Cichlid Care Guidelines

Cichlid Fish Secrets

There is an amazing, brand new ebook called Cichlid Fish Secrets. It covers everything you could possibly need to know about keeping healthy, happy cichlids, and breeding them as well. Here is just a preview of what you'll learn in this book: What size tank you should have when keeping cichlids. What filter you should use in your tank. How to properly cycle your aquarium. How to properly manage pH levels. The water temperature you need to maintain. The correct way to perform a water change. How to clean the glass of your fish tank. How to be an expert water tester. The Best rocks and wood you Need to be using. The right ways to prepare your rocks & wood for your tank. The only way to have live plants in an African Cichlid tank. How to choose the right cichlids. What to feed your cichlids & how often to feed them. The expert ways to breed your cichlids. How to diagnose, treat, and cure the most dangerous fish diseases.

Cichlid Fish Secrets Summary


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Contents: Ebook
Author: Mike Logan
Price: $27.77

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Highly Recommended

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Definition of the Process of Macroevolution

It is not useful to distinguish sharply between microevolution and macroevolution, as I will show in this volume. The taxonomic rank marking any dichotomy between microevolution and macroevolution would depend on the kind of transition being studied. Our impression of major degrees of evolutionary change is inherently qualitative and not fixed at any taxonomic rank across all major taxonomic groups. This is apparent when we consider transitions whose importance may rely on many characters, or just one. For the cichlid fishes, a synarthrosis between the lower pharyngeal jaws, a shift of insertion of the fourth levator externus muscles, and the development of synovial joints between the upper pharyngeal jaws and the basicranium may be necessary (but not sufficient) for the morphological diversification of species with differing food collection devices (Liem 1973). On the other hand, the evolution of the mammals involved a large number of integrated physiological and morphological...

Physical characteristics

Surfperches are relatively deep bodied, laterally compressed fishes with an undivided series of lateral line scales. They achieve lengths of 17.5 in (45 cm). All surfperches have cycloid scales, a deeply forked caudal fin, and three anal fin spines. Most species have scales extending onto the dorsal fin. Although many species are uniformly silvery, others have blue, black, or reddish stripes and bars. Cichlids are more variable, presenting both cycloid and ctenoid scales, a divided lateral line scale series (except in the African riverine genera Teleogramma and Gobiocichla), numerous fin shapes and lengths (the smallest species is 1 in 2.5 cm , while the largest is 36 in 91.4 cm ), and anywhere from three to 15 anal fin spines. Cichlids are also unusual in that they have only a single nostril on each side of the head, unlike most teleosts, which have two pairs of nostrils. Cichlids exhibit an impressive range of morphological diversity there are dinner plate-shaped discus and...

Behavior And Reproduction

Some cichlids form pairs in which both parents guard eggs laid on the bottom. Some change sex. Some cichlids are mouth brooders, meaning the eggs and young develop inside the mouth of one or both parents. Many cichlids build huge, cone-shaped sand nests, sometimes in groups as large as fifty thousand stretched over several miles (kilometers) of sand.

Why Worry about Species

There are metrics of genetic distance and phenotypic difference that, on average, predict separation at the species level reasonably well. Because there are many instances of morphologically nearly indistinguishable sibling species, we can state with authority that morphological jumps in speciation fail to occur in many species complexes. We cannot, however, readily predict that speciation will generate a given amount of morphological divergence. For example, the Tropheus lineage of the cichlid radiation in Lake Tanganyika consists of a large group of species that are morphologically nearly identical but nevertheless quite genetically divergent (Sturmbauer and Meyer 1992). This lineage of six species contains twice as much genetic variation as the entire morphologically highly diverse cichlid assemblage of Lake Malawi.

Speciation Process and Product

The difficulty in grasping the speciation process is understandable, as no one has ever observed it in nature, nor has anyone identified definitively what exactly happens as one species gives rise to two descendants. Instead, we can usually only observe the outcome of speciation and try to reconstruct the origins of species and the consequences of species formation. The time scale is part of the problem. The process must usually take longer than a lifetime of human observation, even if it can be geologically rapid. The renowned fish family Cichlidae has long been known to be able to produce distinct species in a few thousand years (e.g., Brooks 1950). Lake Victoria appears to have dried up 12,400 years ago, suggesting that the endemic cich-lid fauna arose since then (Johnson et al. 1996). The Mbuna species flock of Lake Malawi may have diverged even more recently, owing to an episode of drying and lake lowering over several hundred years, followed by lake level rise and spread of...

Conservation status

Although none of the surfperches are listed by the IUCN, hundreds of cichlid species are either extinct or in great peril. There are 133 cichlids on the IUCN Red List, 44 of which are listed as Extinct and five of which are listed as Extinct in the Wild. Of the 37 Critically Endangered cichlids, all are from Africa or Madagascar, and most are from either Lake Barombi Mbo in Cameroon or the East African lakes Victo Gill nets were introduced to fishermen on Lake Victoria in 1905 to catch the endemic tilapiine cichlids Oreochromis es-culentus and Oreochromis variabilis. Increasing fishing activity, aided by gill nets, quickly led to declines in catches of numerous species, including the tilapiines, catfishes, and lung-fishes. By the 1950s, endemic tilapia had been all but wiped out, so the Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and four nonnative tilapiine species were introduced Tilapia zilii, T. melanopleura, Oreochromis niloticus, and O. leucostictus. Gill-net fisheries had since shifted to...

