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Ministry Letters

Ministry Letters Version 2.0 is a software tool that contains letter templates for pastors and secretaries. The powerful software program helps men of God locate just that right letter to send out to either congregation or committee members, and begin to encourage people in ways you have never dreamed of before. The software will make your life simple and stress-free, as well as making sending letters to church members easy and quick. Ministry Letters Version 2.0 comes in an easy-to-download PDF format and is easy to use by virtually anyone. Ministry Letters Version 2.0 is a great product that will make your life easier as a pastor or church secretary. The software includes hundreds of letter templates that you can simply edit and send to the members of the church.Grab the Ministry Letters Version 2.0 and make your life easier.

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Discovering Financial Technical Trading Rules Using Genetic Programming With Lambda Abstraction

Lambda abstractions are expressions defined in A calculus (Church, 1941) that represent function definition (see Section 4 for the syntax). Similar to a function definition in other programming languages such as C, a A abstraction can take inputs and produce outputs. In a GP program tree, each A abstraction is treated as an independent module, with a unique identity and purpose. It is protected as one unit throughout the program evolution process.

The Problems of Mitochondrial Intronic Reading Frames and Their Products

Second, genetic experiments using novel respiratory deficient mitochondrial mutations had led to the idea that some of these mutations affected the expression of their gene in an unusual manner (Slonimski and Tzagoloff 1976). With the discovery of introns, it became rapidly clear that the two genes concerned (encoding apocytochrome b and subunit I of cytochrome oxidase, respectively) were mosaic and that the unusual mutations were in their introns (Slonimski et al. 1978 reviewed in Dujon 1979,1981) and prevented splicing (Church et al. 1979). Interestingly, some of them were complemented in trans by a wild-type intron, as if an intron product existed. In particular, the presence of a long open reading frame in the sequence of the second intron of the cytochrome b gene strongly suggested that the trans-active component necessary for proper gene expression, and altered in the mutants, was the intron translation product, inferring that the intron product would help the splicing of its...

Assessing the Potential for Adverse Selection

Standard measures of consumer risk aversion included in our reduced form model include age, the presence or absence of minor children in the home, current marital status, education, current employment status, and a scale (ranging from 0 to 100) that reflects the respondent's subjective assessment of the likelihood she will live to age 65. (These are fairly standard covariates perhaps with the exception of respondent's subjective assessment of her own mortality. This latter measure was also used with some success by Cawley and Philipson (1996) in their analyses of life insurance demand.) With the exception of age, the predictions regarding most of these variables are fairly straightforward (e.g., women with higher incomes have a greater economic loss to insure against and hence they should have a higher probability of carrying life insurance compared to women with lower incomes). Age is posited to affect insurers' assessments of mortality risk as well as consumers' levels of risk...

Natural Theology and Agnosticism

Remembered today as Darwin's bulldog, Huxley wrote about theology and philosophy from the point of view of an agnostic, a term he coined. Much of his polemics were directed at the anti-intellectualism of church dogma. He introduced the term agnostic as suggestively antithetic to the Gnostic of church history, who professed to know so very much. Agnosticism, for Huxley was not a creed, but an injunction about the way to approach knowledge to follow reason as far it could go without consideration for where it might lead, and not to pretend to know things with certainty that had not been demonstrated or were not demonstrable.10 Huxley is remembered for his part in one of the most famous confrontations between religion and evolution the debate on June 30, 1860, at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting at Oxford, with Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce. Wilberforce was a well-known public figure at the height of his fame he had the ability to speak on platform and...

Ethical Issues in a Religiously Diverse Society

By ''religion'' is meant something more than institutional affiliation to some church, mosque, or synagogue. Religion and aging encounter one another on the experiential level. Following Tillich (1957), religion may be defined as the state of being grasped by an ultimate concern. That is, whenever a person speaks of the ultimate meaning of his existence, whenever he contemplates absolute duties and obligations, whenever he devotes himself to a cause he deems to be ultimately real, that individual is acting religiously, whether he is aware of it or not.

To the Psychosocial Environment and Level of Functioning

Examples include (a) interpretation of social stressors in cultural terms and (b) social supports. For example, the individual's perception of racial discrimination could represent a major stressor leading to symptoms involving depression and anxiety. The extended family is a crucial social support among many clients from culturally diverse groups. For example, among Hispanics the compadre (cofather) and comadre (comother) are often available to take care of children when their parents are absent the priest is another important social support in this group. In the case of African Americans, the church is crucial in providing emotional supports. Among American Indians, the medicine man woman is often consulted when the family is experiencing difficulties and in the case of Southeast refugees, welfare agencies and community supports are examples of social supports in this group (Gaw, 1993).

Nora A Janjan Edward H Lin Marc E Delclos Christopher Crane Miguel A Rodriguez Bigas and John M Skibber

In the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study (Church et al, 1997), annual fecal occult blood studies were performed over a 13-year period. If 1 sample was positive, a diagnostic work-up, including a colonoscopy, was performed. The sensitivity of fecal occult blood studies in the detection of colorectal cancer was about 90 , the cure rate for early colorectal cancer was about 90 , and the screening strategy reduced the mortality from colorectal cancer by one third among patients over the age of 50 years.

