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Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Parenting is a challenging task. As a single parent, how can you juggle work, parenting, and possibly college studies single handedly and still manage to be an ideal parent for your child? Read the 65-page eBook Single Parenting Becoming The Best Parent For Your Child to find out how. Loaded with tips, it can inspire, empower, and instruct you to successfully face the challenges of parenthood.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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Emergence of Camrsa as a Cause of Pneumonia in Otherwise Healthy Children

The emergence of CA-MRSA as a cause of pneumonia in otherwise healthy children (and adults) has now been reported in many parts of the United States (Herold et al., 1998 Gorak et al., 1999 Buckingham et al., 2003 Buckingham et al., 2004 Alfaro et al., 2005 Gonzalez et al., 2005b), adolescents (Alfaro et al., 2005 Gonzalez et al., 2005b) and adults (Gorak et al., 1999 Francis et al., 2005). Pneumonia caused by CA-MRSA has been associated with severe local (pleural effusion, empyema, pneumatocele) and systemic (metastatic foci, toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing fasciiitis, sepsis, Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome) complications. And, unlike the controversy regarding the effects of discordant therapy on the outcome of pneumonia caused by penicillin cefotaxime-resistant pneumococci, there is no doubt that the available beta-lactam antibiotics (including cefotaxime and ceftriaxone) will fail to successfully treat pneumonia and other serious infections caused by CA-MRSA.

The Plan Of This Volume

Authors use a systems approach to understand the role of child care in the lives of very young children and their families. They argue that this field of study needs to include key mediating or moderating factors (temperament, parent-child relationships, family risk load) in order to understand the way in which child care impacts family development. Finally, in the chapter on culture and child development, Mistry and Saraswathi describe current understanding of the interface between culture and child development by integrating literature from three subfields of psychology cultural psychology, cross-cultural psychology, and developmental psychology. They illustrate the complementary contributions of the three subfields in unraveling the culture-individual interface by presenting selective overviews of three topic areas of development development of self, development of children's narratives, and development of remembering.

Relationships The Development Ofattachments

Freud (1940 1963) described the infant-mother relationship as unique, without parallel, established unalterably for a whole lifetime as the first and strongest love-object and as the prototype of all later love-relations. (p. 45) Although the typical conditions of early care in Western cultures have changed significantly since Freud's day (i.e., fathers, child-care providers, babysitters, and extended family members now share infant care with mothers), Freud's famous assertion draws attention to the importance of the initial attachments a baby develops to caregivers and to their potentially enduring significance. An attachment can be described as an enduring affectional bond that unites two or more people across time and context, and the development of attachment relationships between infants and their caregivers is one of the hallmarks of early socioemotional growth (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978 Bowlby, 1969 1982 Cassidy & Shaver, 1999).

Developmental Aspects of Attachments

Although virtually all infants become attached to their care-givers, not all attachments exhibit characteristics that attachment theorists define as secure (Ainsworth et al., 1978). Whereas the markers of a secure attachment are the child's confident exploration and secure base behavior in the care-giver's company, as well as ready soothing of distress when the child is upset, infants sometimes develop attachments to caregivers that reflect uncertainty or distrust in the responsiveness of the parent, child-care provider, or other caregiver. Infants with insecure attachments are not so easily soothed by the caregiver, and their exploratory play may be better characterized either by independence or by anxious dependency on the adult (Ainsworth et al., 1978 Colin, 1996 Thompson, 1998). An insecure attachment is not, however, equivalent to no attachment at all. Even a young child who is uncertain about the caregiver's nurturance derives important emotional support from the caregiver's...

Defining Applied Developmental Science

Time in the pages of Child Development, the prestigious archival journal of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD). Child Development had been singularly devoted to theory-driven, basic research. Now, after more than six decades of advancing science as a means to expand our understanding of human development, SRCD has formally welcomed into its major journal research that uses this knowledge on children's behalf the result of a very gradual transformation within SRCD from a scientist's science toward a more public science (Zigler, 1998, p. 532). The continuing vicissitudes of the gaps and synergies between applied and basic research will be a theme of the historical sketch offered in the next section (see also Garner, 1972). In 1991 a National Task Force on Applied Developmental Science convened representatives from abroad, but not an exhaustive range of professional scientific organizations concerned with the application of the knowledge base of developmental psychology...

