Healthy Chocolate Recipes

600 Chocolate Recipes

600 Chocolate Recipes

Within this in cookbook full of chocolate recipes you will find over 600 Chocolate Recipes For Chocolate Lovers.

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Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul

Chocolate doesn't just taste amazing, it is great for your whole body, and this eBook shows you how eating plenty of chocolate can help you live longer. This book contains a large variety of recipes to help you get the most out of your chocolate. Chocolate reduces the risk of heart disease, promotes good blood flow, and helps with alertness. You will also learn how chocolate helps to lessen pain and anxiety, and how it has powerful antioxidant properties. You don't have to always eat foods in very small amounts that taste amazing. Chocolate is the best guilt-free indulgence food that is possibly. This book was penned in 1896 by Fannie Farmer, and contains time-tested and proven recipes that are great for your health and even better: they taste amazing. This book has recipes for everything from cakes to bonbons to truffles, and all of them work together to improve your health and well-being.

Chocolate Recipes For A Happy Heart And Soul Summary


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Author: Heidi Walter
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I've really worked on the chapters in this ebook and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

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Significance to humans

Formerly important as food and hunted for its fur by aboriginal tribes, this marsupial has gained an iconic status today as a symbol of Australia's threatened indigenous wildlife. Adopted as a mascot by the Commonwealth of Australia Endangered Species Program, the species has gained wider public awareness thanks to a campaign that began in the 1980s to replace the Easter bunny with an Easter bilby. Every Easter, thousands of chocolate bilbies are sold, often with a percentage of the profits channeled back into bilby conservation.

Reproductive biology

Cooperative breeding is common in the family, and has been studied in several thornbills and scrubwrens. Mostly, though, acanthizids breed as pairs with some being assisted by a third or fourth bird. The breeding season is typically late winter to early summer and several attempts are made each season. Nests are domed, often with a clear hood above the entrance, and those of gerygones are pendant, attached to foliage. Although usually placed in trees or shrubs, crannies and hollows are also used and some species nest on the ground. The most common clutch is two eggs, though up to five eggs have been recorded. Egg color ranges from white in the rock-warbler, and white with sparse spotting in Acanthiza and Gery-gone, to cream or buff with heavier spotting in many genera to plain chocolate in redthroat and speckled warblers (Chthon-icola sagittatus). Eggs are laid at 48-hour intervals and are incubated by the female alone. Incubation periods and dependency of the fledglings are long....

Physical Characteristics

Sexually dimorphic and dichromatic. The male is slender-bodied and cylindrical in shape the body has a slight curve to the dorsal surface. The head tapers to a terminal mouth, and the caudal peduncle is compressed and tapering. Dorsal fin is small and set far back, with its origin over the midpoint of the anal fin. Dorsal surface is chocolate brown, and anterior flanks are light metallic blue red spots and splotches are scattered over the body and on the dorsal and anal fins. All fins show color, the dorsal and anal fins with orange and red margins. Anal fin tapers to a point, with its color grading into white the upper and lower parts of the caudal fin have curved white extensions, giving this fin its characteristic lyre-tailed shape. The female is smaller, usually without much color. Sometimes golden, gray, or muddy, with rounded fins and iridescent bluish white margins on the pectoral fins. Body and unpaired fins have tiny red dots. All color and color...

Chemical Components

Cocoa is among the most concentrated sources of the flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, with four times the catechin content of tea (Arts et al 1999). Chocolate also contains additional flavonoids not found in tea, with high concentrations of oligomeric procyanidins (Lazarus et al 1999). Post-harvesting and processing pro 2007 Elsevier Australia cedures can have a striking influence on the flavanol content of chocolate and cocoa (Hollenberg et al 2004). Dark chocolate has the highest total catechin content with approximately 53.5 mg 100 g, whereas milk chocolate contains approximately 1 5.9 mg 100 g (Arts et al 1999). White chocolate primarily contains cocoa butter with minimal levels of polyphenols. Cocoa also contains the methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, the biogenic amines phenylethylamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine (Bruinsma & Taren 1999) and the cannabinoid-like fatty acid anandanine analogs, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine (Di Tomaso et al 1996)....