Neighborhood Heterogeneity

In his Wilson's model, the prevalence of middle upper-income people positively correlates with the material and social resources necessary to sustain basic institutions in urban neighborhoods like the family, churches, schools, voluntary organizations, and informal service programs. . . These institutions are pillars of local social organization that help to nurture neighborhood solidarity and mobilize informal social control.

Where Do Moral Concepts Come From

If basic moral values are the product of sentiment, rather than reason, then they probably originate in a process other than rational deliberation. Some basic moral values may have their seeds in biology. We may be innately empathetic towards members of our species, for example. But such innate sentiments fall short of true moral rules. We naturally squirm at the sight of another person in pain, but that does not mean we are innately programmed to feel guilt when we are cruel. Guilt may be a learned response. Rats are disturbed when they see other rats in distress, but they do not feel guilty, and they do not have moral rules (Church, 1959). One difference between us and rats is that we have the capacity to put our selves in others' shoes. When a rat sees another rat suffering, the misery it experiences is egocentric. When we see another person suffering, we become concerned for that person. At the collective level, this leads human societies to develop rules that protect self and...

Siblings And Other Relatives

My sister also liked to sing, and she and i occasionally performed at local churches. She usually sang God Put a Rainbow in the Sky, and I recited Bible verses that my mother had drilled me on the night before. My sister liked movie musicals in particular, and paid my way to the theater (sans popcorn) on many occasions. During high school, she became interested in opera, listened to the Metropolitan every Saturday afternoon on the radio, bought many opera records, andurged me to accompany her Mimi with my Rudolfo in the garret where we lived. I usually declined the invitation, but ended up learning something about

Neighborhood Boundaries

For example, let us consider the problem of disparities in the community effects of industrial hazards as placed on the public agenda in the 1980s by the release of studies by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO, 1983) and the United Church of Christ's Commission for Racial Justice (CRJ, 1987) (Mennis, 2002). Those studies galvanized the environmental justice movement (EJM) as well as attempts by sociologists and others to use geographic information systems (GIS) to map the social coordinates of industrial danger. The question was whether or not corporations victimize poor minorities by releasing more toxic materials in their communities than in non-minority, affluent communities. Scientists have found that the answer varies depending on the scale of the area included in the study.

[4 Microinjection as a Tool to Explore Small GTPase Function

And predicting their subcellular localization. Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 34-6. Simpson, J. C., and Pepperkok, R. (2003). Localizing the proteome. Genome Biol. 4, 240. Wheeler, D. L., Church, D. M., Edgar, R., Federhen, S., Helmberg, W., Madden, T. L., Pontius, J. U., Schuler, G. D., Schriml, L. M., Sequeira, E., Suzek, T. O., Tatusova, T. A., and Wagner, L. (2004). Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information Update. Nucleic Acids Res. 32, D35-40.

Organization of services

Hospital admission is frequently valuable to treat illness or, commonly, to relieve a social crisis. However, hospitalization should not be undertaken too lightly. Many old people survive in their own homes through a complex network of informal care and company from relatives, friends, church, the voluntary sector, and domestic pets, and this network may prove impossible to reassemble following an admission. If the patient does go into hospital, a gradual discharge with increasing periods of home leave is the rule.

Basics Of Factor Analysis

Scale construction is aided when the correlations among items show the items to fall into a certain number of clusters or groups. In psychology of religion, motivation items, for example, fall into groups of items representing an intrinsic motivation (e.g., the main reason I go to church is to worship God) and extrinsic motivations (e.g., the only reason to go to church is to meet friends). The items fall into several groups so that within a group the items correlate with one factor and not with the other factors. Items can then be picked by their correlations with the factors to form scales.

Methodological Challenges

The cornerstone of anthropological methodology has long been participant observation. Since the time of Malinowski, the goal has been total immersion in a culture and in people's daily lives so that their understanding of the world and the nature of their social relations can be understood in holistic context. A corollary of this is a focus on the difference between what people say they do and believe on the one hand and what they actually do and (more problematically) what they actually believe on the other. The implications of this emphasis for a field like demography, which is heavily dependent on survey research methods, are enormous. A survey researcher can ask a respondent how often she goes to church but rarely checks this against actual church attendance. For an anthropologist, it is just this disjunction that is of particular interest. Nonanthropolo-gical demographers have sometimes turned to focus group methods to deal with some of these issues, but while a kind of informal...