Reproductive biology

Mouth Brooders Reproduction

Embiotocids are viviparous (give birth to live young), and males have a thickened anterior portion of the anal fin that aids in internal fertilization. They display elaborate courtship behaviors, reminiscent of a small cross-section of the varied courtship behaviors found in cichlids. Some cichlids, for example, members of the genera Crenicara, Sarotherodon, and Etroplus, are capable of changing sex. When a group of females finds themselves without access to a male, the dominant female is able to generate testicular tissue sufficient to fertilize the eggs of the remaining females. Primitively, cichlids likely formed monogamous pairs, in which both parents guarded eggs laid on the substrate. Cich-lids exhibiting this behavior include the Indian etroplines, most Central American taxa, many South American taxa (such as Pterophyllum and Symphysodon), as well as several African groups (including Hemichromis and the lamprologines). Some cichlids have evolved polygamy and mouth brooding as...

Feeding ecology and diet

Cyathopharynx Furcifer

Cichlid feeding ecologies are extravagantly diverse, and may partly explain the species diversity within the family. Although most cichlids can opportunistically feed on a wide range of foods, they are also specialized to feed on certain types of food with particular efficiency. Of course, many cich-lids specialize in hunting other fishes and eating them whole. Tilapia is the only genus of African cichlid to specialize on phytoplankton, by collecting the particles (with the assistance of sievelike gill rakers for filtering) in balls of mucous secreted in the mouth and then swallowing them. Deposit feeders take a very similar approach, but with sedimented phyto-plankton and even disintegrated hippopotamus droppings. Cichlids who feed on epilithic algae, or aufwuchs, scrape the algae from rocks, typically employing multiple rows of fine teeth used like a file. Periphyton feeders scrape algae off living plants. For example, the giant haplochromis Hemitilapia Breeding habits of the...

Significance to humans

Both cichlids and surfperches are sought after by humans as sources of food. Tilapiine cichlids are easy to culture artificially, and so have been introduced around the world in fishfarming ventures. They supply an important source of protein to many human populations. However, exotic tilapiines have also adversely affected native fish populations in regions where they have been introduced by humans. Cichlids are enormously popular in the aquarium trade, and help support local economies in parts of the Americas and Africa through revenues from wild-caught fish exports. Numerous strains of certain species are also cultivated in captivity. 1. Worm cichlid (Teleogramma gracile) 2. Paralabidochromis chilotes 3. Trout cichlid (Champsochromis caeruleus) 4. Millet (Crenicichla alta) 5. Agassiz's dwarf cichlid (Apistogramma agassizii) 6. Freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) 7. Blunthead cichlid (Tropheus moorii). (Illustration by Barbara Duperron) 1. Rainbow seaperch (Hypsurus caryi)...

Evolution and systematics

The families Cichlidae (cichlids) and Embiotocidae (surf-perches) have traditionally been grouped in the suborder Labroidei, along with Labridae (wrasses), Scaridae (parrot-fishes), Pomacentridae (damselfishes), and Odacidae (western Pacific butterfishes). These groups were first suggested to share a common ancestry by M ller in 1843. All possess a pharyngeal jaw apparatus (a second set of jaws in the throat) that aids in the processing of food, and the morphological characters supporting their close relationship are all a part of this functional complex. Characters used to unite labroids include fused fifth ceratobranchials that bear teeth, a muscle sling suspending the lower pharyngeal jaw from the skull, an articulation between the upper pharyngeal jaws and the base of the skull without intervening muscle, and an undivided sheet of sphincter esophagi muscle. The reliability of these characters has been questioned, and the reality of the Labroidei has been challenged for several...


Cichlids (SIH-cluhds), surfperches, damselfishes, wrasses, parrotfishes, and rock whitings have a second set of jaws in the throat. These fishes have a dorsal fin that extends the length of the fish's back. The dorsal (DOOR-suhl) fin is the one along the midline of the back. Cichlids live in South America, Africa, Asia, and North America. Surfperches live in coastal areas of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. Parrotfishes, wrasses, and damselfishes live in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Rock whitings live in Australia and New Zealand. Cichlids live in freshwater in lakes, swamps, streams, and rivers, including rapids. Surfperches live in saltwater near sandy beaches, sea grass beds, rocky outcroppings, and piers. Damselfishes, wrasses, parrotfishes, and rock whitings live on reefs, although a few species live in the open sea. Many cichlids hunt other fishes and eat them whole. Some scrape algae from rocks. Some eat animal plankton. One species eats plant plankton. Many...

Southern codicefshes

Antarctic Ice Fish

Over the past 40 million years, the suborder Notothenioidei has evolved in high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere from generalized blennioid ancestors, producing a remarkable variety of ecological, morphological, physiological, and biochemical specializations. This diversity has led to their recognition as the only known example of a marine species swarm, rivaling the freshwater swarms of cichlid fishes in the African rift lakes and the landlocked cottoids of Lake Baikal. Over the past three decades, intensive study of the group has been driven by the increase in internationally funded research in Antarctica that followed the Antarctic Treaty of 1959.