Inhibit Platelet Function

In another randomised trial of 30 healthy volunteers 100 mg of dark chocolate, but not white or milk chocolate, were found to significantly inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation (Innes et al 2003). The alteration of eicosanoid synthesis has been suggested as a plausible mechanism by which procyanidins can decrease platelet activation, and has been observed in an in vitro study of the effect of procyanidin on aortic endothelial cells, as well as in a randomised, blinded, crossover study of high procyanidin chocolate (4.0 mg g) (Schramm et al 2001).

Psychological Effects

Chocolate is purported to have a range of psychological effects, including enhanced arousal and cognitive function, stimulation of feelings of wellbeing and euphoria, as well as initiating cravings. The orosensory aspects of chocolate, including its taste, smell and texture, certainly contribute to chocolate's positive appeal. Chocolate contains large amounts of fat in the form of cocoa butter, which melts at body temperature producing a pleasurable melt-in-the-mouth experience. Chocolate also often contains large amounts of sugar and thus satisfies the seemingly innate preference for sweet, high-fat, foods (Bruinsma & Taren 1999). In addition to unique sensory properties, chocolate also contains many pharmacologically active substances. Several endogenous biogenic amines with sympathomimetic properties are found in chocolate, most notably tyramine and phenylethylamine (Hurst 1982). Phenylethylamine is an amphetamine analogue structurally related to methylenedioxymethamphetamine...

Inhibition Ofdental Caries

Cocoa contains substances that protect against dental caries (Palenik et al 1977, s'Gravenmade et al 1977) and in vitro experiments have shown that monomeric polyphenols and tannins from cocoa may interfere with glucosyltransferase activity of Streptococcus mutans and reduce plaque formation (Kashket etal 1985). Similar results were reported in hamsters, with a marked caries-inhibitive effect found with a water-extract of cocoa (Stralfors 1966). Cocoa bean husk, while not used in cocoa or chocolate, demonstrates antibacterial properties attributed to its unsaturated fatty acids and antiglucosyltransferase activities attributed to epicatechin polymers, as well as being shown both in vitro and in vivo to possess significant antiplaque activity (Matsumoto et al 2004).

Cardiovascular Disease

Dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, was observed to significantly improve endothelial and platelet function in healthy smokers, with increased flow-mediated dilatation, increased total antioxidant status and reduced shear stress dependent platelet function seen 2-8 hours after ingestion (Hermann et al 2006). Dark chocolate has also been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease blood pressure in healthy people (Grassi et al 2005a). Similar results were obtained in a RCT using 100 g of dark chocolate containing approximately 500 mg polyphenols which was consumed daily for 1 5 days. Chocolate was found to decrease DBP by -11.9 7.7 mmHg, decrease serum LDL-cholesterol from 3.4 to 3.0 mmol L, improve flow-mediated dilation, and reduce insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension (Grassi et al 2005b). Similarly, a study of male soccer players found that consumption of 105 g of flavanol-containing milk chocolate...

Premenstrual Syndrome

Magnesium deficiency may contribute to the symptomology of PMS, which may be improved by chocolate or cocoa powder, which contain a high concentration of magnesium ( 100 mg 100 g in chocolate and 520 mg 100 g in cocoa powder). There is also some evidence to suggest that serotonin levels are low premenstrually, and it is possible that premenstrual chocolate cravings are the body's attempt to raise CNS concentrations of serotonin (Bruinsma & Taren 1999).

Enhanced Cognitive Function

The results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that both milk and dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, improve cognitive function. A second double-blind study suggests that this improvement is due to the methylxanthin content of chocolate, with 11.6 g of cocoa powder producing identical improvements in cognitive function and the mood construct 'energetic arousal' as a mixture of caffeine (19 mg) and theobromine (250 mg) (Smit et al 2004). Consumption of a 65 g chocolate bar was shown to significantly increase driving accuracy and reduce collisions compared to an equicaloric snack of cheese and biscuits or no snack in a controlled trial of 12 volunteers (Smith & Rich 1998).

Adverse Reactions

It is believed that chocolate is a trigger for migraine, yet there is inconsistent support for this. In one small double-blind, parallel-group study of 12 patients who believed that chocolate could provoke their attacks, chocolate ingestion was more likely than placebo to trigger a typical migraine episode, with the median time until the onset of the attack of 22 hours (Gibb et al 1991). Three other double-blind placebo-controlled trials suggest that chocolate on its own rarely precipitates migraine (Marcus et al 1997, Moffett et al 1974), with the results of one trial suggesting that chocolate was no more likely to provoke headache than was carob in typical migraine, tension-type, or combined headache sufferers (Marcus et al 1997). There is no evidence that chocolate contributes to acne (Ravenscroft 2005).