Attitudes toward Crime

Because the United States is the most violent industrialized democracy in the well as one of the wealthiest, it is not surprising that concern and fear about crime are widespread in this country. In a recent national survey, for example, 31 of the respondents indicated that they were afraid to walk alone at night within a mile of their homes (Davis & Smith, 1994). However, fear is not necessarily the same as reality. For example, older adults, and women in particular, are reportedly more afraid than younger adults,1 but younger adults are more likely than older adults to be victims of crime. In 1993, for example, 125.2 of every 1000 residents of the U.S. between the ages of 12 and 16,120.5 of every 1000 residents between 16 and 19, and 97.7 of every 1000 residents between 20 and 24 were victims of personal crimes. However, only 7.8 of every 1000 residents aged 65 and over were victims of personal crimes in that year (Perkins, Klaus, Bastian, & Cohen, 1996). The crime...

A brief history of publishing

Enter Johannes Gutenberg - inventor, goldsmith and businessman. Like any good businessman, Gutenberg was constantly on the lookout for market opportunities. He diagnosed the market's need to mass-produce written texts. Also like any good businessman, Gutenberg borrowed money to research a solution for this gap in the market. He produced the printing press and innovated in the use of movable metal type. Again, like any good businessman, he was also good at marketing his first printed title was the bible, the world's first and still greatest bestseller. However, Gutenberg had an eye on where the real money was - indulgences. These were rich people's way of buying forgiveness from God for their sins and the Church's way of funding religious wars. Gutenberg wanted to mass-produce these indulgences for the Church - in effect, he wanted to establish a licence to print money.

Residential Segregation And Gentrification

Despite the deleterious direct and indirect health effect of residential segregation, it is worth noting that there are some positive effects of racial segregation on minority groups. For example, in segregated black communities two historically related social institutions that are likely to strengthen blood and fictive kinship ties are black families and church (Billingsley, 1999 Chatters and Taylor, 1988 Chatters, et al., 2002 Hill, 1999). Both families and churches address many issues facing black families and communities (e.g., poverty, coping with a death of a loved one, care giving for the ill and disabled), as well as provide both instrumental and emotional social support to community members (Chatters, et al., 2002). Social support is in turn linked to quality of social networks and community structure (Lin, 1999). In addition, communities with strong ties are likely to provide some type of regulation and attachment to norms and values within the community that may lead to...

Framing The Problem 21 Life in the Grid City

European settlement of North America was characterized by towns with a concentric layout with a common meeting house in the center and public squares. Population growth and immigration necessitated more land acquisitions and the rectangular grid plan was adapted as the organizing theme. For example, New Haven, Connecticut or Savannah, Georgia, were laid out on the grid with a central public square for the church or a public square for the community. The National Land Ordinance of 1785 dictated that the westward expansion from the existing colonies be divided by a rectangular grid pattern, which was also applied to the planning of cities and towns (Kostof, 1985). Such a subdivision assured an efficient way to effectively plan and sell new acquisitions (Maholy-Nagy, 1968). Furthermore, the uniform distance between sections and blocks facilitated transport of people and goods. Inherent in the principle of the classic grid design applied to the city is the uniform distribution of traffic...

Nonreactive Measures as Distinct Techniques

Called lost letter technique (Milgram, Mann, & Harter, 1965), which is used as an indirect measure of attitudes. To implement this technique, stamped letters are distributed in specified residential areas, appearing to the chance observer to be lost by someone. They are addressed to different organizations, representing the attitude objects. For example, if researchers are interested in the relative approval of religious groups like Christian and Muslim, not biased by social desirability concerns, they could lose those letters addressed to either a church or a mosque. In actuality, the letters are addressed to the researcher via a post office box. The number of letters the researchers receive is taken as an indicator of the prevailing attitude toward the respective group (i.e., Christian or Muslim) in a specified area (for a test of the technique's convergent validity, see Cherulnik, 1975 for an advanced version, see also the lost e-mail technique by Castelli, Zogmaister, & Arcuri,...

Mendel Becomes the Abbot

Mendel wrote a 12-page letter saying that the monastery could not pay such a sum, because it was already deep in debt and the size of the community was only a quarter of what it had been years before. He noted that a major reconstruction of the church and other buildings, costing 30,000 guilders, was needed. He also cited public service as a reason why the government should get no money from the monks The monastery had provided teachers for several academic institutes, and two monks who worked in the local hospital had died from infections they contracted there. Mendel did offer to pay 2,000 guilders in taxes, but the government would not accept so little. The argument dragged on for years and was not settled until after Mendel's death. There were also political changes to consider. In 1867, the Hapsburg Empire had become the Austro-Hungarian constitutional monarchy. It was a democracy of sorts. The new government began to make changes. One of them...

Homosexual Relationships

One often hears about wedded bliss or matrimonial harmony, but these are obviously not descriptive of many conjugal relationships. It may be that marriages are made in heaven, though it is doubtful unless one is a bride of Christ or married to the church. Duration is certainly not a sure-fire indicator of marital happiness. Most people who get married probably intend to stay that way, but, as one young woman explained to me, If it doesn't work out there are always divorce courts. Still, you can't equate marital stability with marital satisfaction. One 90-some-thing-year-old couple celebrated their diamond wedding anniversary by untying the knot. They confessed that they had never really liked each other but decided to wait until the children had grown old and died before going their separate ways.