Domains Of Inquiry And Action In Applied Developmental Science

Medicine Wheel Template

Early child care & education Early childhood education Education reform & schooling Literacy inquiry and action to provide a sense of the broad scope of ADS. Recent textbooks (e.g., Fisher & Lerner, 1994), review chapters (e.g., Zigler & Finn-Stevenson, 1999), handbooks (e.g., Lerner, Jacobs & Wertlieb, 2002 Sigel & Renninger, 1998), special issues of journals (e.g., Hetherington, 1998), and regular sections of journals such as the Applied Developmental Theory section of Infants and Young Children provide ongoing articulation of ADS inquiry. Journals such as the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Applied Developmental Science, and Children's Services Social Policy, Research and Practice are among the central outlets for new work in ADS. Each of the chapters that follow in the present volume on developmental psychology reflects, to varying degrees, some influence of ADS in establishing the current state of knowledge, and the final section of this volume...

Spheniscus magellanicus

Behavior and reproduction Like other penguins the Magellanic species breeds in large colonies. They often return to the same nesting site year after year. This bird nests in burrows where possible, in ground nests when not. Both sexes build the nest and share all incubation and parenting duties. The chick from the second laid egg is less likely to survive than its older sibling. The chicks are fed regurgitated food every two to three days.

Antepartum Postpartum Depression

Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of heightened depressive risk for patients who may wish to avoid pharmacotherapy. Spinelli & Endicott (2003) compared 16 weeks of IPT to a weekly parenting education control programme in a group of 38 antepartum women with major depression. Pregnancy is deemed a role transition that involves the depressed pregnant woman's self-evaluation as a parent, physiological changes of pregnancy, and altered relationships with the spouse or significant other and with other children. 'Complicated pregnancy' has been added as a fifth potential interpersonal problem area. Session timing and duration are adjusted for bed rest, delivery, obstetrical complications, and child care, and postpartum mothers may bring children to sessions. As with depressed HIV-positive patients, therapists use telephone sessions and hospital visits as necessary (Spinelli, 1997). The IPT group showed significantly greater improvement of depression than the parent education...

Prevention and treatment

Interventions are usually aimed at two levels community prevention efforts and individual parenting skills. A community-based program that actually combines the two facets of intervention is the Parents as Teachers program, which is available through many local school districts throughout the nation and is free of charge. Benefits of the program include its accessibility parents simply need to call for the free service and the in-home interventions provided by the program. Although the program is not part of the social service network of agencies, the fact that workers go into the home replicates that aspect of caseworker interventions. The simple act of having a paraprofessional in one's home can reduce the likelihood of neglect. Specific interventions that further reduce the likelihood of neglect include focusing on the parent-child relationship, reviewing appropriate expectations for the child's behavior (based on child development principles), and teaching basic parenting skills....

Research From Our Approach

To exemplify the ways in which our perspective shapes problems of relevance for contextual aspects of environment behavior research, we now complement previous mention of our studies with a more comprehensive description of our work on six problems. These six problems (three treating the general contexts of the person and three of the environment) are as follows onset of diabetes (physical context of person) changes in experience and action related to psychiatric hospitalization (psychological context of person) transition to parenthood (socio-cultural context of person) urban contexts for children (physical context of environment) protection against AIDS in sexual situations (interpersonal context of environment) and experience and action in the context of automobile driving before and after mandatory legislation (sociocultural context of environment). Transition to Parenthood (Sociocultural Context of Person) Extensive consideration of the sociocultural context of the person with...

Gender Change Out of Demographic Change

In all of these cases of resistance, we can see another way of viewing the relationship between gender and demographic behavior the way that the direction of influence can vary. In Kenya, increased access to contraceptives has given women new space to negotiate their relationships to men. In Japan, lower fertility and delayed marriage may lead to changes in women's and men's lives that will result in increased opportunities for women outside the home and or more shared responsibility by men for home and child care tasks. In China, lower fertility has come with high sex ratios at birth and new dangers to girls and women living under two competing pressures from the state and the family. While there are many ways that demographic change could influence gender relations and hierarchies in a society, this is not an area that has received a lot of attention. The work above speaks to the importance of this aspect of demographic change. Perhaps the bulk of research in this area has been done...