Behavior And Reproduction

Some ornithologists believe that the greater painted snipe of Australia is a distinct species, a third painted snipe. It has longer wings, a shorter bill, and shorter legs than greater painted snipes found elsewhere in the world. Coloration in Australian populations is also different, since the males' gray tail is paler and females have a chocolate-brown rather than reddish brown head, as well as round tail spots. Finally, the calls of Australian painted snipes sound different from the low booming call of other greater painted snipes.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Adverse effects orthostatic hypotension, agitation, tremor, seizures, muscle spasms, urinary retention, paresthesias, jaundice, tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis (e.g., some cheeses, chianti wine, chocolate, liver, fava beans, avocados) exaggerated response to indirect-acting sympathomimetics interaction with opioids (may cause excitatory or depressive reactions excitatory reaction thought to be central serotonergic overactivity manifesting as hypertension, hypotension, tachycardia, diaphoresis, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, seizures, coma meperidine has been associated with fetal excitatory reactions) inhibition of hepatic enzymes

Geneticization and BRCA1

Consider, for example, the ways in which biomedicine directs attention primarily to the level of the individual by encouraging each woman to develop high levels of fear about her own risk of contracting breast cancer. In the name of health promotion, women are repeatedly warned of the risk each faces of developing this disease. Many women are easily frightened into a mind-set where they are preoccupied with monitoring their bodies for threatening signs of change (or where they guiltily avoid checking their breasts for fear of discovering some suspicious lump) if a lump is detected, they are primed to quickly seek expert advice and biomedical interventions. This focus on individual responsibility and surveillance occurs as part of a much larger public health campaign aimed at self-regulation not only are women asked to pay worried and regular attention to their breasts, they are also advised to change lifelong eating habits, develop healthy exercise programs, learn stress management...

DNA Analytical Methods

DNA-based detection methods are primarily based on multiplying a specific (for example genetically modified) DNA with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Two short pieces of synthetic DNA (called primers) are needed, each complementary to one end of the DNA to be multiplied. During the reaction, copies of the target DNA sequence are made and subsequently visualised. No copy is detected if the target DNA is not present. It is possible to detect DNA in fresh plant tissue, but also in highly processed foods like cakes or chocolate. The PCR results can be quantified giving an estimation of the amount of GM component in the sample tested.

Purplebearded Beeeater Meropogon forsteni

Physical characteristics Purple-bearded bee-eaters are easily identified from other bee-eaters because they have a purple-blue head, throat, and breast. They are colorful birds, with dark green upper-parts, wings, and tail streamers dark brown lower belly green and russet (reddish brown) tail feathers blackish forehead and crown (the top of a bird's head) chocolate on the sides and back of the neck. The long, broad throat feathers hang over the breast, and the neck and nape feathers form a coat that is sleeked down or fluffed out. When flying, they look mostly green, with broad rounded wings, a longish tail, and short-to medium tail streamers. Purple-bearded bee-eaters are 9.8 to 10.2 inches (25 to 26 centimeters) long without

Nonneoplastic Conditions

Endometriosis within the ovary may take the form of an endometriotic cyst. These can be single or multiple and are often bilateral. They generally have a thick fibrous wall which is yellow to brown in colour with a ragged internal surface. The cyst contents are typically brown fluid which may be inspissated, giving rise to the term chocolate cyst of the ovary. Rarely, tumours can arise within ovarian endometriotic cysts and these usually take the form of a thickened area within the wall. Endometriosis within the ovary may also be non-cystic, appearing as small red, blue or brown spots. Often, endometriotic foci are not apparent to the naked eye.

Cen Tm I I I I 1OITI 15qter

It was therefore tempting to determine why or how a rather consistent sequence length of chromosome material could accidentally be deleted from the whole chromosome as would, to use a comparison, a chocolate square easily be split off from the whole plate As a result of this search, '' hot spots'' prone or predisposed to repeated breakage accidents were characterized by studying the breakpoint regions in YAC clones (Kuwano et al., 1992), the identification of restriction fragments positive for the same genomic DNA probes (Amos-Landgraf et al., 1999), or by FISH analyses in which more than one hybridizing signal was detected after hybridization with the same probe (Carrozzo et al., 1997).