Of Anatomy And Animal Research

The Renaissance was a period of great scientific discovery and included advances in our understanding of human and animal anatomy. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 ad) was arguably the greatest anatomist of the era (4). He performed public nonhuman dissections at the University of Padua in Italy to teach anatomy and is credited with creating the field of modern anatomy (2). His immediate successors at Padua were Matteo Realdo Colombo (1510-1559 ad), who described pulmonary circulation and the atrial and ventricular cavities, and Gabriele Falloppio (1523-1562 ad), who is credited with the discovery of the Fallopian tubes among other things (4). Animal research flourished during this period because of a number of popular ideas launched by the christian church and Rene Descartes. The church asserted that animals were under

Schema Driven and Attention Dependent Processes

Right places at the boss's humorous golfing anecdote as a result of having heard the tale numerous times before, even though only intermittent segregation of the speech is possible (indeed, the adverse listening condition in this example may be a blessing in disguise). In an analogous laboratory situation, a sentence's final word embedded in noise is more easily detected when it is contextually predictable (Pichora-Fuller, Schneider, and Daneman, 1995), and older adults appear to benefit more than young adults from contextual cues in identifying the sentence's final word (Pichora-Fuller, Schneider, and Daneman, 1995). Since words cannot be reliably identified on the basis of the signal cue alone (i.e., without context), stored knowledge must be applied to succeed. That is to say that the context provides environmental support, which narrows the number of possible alternatives to choose from, thereby increasing the likelihood of having a positive match between the incoming sound and...

Basic Facts About GM Crops

For many people, attitudes to new technologies are formed in part by their inner moral beliefs. Here, the views of the church can be important. Interestingly, the Catholic church is not against GMOs per se. The Pope and the Church have not stated that GMOs are intrinsically bad or that they should not be grown. They believe a great deal of caution should be exercised to be sure that there are no risks for human health. There has not been any theological condemnation of manipulating living organisms (apart from genetically manipulating mankind itself). The views of other religions or groups may differ depending on the circumstances. For example, if a gene from a pig is introduced into a plant, certain religions may reject the food as unclean. However, the issues of GMOs have transcended moral and safety considerations. They have become part of the social and globalisation, including monopoly, issues, and debates. Sections 4.3,4.4 and 4.6 address the topics of public opinion, opinion...

CoExistence of HS and CD

A clinical association between HS and CD has been described in some cases reports 31-33 and in one case series 34 . Gower-Rousseau et al. reported the occurrence of HS in two first-degree relatives of patients with CD 35 . This finding suggests a common genetic susceptibility for the two diseases. In the study by Church et al. 34 , CD lesions were found in 24 out of 61 patients with HS. In our series of 2926 patients with CD, 18 (0.6 ) have such an association. This figure should be considered as minimal, as a systematic search for HS was not made. Of note, the proportion of active smokers was 78 in our patients with both diseases. Clinical characteristics of patients with HS and CD in the two latter studies are given in Table 7.1. CD patients with HS differ from other CD patients by a higher frequency of colonic and perianal involvement, an increased need for immuno-suppressants, and, more importantly, a very unusual need for proctectomy and definitive ileos-tomy. Finally, the...

The Cuvier Geoffroy Debate

Scientists and scholars like to use the word revolution to describe great changes in science, but Lamarck's evolutionism was revolutionary in the original sociopolitical sense of the word as well. Evolutionary thinking was positioned in direct opposition to the privileges of nobility and the church and against the conservative and new professional social control of science in France. Toby Appel unearthed this aspect of Lamarckism when she reexamined one of the great debates of the early nineteenth century over comparative anatomy between Cuvier and another champion of evolutionary theory at the Mus um d'Histoire Naturelle Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844), professor of zoology.33 The antagonism between Geoffroy and Cuvier persisted through out the 1820s and finally ruptured into a famous public confrontation over a period of two months in 1830 at meetings of the Acad mie des Sciences, the supreme arbiter of science in France. These were weekly events attended by all the...

Box 111 continued

Random genetic drift is a process that occurs in a small population after the founding of that population. As the name indicates, the process is random, that is, it is not due to a fitness advantage or disadvantage. We will demonstrate this with a real-life example of the group represented by Old Order Amish Mennonite Church. This group arose in central Europe during the seventeenth century and began migrating to the United States in the early eighteenth century, predominantly to Pennsylvania and Ohio. Those who espouse the traditional teachings of this church wear plain clothing men wear hats and do not trim beards, while women wear long dresses, capes, and bonnets. They also use horses and buggies rather than automobiles and generally shun modern conveniences. These people stay in relatively small communities and tend to socialize within their groups. The necessary ingredients for observing random genetic drift is present in this situation, a small founding population that tends to...