Cognitive Development

The psychometric approach to assessing cognitive abilities by means of specific tests has, for the most part, not adhered to any specific theory. Rather, it has been guided by the empirical results of correlational and factor-analytic studies designed to isolate the basic dimensions of intellectual functioning. Recently, more attention has been devoted to establishing certain theoretical foundations, based on research in child development, brain physiology, information-processing, and computer-oriented concepts. For example, construction of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) was guided by Cattell's theoretical distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence. Certain intelligence tests are also based on neuropsychological theories such as Aleksandr Luria's conception of different brain areas as being responsible for simultaneous and successive processing of information (see Das, Naglieri, & Kirby, 1994). Of all conceptions of intelligence, however, the...

Conclusions And Implications For Practice

There should be a government led process of consultation to review the current age of criminal responsibility in the light of clinical and research evidence about the developmental immaturity and psychiatric disturbance of many young child defendants. All child defendants facing serious criminal charges (murder, manslaughter, abduction, rape or grievous bodily harm) should be assessed by a clinical psychologist and by a child psychiatrist. There should be agreement between clinical psychologists and child psychiatrists as to the principles of such psychological and psychiatric assessments. If appropriate, pre-trial therapy should be provided for all child defendants suffering from identifiable and treatable psychiatric disorders. A child defendant's pack should be made available to inform children facing criminal charges about their rights and the legal process. Relevant training covering the areas of child development, psychiatric and psychological issues, the relevant forensic and...

Influence of Age and Sex on Metal Toxicity

It has long been claimed that certain age groups are at increased risk (i.e., young children and the elderly). During the past decade, quantitative data have become available to document these claims. Several investigations have dealt with young animals and children, and data on elderly people are also forthcoming. The fetus is regarded as especially vulnerable, because many functions are not fully developed until after birth, and several possibilities exist for contact between the fetus and toxic metals. The toxic effects caused by metals on development of the fetus are discussed in Chapter 12. Methylmercury is known to cross the placental barrier and to accumulate in the fetus. It is well documented that fetal exposure to methylmercury can cause intrauterine methylmercury poisoning (Chapter 33). Lead crosses the placental barrier, and prenatal lead exposure may play a role for later development. The fetal brain does not tolerate lead to the same extent as the adult brain does (cf...

From Carriage to Clinical Disease

Human beings are the sole natural hosts of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacterium is spread from one human to another by droplets. Pneumococci are frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of both healthy children and adults, although carriage rates differ greatly from one age group and population to another. Depending on the geographic location carriage acquisition occurs either earlier or later in life (O'Brien et al., 2003). Risk factors for early carriage are those that increase the chance of transmission such as poor living conditions, crowding, and presence of older siblings in the household. The transmission cycle has lately been the target of intense interest, arising largely in response to vaccine development and also epidemiological observations following introduction of PCV in the United States. In most cases it seems that younger siblings are infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by an older sibling or another child living in close vicinity or attending the...

Immunisations Allergens eg house dust mite

In conclusion, PBMC from healthy children produce markedly less IFN-y than those of adults, but no consistent differences are found in the production of other cytokines. It is tempting to propose that the immunopathology found in adults is not only due to a vigorous memory response (the Koch phenomenon), but also to age-related changes in cytokine secretion. Secondly, in a Western Cape community with rampant tuberculosis, disease incidence was linked not only to socioeconomic deprivation, but also to serum IgE levels. It remains to be determined if this association simply reflects higher parasite loads in the more disadvantaged subdistricts or whether it implies a causal relationship, i.e. whether chronic Th2 stimulation predisposes a community to tuberculosis (Fig. 3). Thirdly, the decrease in IgE levels following tuberculosis may be due to chronic Th1 stimulation during disease. This finding supports the argument that effective anti-tuberculosis vaccination, inducing a long-lasting...

