B

Superficial dorsal vein i

Deep dorsal vein ! Dorsal artery j Dorsal nerve i

Septum penis-Deep artery of penis —

Superficial dorsal vein i

Deep dorsal vein ! Dorsal artery j Dorsal nerve i

Human Penis Deformities

Urethra

-Skin

—Superficial fascia

— Corpus cavernosum

— Corpus spongiosum

Urethra c. Varicocele is abnormal dilation of the pampiniform plexus and testicular vein. It usually causes a palpable "bag of worms" scrotal swelling. It is most common on the left side (90%), where it is caused by compression of the left testicular vein by the sigmoid colon. Varicocele often is associated with infertility.

d. Torsion is rotation of the testes around the spermatic cord, usually toward the penis (i.e., medially). The incidence is increased when the testes are positioned horizontally and the tunica vaginalis is attached high on the spermatic cord ("bell clapper deformity"). Testicular torsion is a medical emergency because compression of the testicular vessels causes ischemic necrosis within 6 hours.

2. Cancers a. Testicular lymphoma occurs when a malignant lymphoma metastasizes to the testes. It presents as a testicular mass. Testicular lymphoma is the most common form of testicular cancer in men older than 60 years of age.

b. Yolk sac tumor is the most common form of testicular cancer in infants and boys up to 3 years of age. It is associated with elevated a-fetoprotein levels.

c. Seminoma is the most common type of germ cell neoplasm in men 20—40 years of age; about 90% of all testicular cancers arise from germ cells. It causes either a painless testicular mass, usually on the right side, or diffuse nodularity throughout the testis. It is associated with elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels.

d. Testicular teratocarcinoma is a germ cell neoplasm. In its early histologic stages, it may resemble a blastocyst with three primary germ layers and may be loosely referred to as "male pregnancy." The tumor comprises well-differentiated cells and structures from each of the primary germ layers: colon glandular tissue (endoderm), cartilage (mesoderm), and squamous epithelium (ectoderm).

II. EPIDIDYMIS is a highly coiled duct that consists of a head, body, and tail. Sperm maturation and storage occur in the head and body of the epididymis. The tail is continuous with the ductus deferens.

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Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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