General Multicultural Issues

In this context, the extended family includes both biological (e.g., parents, uncles, aunts, sisters, brothers) and nonbiological (e.g., friends, the minister) individuals who could provide instrumental supports (e.g., money, clothing, housing) and emotional supports (e.g., counseling and advice). In the case of Hispanic clients, these nonbiological members often include the compadre (co-father) and the comadre (comother). Among the American Indian clients, the elders in the tribe (particularly the head of the tribe) and traditional medicine men and women have a special place in the family, and they are also seen as integral part of the extended family. In the case of African-Americans, church membership is an essential element in the family, and it is expected that church members (particularly the minister) would be involved in the solution of family issues. In this group, grandparents, sisters, and brothers often play a major role in the extended family (Boyd-Franklin, 1989). Among...

Outbreak Characterization

As mentioned in Chapter 1, some outbreak characteristics may already be known at the time that an outbreak is detected. For example, if a biosurveillance organization detects an outbreak from analysis of notifiable disease data (which is largely organism-based reporting), it will already know the causative biological agent. If a participant in a church picnic reports an outbreak to a health department, that person may also report the source as macaroni salad, having interviewed'' most of the picnickers by phone before calling the health department. We expect the number of outbreak characteristics that are known at the time of outbreak detection to increase as biosurveillance systems collect increasing amounts of surveillance data on a continuous basis. The distinction between outbreak detection and characterization will continue to blur.

Significance To Humans

Human food source (adductor muscle), harvested by native populations on Pacific Islands. Shells historically used for making tools (mallets, hoes, scrapers) also used intact as water basins (and in churches worldwide as baptismal fonts, suggested by the French vernacular name). Non-nacreous pearls have little commercial value, although the largest pearl on record is the oblong Pearl of Allah, 9 in (22.9 cm) long and 14 lbs (6.35 kg) in weight, from a T. gigas specimen collected in the Philippines in 1934.

Specific Multicultural Issues

This issue is even more critical in mental health services involving African American clients with HIV AIDS. Boyd-Franklin et al. (1995) noted that among many African Americans the cause of death of a family member who has died of AIDS is treated as a toxic family secret (p. 57). Family secrets involving homosexuality and drug abuse (two leading risks for HIV infection) might have to be revealed to family members when a diagnosis of HIV or AIDS is made. The family of an individual with HIV AIDS might not reveal these secrets to their church (e.g., the minister) because of the shame and stigma associated with this disease. In the case of the therapist, these secrets are not expected to be revealed during the first encounter with the client who is seeking help to deal with symptoms of depression after knowing that he or she has HIV infection.

Theoretical Considerations

More recently, the concept of social capital has been introduced to account for the effect of social networks in helping to match workers with jobs. Workers with relatively extensive social networks through their extended families, churches, classmates, and other links may have an advantage in the labor market in terms of shorter search times for work and in terms of finding better jobs (see Lin 2001 Lin, Cook, and Burt 2001 Field 2003).

The Health Of Older Adults

American health systems will need to be reinvented to provide optimum care for older urban adults, as well as effective chronic disease care broadly. New models of care delivery for frail older adults feature interdisciplinary teams that coordinate care between providers and between care settings. The Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is an example of a care model that serves frail, chronically ill, older urban adults well (Eng, et al., 1997). PACE programs, centered on an adult day center, serve as medical provider and insurer and coordinate community services to maintain functioning and independence. Meanwhile, adult day centers themselves are increasingly utilized, with nearly 75 being located in urban areas. These day centers typically are private, not for profit, and sponsored by a church, nursing home, or other organization (Wacker, et al., 1998). These day care centers provide both social services and limited medical services for community-dwelling older...

Research Exemplars

John Knodel, one of the members of the European fertility project who had analyzed the aggregate statistics for Germany during the 19th century (Knodel 1974), set out to explore the local features of fertility and mortality changes at the microlevel with the help of a remarkable source village genealogies compiled by local German historians and genealogists on the basis of official statistics and church records and encompassing the vital events of all families that resided in a particular village. The data analyzed by Knodel comprise 14 villages and cover over 11,000 couples married between 1700 and 1899, and their 55,000 children (Knodel 1988 20). They appear to be of high quality and completeness and allow remarkably detailed and sophisticated analysis on the basis of a large number of cases.

Features of selfhelp groups

Accessibility and economy are appealing features of self-help groups. Since the groups are free, organizations such as AA and NA are very cost-effective. In addition, meetings are easy to locate through local newspaper announcements, hospitals, health care centers, churches, school counselors, and community agencies. For AA and sister organizations that encourage frequent attendance, hundreds of meetings may be held each week in large metropolitan areas. Furthermore, with the proliferation of online support communities and growth of connectivity to the Internet, self-help groups are becoming as accessible for individuals in rural areas as they are for those in large cities.