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

Physical characteristics The cactus wren measures in length from about 7.2 to 8.5 inches (18 to 21.6 centimeters) and is the largest species of wren in North America. In color, the bird is a chocolate brown on top with a plain cap. Its back is streaked very prominently in black and white, and the wings, which can spread to a length of 10.7 inches (over 27 centimeters), are barred with buff and black tones. The tail feathers vary between having blackish brown and gray-brown bars. The outer tail feathers are very noticeably barred black and white. The underparts of the bird are buff-white and are spotted heavily with black, especially on the chest. Eyes are reddish brown with a dull black bill that has a paler base. Its legs are a pinkish brown.

Graeme J Poston and Louise E Jones

The clinical course of patients with nonresectable metastatic carcinoid is highly variable and largely unpredictable (1-4). Patients with high tumor burden can remain relatively asymptomatic for years, totally oblivious to their disease. Others with minimal residual (but nonresect-able) disease in the small-bowel mesentery can suffer all the symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome without having disease in the liver (vide supra). However, the majority of patients with carcinoid metastatic to the liver will exhibit at least some, if not all of the symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome (1-4). These symptoms include facial and sometimes torso flushing which may progress to rosacea and scleroderma (5), and may include the cutaneous manifestations of pellagra (5). Other symptoms include diarrhea, breathlessness, and wheezing and may be precipitated by certain foods including alcohol and chocolate. The exact hormonal mechanism of these symptoms remains unknown.

Nucifraga caryocatactes

Physical characteristics Spotted nutcrackers are named for their appearance and the way they use their large bills to take the shells off of nuts. There are white spots and streaks in their feathers. The spotted nutcracker's brown body plumage is the color of chocolate. The lower part of the body is white. The wing and tail feathers are a shiny black. There are white tips at the ends of the wings and feathers. The spotted nutcracker's bill, legs, and feet are black.

Mints Spearmint And Peppermint

How Prepared and Consumed Greeks and Romans used peppermint in condiments, cordials, and fruits. Europeans use it in sweet products such as desserts, candy, jams, jellies, chocolates, cordials, liqueurs, and cigarettes. In Europe, the crystallized leaves are also used as decorations in cakes and pastries. Today in the United States, peppermint is mainly used in bakery products, teas, and confectionery. In England, peppermint is used in savory products, such as sauces for roast lamb, boiled mutton, peas, potatoes, and in teas, chocolate, and vinegar. Middle Easterners use chopped peppermint in many dishes yogurt dressings, dips, salads, vegetables, grilled lamb, poultry, fish, and in teas. Dried leaves are popular in many North African and Middle Eastern cuisines including Turkish and Iranian cooking. They are used in dry blends, meat and fish marinades, and beverages. Mint tea is widely consumed by Arabic cultures.

Minerals and mental health

The richest sources of the trace mineral copper in the diet are organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain breads and cereals, and chocolate. In addition to other functions, copper is involved in iron metabolism in the body and in brain function. Deficiency of copper causes anemia, with inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and other organs. Copper deficiency also impairs brain functioning and immune system response, including changes in certain chemical receptors in the brain and lowered levels of neurotransmitters.


Azo-PCB into two separate azoxy-PCB derivatives, which have significantly greater antitumor activity than PCB or azo-PCB 90,91 . Once activated, PCB alkylates DNA at the O6 position of guanine 92 . In addition, PCB can induce DNA strand breakage and inhibit DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. PCB has further pharmacological properties, including activity as a monoamine oxidase-inhibitor and a disulfiram-like effect 8,21 . Potential interactions (i.e., acute hypertension) can occur if PCB is taken concomitantly with sympathomimetic drugs, antihis-tamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and food, high in tyramine content (e.g., wine, beer, cheese, chocolate, bananas, and yogurt) 93 . Due to the disulfiram-like effect, alcohol should be avoided while taking PCB, or severe gastrointestinal distress will develop. Although water soluble, PCB and its metabolites readily cross the blood-brain barrier, with rapid equilibration between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

