Adrenal gland AZ: Azygous vein BS: Body of stomach C: Sacral spinal cord CA: Celiac artery

CPR: Posterior costophrenic recess

Dl: Diaphragm

DM: Dura mater

EO: External abdominal oblique

EQ: Cauda equina

ES: Erector spinae

FL: Falciform ligament

HA: Common hepatic artery

IM: Intercostal muscles

IVC: Inferior vena cava

K: Kidney

LA: Linea alba

LC: Left crus of diaphragm

LD: Latissimus dorsi LL: Left lobe of liver OF: Oblique fissure PAP: Parietal peritoneum PEC: Peritoneal cavity PM: Psoas major PV: Portal vein QL: Quadratus lumborum R8-10: Ribs 8-10 RAB: Rectus abdominis RC: Right crus of diaphragm RL: Right lobe of liver SA: Serratus anterior

SAS: Subarachnoid space (lumbar cistern) SP: Spleen

TA: Transversus abdominis TC: Transverse colon TV 12: Body of thoracic vertebra 12 VP: Visceral peritoneum

Figure 9-4. Cross-section and CT scan at approximately vertebral level T12, where the portal triad is located. (A) Schematic diagram showing where the cross-section was taken. (B) Cross-section through a cadaver. (C) CT scan. Note the various structures indicated by the key. In addition, note the psoas major and quadratus lumborum muscles along the sides of the vertebral body. The right and left lobes of the liver are shown in relation to the portal vein, common hepatic artery, and inferior vena cava. The right adrenal gland lies posterolateral to the inferior vena cava. The left adrenal gland lies between the body of the stomach and the abdominal aorta. (Reprinted with permission from Barrett CP, Anderson LD, Holder LE, et al: Primer of Sectional Anatomy With MR! and CT Correlation, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, pp 75, 76.)

Kidneys Relation Abdominal Cavity

AB: Abdominal aorta

AG: Adrenal gland

BS: Body of stomach

D1 : First part of duodenum

D2: Second part of duodenum

D4: Fourth part of duodenum

EO: External abdominal oblique

EQ: Cauda equina

ES: Erector spinae

FL: Falciform ligament

FT: Fat

GB: Gallbladder

IO: Internal abdominal oblique

IVC: Inferior vena cava

J: Jejunum

K: Kidney

LA: Linea alba

LC: Left crus of diaphragm

LD: Latissimus dorsi

LL: Left lobe of liver

LV2: Body of lumbar vertebra 2

P1: Head of pancreas

P2: Body of pancreas P3: Tail of pancreas PA: Antrum of stomach PEC: Peritoneal cavity PF: Perirenal fat PM: Psoas major PV: Portal vein QL: Quadratus lumborum R10: Rib 10 RA: Renal artery RAB: Rectus abdominis RC: Right crus of diaphragm RL: Right lobe of liver RV: Renal vein

SMA: Superior mesenteric artery SMV: Superior mesenteric vein SP: Spleen

TA: Transversus abdominis TC: Transverse colon TZ: Ligament of Treitz UP: Uncinate process of pancreas

Figure 9-5. Cross-section and CT scan at the level of the gallbladder. (A) Schematic diagram showing where the cross-section was taken. (B) Cross-section through a cadaver. (C) CT scan. Note the various structures as indicated by the key. The second part of the duodenum is adjacent to the head of the pancreas. The body of the pancreas extends to the left, posterior to the stomach. The tail of the pancreas reaches the spleen. The uncinate process of the pancreas lies posterior to the superior mesenteric artery. The gallbladder lies between the right and left lobes of the liver just to the right of the antrum of the stomach. Note the location of the adrenal gland (AG). A large mass in this area indicates a pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma, both of which are associated with the adrenal medulla. (Reprinted with permission from Barrett CP, Anderson LD, Holder LE, et al: Primer of Sectional Anatomy With MRI and CT Correlation, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, pp 79, 80.)

Antrum Stomach Scan

AB: Abdominal aorta

AC: Ascending colon

BS: Body of stomach

CX: Renal calyx (minor)

D2: Second part of duodenum

DC: Descending colon

EO: External abdominal oblique

EQ: Cauda equina

ES: Erector Spinae

IO: Internal abdominal oblique

I VC: Inferior vena cava

J: Jejunum

K: Kidney

LA: Linea alba

LD: Latissimus dorsi

LV2: Body of lumbar vertebra 2

P1: Head of pancreas

P2: Body of pancreas PA: Antrum of stomach PEC: Peritoneal cavity PF: Perirenal fat PM: Psoas major QL: Quadratus lumborum RA: Renal artery RAB: Rectus abdominis RL: Right lobe of liver RP: Renal pelvis RPL: Renal papilla RV: Renal vein

SMA: Superior mesenteric artery SMV: Superior mesenteric vein SP: Spleen (lower tip) TA: Transversus abdominis TC: Transverse colon

4 Figure 9-6. Cross-section and CT scan at the level of the hilum of the kidney. (A) Schematic diagram showing where the cross-section was taken. (B) Cross-section through a cadaver. (C) CT scan. Note the various structures as indicated by the key. The inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta lie side by side as both vessels pass posterior to the pancreas. The second part of the duodenum contacts the right kidney and the right lobe of the liver. The left renal vein lies anterior to the renal artery. (Reprinted with permission from Barrett CP, Anderson LD, Holder LE, et al: Primer of Sectional Anatomy With MRI and CT Correlation, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, pp81, 82.)

Transverse Colon Vertebral Level

1. Hepatic flexure of colon

2. Transverse colon

3. Ascending colon

4. Cecum

5. Splenic flexure of colon

6. Descending colon

7. Haustra

8. Peristaltic contraction

9. Semilunar folds

10. Peristaltic contraction

11. Sigmoid colon

Barium Meal

Figure 9-7. Radiograph of the stomach and small intestines after a barium meal. Note the structures indicated: 1 = body of the stomach; 2 = pylorus; 3 = duodenal cap; 4 = descending duodenum; 5 = jejunum on the left side of the abdomen; 6 = ileum on the right side of the abdomen; 7= vertebra L3. (Reprinted with permission from Pansky B: Review of Gross Anatomy, 6th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996, p 415.)

Figure 9-7. Radiograph of the stomach and small intestines after a barium meal. Note the structures indicated: 1 = body of the stomach; 2 = pylorus; 3 = duodenal cap; 4 = descending duodenum; 5 = jejunum on the left side of the abdomen; 6 = ileum on the right side of the abdomen; 7= vertebra L3. (Reprinted with permission from Pansky B: Review of Gross Anatomy, 6th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996, p 415.)

1. Hepatic flexure of colon

2. Transverse colon

3. Ascending colon

4. Cecum

5. Splenic flexure of colon

6. Descending colon

7. Haustra

8. Peristaltic contraction

9. Semilunar folds

10. Peristaltic contraction

11. Sigmoid colon

Figure 9-8. Radiograph of the large intestine after a barium enema. Note the structures indicated in the key. (Reprinted with permission from Fleckenstein P, Tranum-Jensen J: Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1996, p 267.)

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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