Other environmental risk factors that may predispose smokers to COPD

Early in the last century, studies in populations who were malnourished demonstrated that food deprivation resulted in an alteration in respiratory function and premature emphysema at autopsy (Sridhar, 1999). Cigarette smokers have a low dietary intake of fresh fruit (Bolton-Smith, 1993 Subar and Harlan, 1993), an important source of the dietary anti-oxidant vitamin C. Vitamin C is the most abundant anti-oxidant in the extra-cellular fluid lining the lungs (Slade et a ., 1993). Cigarette tar contains a very high concentration of free radicals (Pryor and Stone, 1993), with each inhalation from a cigarette containing approximately 1016 oxidant particles (Church and Pryor, 1985). An imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant activity has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the development of COPD in smokers (Cross et a ., 1999 Macnee and Rahman, 1999 Traber et a ., 2000). Proposed cellular mechanisms by which this oxidant stress may lead to lung damage include direct...

A Case Study The Sunnyside Piazza 51 The Setting

In 2000, the Sunnyside Neighborhood in Portland, OR was plagued by a variety of problems, including a large transient population, social disorder, street litter, noise, and parking violations. The neighborhood, laid out on the grid network (Figure 1), was composed of 65 renters, low to moderate income, and predominantly white residents. A local church offered free dinners on Wednesdays and Fridays to the homeless population of Portland. The neighborhood was exposed to an onslaught of individuals seeking these services. Unfortunately, the Wednesday and Friday events were accompanied by an escalation of undesirable public behaviors such as excessive public alcohol drinking, and drug use that had a detrimental effect on the community living in close proximity to the church. Numerous storefronts were vandalized, continuing a history of graffiti incidents in the neighborhood.

Religious or Spiritual Problems

The DSM-IV suggests that a client's religious and spiritual beliefs should be considered in those cases when such beliefs leads to distressing experiences that involve loss or questioning of faith, problems associated with conversion to a new faith, or questioning of spiritual values (DSM-IV, 1994, p. 685). Religious or spiritual problems may also be the focus of clinical attention in those cases when a clinician believes that such a problem interferes with the overall assessment and treatment of the particular disorder. For example, many Hispanic clients believe that evil spirits cause mental problems and, as a result, the church, not the clinician, has the power to treat these problems (Paniagua, 1998). Hispanics often believe that prayers will cure physical and mental problems, and help from a mental health professional is often sought only when the family has exhausted all religious and folk resources to handle the problem. These religious and spiritual beliefs may directly or...

Conservation Status

Harvesting for pearls in Europe was reserved for the church and aristocrats as early as the medieval period. Although early laws were prompted by the commercial value of pearls, they served to protect this long-lived species, most effectively in Saxony (Germany). Less efficiently managed areas (Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden) experienced declines and extirpation. Additional declines have been attributed to poor water quality, habitat alteration, and declines in host fish populations. Classified as Endangered on the 2002 IUCN Red List. Listed on Appendix II of the 1979 Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats.

How to Handle Religious Concerns

Many patient's religious beliefs and behavior may seem extreme or pathologic to the clinician. There was a time when modern psychologic thought considered almost all forms of religious expression a form of neurosis. Thankfully this time is past. However, now during a time of heightened spiritual yearning the issue assumes great relevance. Among some minority patients, rigidly held religious views are common and are not in and of themselves pathologic, although some fundamentalist Christian subgroups do have an antimedical, antipsychological bent. The leaders of some of these congregations may openly encourage troubled or mentally ill church members not only to seek cure in prayer but also to abandon all other nonprayer treatment. It is helpful to inquire of the patient whether these type of views are expressed by their church.


In this chapter, we have laid the groundwork for what is to follow by introducing the overall goals for this handbook and by providing a terminological framework with which to approach the chapters that follow. However, while each contributor is ''in the same church,'' each is not necessarily ''in the same

Communicable Disease

Urban areas, however, cannot be assumed to have the necessary services or networks to provide immigrants with the support that is needed. A study of loneliness in 110 elderly Korean immigrants in a large metropolitan area in the U.S. found that, despite long periods of residence in the U.S., the majority indicated a high level of identification with their ethnic group (Kim, 1999). Most continued to speak little English. The majority of respondents relied upon adult children, spouses, and Korean neighbors and church members for support and, importantly, did not identify any non-Korean individual as providing support. The women reported high levels of loneliness. Most of those individuals who respondents identified as providing support lived in the same housing complex, suggesting that the type of housing may influence social support and the degree of loneliness that is experienced (Kim, 1999).

African Americans

The effects of slavery on the experience of death began early and often, during capture and the journey to the Western Hemisphere (Markides & Mindel, 1987). Millions of Africans never finished the trip to America ''victims of starvation, suffocation, drowning, suicide, disease, and the whippings, beatings, mutilation, and direct killing by those who held them in bondage'' (Jackson, 1985, p. 203). The death-causing social structures of oppression and institutional discrimination continued during slavery (Weld, 1969) and afterwards, during segregation. Today death is common in ghettos in the United States. Within a context of deprivation, some African Americans have considered death as a covert form of desire for freedom (in spirituals, for example) (Markides & Mindel, 1987). Nevertheless, the spiritual image of African Americans has been misinterpreted (Jackson, 1972 S. A. Brown, 1958 M. M. Fischer, 1969). The significance of the African American church and religious beliefs lies not...