Plant Parts Used

Cocoa is produced through a process of fermenting the seeds from the pods of the cacao tree Theobroma cacao. The beans are dried, roasted, and crushed to produce high-fat, unsweetened chocolate, which is also called baking chocolate. This intermediate is pressed and alkalised to form cocoa powder, which is then homogenised with sugar and cocoa butter, and sometimes milk, to ultimately form chocolate. Dark chocolate generally contains more than 50 cocoa, whereas mass-produced milk chocolate only contains around 10 cocoa. White chocolate is based on cocoa butter (or theobroma oil) without the cocoa solids. Although many different types of cocoa beans grow throughout the world, three varieties of cocoa beans are mainly used to make chocolate products (a) criollo (meaning 'native'), distributed to the north and west of the Andes, (b) forastero (meaning 'foreign'), found mainly in the Amazon basin, and (c) trinitario (meaning 'sent from heaven') (Bruinsma & Taren 1999).

Food Source

Cocoa and chocolate are nutritious foods that contribute to caloric as well as trace mineral intake (Steinberg et al 2003). Milk chocolate has a relatively low glycaemic index of approximately 40 (Foster-Powell et al 2002) and this is attributed to the fat in chocolate slowing gastric emptying and thus the rate of subsequent digestion and absorption. The glycaemic effect of milk chocolate can be further reduced by replacing the sucrose with fructose or isomalt (Gee et al 1991). Foods containing cocoa have been shown to lead to a greater postprandial insulin secretion in healthy young adults than foods with alternative flavourings, despite having a similar glycaemic index. It is suggested that specific insulinogenic amino acids or greater cephalic phase insulin release may explain this finding, although the clinical implications are uncertain (Miller et al 1995). Milk chocolate has also been shown to be a cheap, effective and palatable form of fatty meal for producing gall bladder...

Conservative therapy

- Dietary modifications - avoid caffeine,fatty foods, chocolate, spicy foods, peppermint, onions, garlic, tomatoes,and citrus products 50 . However, this life style modification is being recommended less often given effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in treating GERD. Other lifestyle changes include weight loss and decreased alcohol intake. Several foods contribute to reflux symptoms, and should be avoided. Foods with an acidic pH can both lower the LES pressure and increase gastric acid secretion, and can precipitate symptoms 30 . Caffeine irritates the esophageal mucosa and increases acid secretion, while fatty foods delay gastric emptying 29 . Additional culprits include chocolate, peppermint, spicy foods, and onions.


The Caribs, Mayans, and other Native Americans dyed their bodies with annatto oil to protect against the sun, thus giving rise to the term redskin by the early European settlers in the Americas. Aztecs used annatto seeds to intensify the color of their chocolate drink. This practice of coloring traveled to Europe, where annatto is now used to give a deep yellow color to butter and cheese. Often called saffron by Puerto Ricans, this spice was introduced to India by the Portuguese and to the Philippines by the Spanish.

Banded leafmonkey

There is considerable variation in coat coloration between subspecies. Fur ranges from off-white gray through reddish orange to chocolate dorsally and from white through cream to pale orange ventrally. There is relatively little sexual dimorphism in body size, with males being only slightly bigger than females. Head and body length 19.5 in (49.0 cm) for males and 20 in (49.5 cm) for females tail length 28.5 in (71.0 cm) for males and 28.5 in (71.0 cm) for females. Body mass 14 lb 8 oz (6.59 kg) for males and 14lb 4 oz (6.47 kg) for females.


Proanthocyanidins are dimers, oligomers, and polymers of flavan-3-ols and are formed by enzymatic or chemical condensation. These so-called condensed tannins contribute to astringent tastes in fruits (e.g., grapes, peaches, apples, pears, berries etc.), beverages (e.g., wine, cider, tea, beer etc.) and chocolate. At a lower degree of polymerization they are colorless and bitter to taste, but with greater polymerization the taste becomes astringent and the color yellow to brown. Proanthocyanidins purely consisting of catechin and epicatechin monomers are called procyanidins, which are the most common type of proanthocyanidins. Less abundant are the prodelphinidins, which include both epicatechin and gallocatechin monomers.

Harpy fruit bat

Head and body length, 5.5-6 in (14-15.3 cm) forearm length, 3.2-3.6 in (8.2-9.2 cm) no tail weight, 2.9-5 oz (83-142 g). Pelage is chocolate to dark brown, ventrum is lighter. Differs from all other fruit bats in its dental structure. The molars have 5-6 cusps, the lower canines have three cusps, and the incisors are directed forward.