Spencer's socioevolutionary views continue to provoke debate among historians. Many have emphasized that his writings stood in the way of important social reforms. Laissez-faire capitalism had led to great advances in trade and industry, and some people made huge fortunes. But when trade and manufacturing slumped in the nineteenth century, many workers suffered poverty and unemployment. In industrial England, with its sweatshops, child labor, homelessness, and poverty, many writers called for social reform and the need for state charity. Spencer, however, decried state intervention, whether it be education for the poor or privileges for the church. While some historians portray him as a brutal social Darwinist who expounded the idea of struggle for survival into a doctrine of ruthless competition and class conflict, 5 others have argued that this view is somewhat misleading.6 For although the struggle for existence provided a plausible explanation for all the selfish behavior of which...


During the long story that I have summarized in this chapter with my own personal bias, I had the chance to meet and interact with numerous people without whom the history of intron-encoded homing endonucleases would not have been the same. It is impossible for me to recall all of them. May the absent forgive me. Beside those personally cited in the text, I should mention particularly P. Avner, B. Backhaus, H. Baranowska, A. Beauvais, L. Belcour, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, H. Blanc, J. Boyer, J. Brosius, G. Burger, M.-P. Carlotti, G. Church, M. Claisse, D. Coen, A.M. Colson, G. Cottarel, F. Denis, J. Deutsch, G. Dujardin, M. Eck, E. Fabre, C. Fairhead, G. Faye, G. Fischer, F. Foury, B. Frey, L. Gaillon, N.W. Gilham, J.E. Haber, A. Harington, E. Heard, C. Jacq, N. Jacquesson-Breuleux, Z. Kotylak, A. Kruszewska, F. Lang, J. Lazowska, B. Llorente, E. Luzi, G. Michaelis, C. Monteilhet, R. Mori-moto, P. Netter, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, S. Pellenz, A. Perrin, E. Petrochilo, A....

Rattlesnake roundups

An elderly participant at a Fundamentalist Appalachian Church holds a timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) aloft as a sign of his commitment. He stands, nearly entranced, having been consumed in his belief that by holding the venomous snake he is overcoming evil. The intense state and taking up of serpents comes after considerable communal praying, chanting, and dancing. It is only after he has been anointed by the Holy Spirit that he has the strength for the confrontation. (Photo by Manny Rubio. Reproduced by permission.) An elderly participant at a Fundamentalist Appalachian Church holds a timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) aloft as a sign of his commitment. He stands, nearly entranced, having been consumed in his belief that by holding the venomous snake he is overcoming evil. The intense state and taking up of serpents comes after considerable communal praying, chanting, and dancing. It is only after he has been anointed by the Holy Spirit that he has the strength for the...


There are, however, certain features of a social demographic perspective or orientation that characterize much (but probably not all) of the research work by those trained in the field. Perhaps most common is an understanding of the interplay of cohorts and period in social change. Norman Ryder's (1965) essay on ''The Cohort as a Concept in the Study of Social Change'' is a canonical reading in social demographic training. The classic applications of the cohort perspective have been in studies of fertility trends (Ryder 1969 Rindfuss, Morgan, and Swicegood 1988), but there have also been illuminating cohort studies of life-cycle events, political attitudes, church attendance, and many other topics (Abramson 1975 Alba 1988 Uhlenberg 1969). To some extent, the application of the cohort perspective has been inhibited by methodological obstacles and the impossibility of obtaining independent estimates of

Grief counseling

Grief counseling refers to a specific form of therapy, or a focus in general counseling with the goal of helping the individual grieve and address personal loss in a healthy manner. Grief counseling is offered individually by psychologists, clergy, counselors or social workers, in groups led by professionals, as well as informal support groups offered by churches, community groups, or organizations devoted to helping individuals grieve specific losses.

Body and Society

Other authors are concerned with how social bodies become civilized. The pacification of ever larger areas of territory that resulted in nation-states carried with it a civilising process of the manners of interpersonal relations (Elias, 1978 1939 & 1982 1939 ). Etiquette in sexual relations already extends to a declaration of genetic status in obtaining the blessing of the Greek Orthodox church for the marriage of couples in Cyprus (Angastin-iotis et al, 1986) and the blessing of the community matchmaker in Orthodox Jewish communities (Merz, 1987).

The Ethical Basis

The Committee is, in effect, making a judgement as to whose values are to be reflected, presenting their subjective conclusion as if undisputed fact. The inclusion of the word informed again focuses on the qualifications for membership of this exclusive discourse health providers, academics or church leaders are considered sufficiently informed to enter the discussion.