Some Considerations

Medium, large, and extra large respondents answer either yes or no manufactured parts either pass or do not pass quality control or dessert choice is sorbet, tiramisu, chocolate mousse, or apple tart. In many analyses, discrete variables are the grouping variables (treatment group vs. control) for a main analysis such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) or logistic regression. Assumptions for discrete variables relate to the frequency of cases in the various categories. Problems arise when there are too few cases in some of the categories, as discussed later.

Redrumped agouti

Forelegs, and mid-back are a greenish brown the rump is a dark red to bright fire orange (this may not be visible unless the rump hairs are erect). There is sometimes a crest of longer black hairs between the shoulders and up to the top of the head. The belly varies from shades of muddy to pure orange, sometimes with a white midline. Populations on Caribbean islands tend to be smaller than those on the mainland and are less colorful, being dark brown with long chocolate-colored hairs forming a cape over the shoulders.

Thickbilled weaver

6.7-7.5 in (17-19 cm) female 1.1-1.6 oz (31-45 g), male 1.5-2.1 oz (43-60 g). Breeding male chocolate brown with white forehead, white patch in wing conspicuous in flight. Heavy black bill. White on forehead variable, absent in non-breeding plumage. Female has brown upperparts, underparts white heavily streaked with brown. Heavy yellowish bill. Juvenile like female, more rufous above and buffy below. Bill dull brown.

Experimental Studies

In many studies of cognitive, language, and motor development, infants or children participate in tasks designed to examine children's abilities and knowledge using habituation dishabituation paradigms in infancy (Baillargeon, 1994) and actual cognitive motor tasks (Campos, Bertenthal, & Ker-moian, 1992 Newcombe & Huttenlocher, 1992 Werker, 1989). For example, in work on theory of mind, researchers have used tasks such as the false belief task. In this task, children see a scene where a character, Maxi, puts chocolate in a drawer, and while Maxi is out of the room another person moves the chocolate. Children are asked where Maxi will look for the chocolate to determine at what age children can understand the difference between what they believe to be true and what others believe (Wimmer & Perner, 1983). These types of studies rarely use a multimethod approach, instead relying primarily on the experimental tasks to assess a specified cognitive ability.

Black flying fox

Head and body length (19-28 cm), forearm 6-7.5 in (15-19 cm), wingspan up to 3.3 ft (1 m) weight 1.1-2.2 lb (500-1,000 g). The fur on the head is black, the mantle ranges from chocolate brown to reddish brown, and white hairs frequently appear over the body, including the underside.


How Prepared and Consumed nutmeg loses its flavor quickly when ground, so generally it is grated just before cooking or baking. Also, to retain its flavor, nutmeg is added toward the end of cooking. It complements chocolate, fruits, custards, vanilla, coconut milk, lemongrass, and kari leaves. Europeans use it in mashed potatoes, rice dishes, pastas, soups, rice puddings, pies, eggnog, biscuits, and milk-based drinks. Nutmeg provides an intense, sweet, spicy aroma to pastries, cakes, sweet rolls, banana bread, pumpkin pies and apple pies, ice cream, chocolate, and lemon desserts. Nutmeg is also used in cheese fondues, and it enhances savory products such as vegetable stews, bechamel sauce, tomato sauce, processed meats, and pork patties.

Antireflux barrier

LES resting pressure exhibits a significant diurnal variation. During daytime, LES pressure is lower in comparison to the postprandial and nighttime periods 1 . Additionally, various substances such as hormones, drugs and foods influence the LES basal pressure. Substances that increase LES pressure include gastrin, motilin, substance P, alfa-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenergic agonists, protein, histamine, me-toclopramide and prostaglandin F2a. Substances that decrease LES basal pressure include secretin, chole-cystokinin, glucagon, somatostatin, progesterone, alfa-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, fat, chocolate, ethanol, peppermint, theophylline, prosta-glandin E2, serotonin, morphine, calcium channel blockers, diazepam and barbiturates 2 .

Siberian ibex

The largest and heaviest member of the genus, with the longest horns. Head and body length 67 in (171 cm), height 43 in (110 cm), and weight 286 lb (130 kg). Horns are scimitarlike, swept back and laterally compressed, with prominent transverse ridges on the front surface and reach 60 in (148 cm). Horns of females are much shorter. Males have a long beard. Color is very variable, from light gray to dark chocolate brown.