As discussed in Chapter 7, most older adults spend some of their free time visiting friends and relatives. In addition, some volunteer their services to various public and private organizations. Several million American men and women aged 16 and over perform unpaid volunteer work each year. Volunteer activities provide them with opportunities to utilize and broaden their skills while extending their social contacts. The largest number of volunteers work in churches or other religious organizations, followed in order by schools or other educational institutions, civic or political organizations, hospitals or other health organizations, social or welfare organizations, and sport or recreational organizations (U.S. Department of Labor, 1990). Among the activities of these volunteers are visiting people who are home-bound and directing religious, cultural, and recreational programs for the young and old.

Future Prospects

During the 19th century (McQuillan 1999). The study presents hypotheses based on the doctrinal differences between the traditional position of the Catholic Church toward the married state as an inferior status and Luther's recognition of sexuality as a fundamental human value. It attempts to test these hypotheses by using a combination of nominative and aggregate techniques in a carefully selected sample of villages. It investigates the history of pastoral practices and of the relations between church and state in the educational systems of the two communities. It concludes that doctrinal differences (particularly with respect to marriage) were less important in shaping the behavior of the Lutheran and Catholic communities than the openness of the hierarchies to modernity in the former and the conservatism of the latter. This accounts for a later decline of fertility in Catholic villages, a development that may have its parallels in other countries of mixed confessions like Ireland...

Funeral Practices

The nature and location of the funeral service also vary with the cultural and religious background of the survivors. For example, Roman Catholics, who are more likely than Protestants to hold funerals in a church rather than in a funeral home, are more favorably disposed toward elaborate funerals (Khleif, 1976). In both the United States and other countries, secular funerals have become more commonplace (Norbeck, 1995). Another modern trend has been toward simpler funerals or memorial services characterized by an emotional toning down of the service and a deritualization of mourning.

Support groups

& mon locations for mental health and mental illness-relat-g ed support groups. Life transition groups are often proM vided through schools, senior centers, and daycare ceno ters. Bereavement groups and addiction support groups S often meet in churches, community meeting rooms of m local businesses, and mental health agencies.

Practical Examples

A practical experiment of the communitarian policies can be found in Cyprus, where there is a strong emphasis on community involvement and public awareness in matters of genetics. The difference is that in Cyprus, communitarian ethics has already been integrated with political and legal demands. One reason for this integration might be that in Cyprus there is still quite a small and homogeneous ethnic population which forms the state and thus shares its interests with the state. The communitarian examples of the Cyprus Thalassemia Program are included in the following it is still publicly emphasised that reproductive decision-making should be voluntary and people should not be forced into any kind of reproductive practices they do not want. This individualistic rhetoric is used to avoid eugenic overtones in the genetic program. Thus, publicly it is stated that the social concern is about individuals and about families, and not about the gene pool and certainly not about race.18...

Religious Activities

As indicated by the results of a telephone survey of over 3,000 American adults conducted by the Gallup Organization in 1995, the United States is a very religious nation. Ninety-five percent of the respondents in that survey stated that they believe in God or a universal spirit, 88 described religion as very important or fairly important in their lives, and 70 said they belonged to a specific church or synagogue. Eighty-four percent reported affiliation with a Christian denomination, 2 were Jewish, 6 claimed other religions, and 8 claimed no religious preference. However, only 43 (50 of women and 36 of men) of all respondents reported that they attend church or synagogue every week or almost every week. Attendance at religious services increases with age Thirty-six percent of those aged 18-29, 42 of those aged 30-49,44 of those aged 50-64, and 56 of those aged 65 and older reported attending their place of worship each week. Also of interest is that 38 of the respondents stated that...


Iceland was first settled between 870 and 930 A.D. by Norwegian Vikings. Recent research has shown that 20 to 25 of the founding males had Gaelic ancestry. The majority of the females are thought to have come from the British Isles during the time of settlement. At the end of the initial settlement period, the population is estimated to have numbered approximately 30,000 (Halldorsson, 2003). A period of favorable climate conditions sustained a local population growth through the twelfth century, when the estimated population may have plateaued at 80,000. This era was followed by centuries of colder climate, and several periods of substantial population reduction occurred. Two epidemics, of plague in the fifteenth century and several smallpox epidemics in the sixteenth to early eighteenth century, reduced the population of the entire island to as low as 30,000 on more than one occasion. The fallout from a volcanic eruption in 1875 devastated the Icelandic economy and caused widespread...


Churches and other places of spiritual worship should be recognized as wonderful places for dissemination of such information. Clergy should also be targets of communication and educational efforts because of the likelihood of approach for spiritual support during prolonged periods of pain (see Chapter 4).


One type of sudden death that is assumed to cause problems for those bereaved is suicide. It can be a respected social act in specific and carefully defined circumstances - for example, hara-kiri. The Christian Church forbade it and those who died by suicide were forbidden burial within consecrated ground and buried at crossroads or lonely places such as headlands. Their bodies could be used for dissection as were those of murderers. The tools used to make the coffin would be destroyed or buried with it. Suicide was a crime in England and Wales until 1959 and in Scotland until 1961.