Social and Economic Differences

The social interests of women are not limited to family members and friendships but extend to the wider community and larger geographical units. Career-oriented women are more likely to enter helping professions such as child care, teaching, nursing, and social work than other fields (Eagly & Crowley, 1986). On a nonprofessional level, women are more likely than men to be called upon as caregivers. Many participate in community service, religious, and volunteer activities of various kinds. In the political sphere, their greater concern with the disadvantaged leads women to vote more often to support the Democratic platform and to vote for Democratic candidates in elections. This is particularly true when matters of great concern to them, such as abortion or child care, are at issue.

Awareness of the child in the consultation

This chapter continues with the theme of working with families, but in particular, the nuclear family and addresses the variety of ways parents and children come into genetic counselling. The counsellor will have gained an understanding of child development from clinical experience in paediatrics, general medicine or from the experience of being clinically involved with a number of children who have conditions which are genetically determined. It is not considered appropriate to give detailed theoretical points of child development from a cognitive or emotional perspective. Rather, the chapter begins with a general awareness of children as part of the consultation system before discussing how worries about children are considered in genetic counselling. Case examples will be presented which will demonstrate the salient points of family functioning around child problems and includes requests for testing children for adult-onset disorders.

The genetic disorder and parental overprotection

One of the developmental tasks for the family is to allow the child to move out of dependency to become an autonomous adult. The ability to launch the developing child into the world is a challenge for any family. The developmental path of the child involves negotiating several maturational hurdles going to school, establishing peer contacts, working and creating another family. The detachment of the child from the parents is related to the parents' ability to let go and to say goodbye. As part of the growing-up process the parents have to tolerate the fact that their children may have different views. This is a mark of healthy development within the family. Families often get into difficulties around the challenge of the child becoming more separate and the difficulties can result in an interruption in the natural thrust of the child's maturational development and age-appropriate behaviour. The genetic counsellor will be interested in the influence of a genetic disorder on the family...

Gender identity disorder

In pathological cases, however, children deviate from the normal model of exploring masculine and feminine behaviors. Such children develop inflexible, compulsive, persistent, and rigidly stereotyped patterns. On one extreme are boys who become excessively masculine. The opposite extreme is seen in effeminate boys who reject their masculinity and rigidly insist that they are really girls or that they want to become mothers and bear children.

Validation of Standards and Technique

Correlations between chronological age and bone age assessed with the Greulich and Pyle method and the digital atlas in healthy children of European descent of all ages and in adolescents 12 to 15 years old. The digital system provided slightly stronger correlations, although these differences were not statistically significant. Table 1. Correlations between chronological age and bone age assessed with the Greulich and Pyle method and the digital atlas in healthy children of European descent of all ages and in adolescents 12 to 15 years old. The digital system provided slightly stronger correlations, although these differences were not statistically significant.

Conventional Techniques for Skeletal Determinations

Greulich And Pyle Atlas

Underlying the construction of the Greulich and Pyle atlas are the assumptions that, in healthy children, skeletal maturation is uniform, that all bones have an identical skeletal age, and that the appearance and subsequent development of body centers follow a fixed pattern. However, considerable evidence suggests that a wide range of normal variation exists in the pattern of ossification of the different bones of the hand and the wrist and that this variation is genetically determined. In fact, most standards in the atlas include bones that differ considerably in their levels of maturity 10 .

Microbial Degradation of Mucin

In all mammalian species so far studied, the intestinal microbiota is capable of breaking down mucin (8). In healthy children the function is successively established within the first year of life. It has also been shown that the microbiota might act upon the glycosylation pattern of mucin (32). In fact, alteration in glycosylation was the first observation of a molecular, quorum sensing dependent cross-talk between a host and a single microbial strain present in the GI tract (33). Also regarding this intestinal function, it has been demonstrated that different antibiotics cause disturbance of this microbial function in animals and man (34,35).

A fathers attempt to protect his child from experiencing a disappointment similar to his own

The counsellor had a considerable task of laying the debate in front of the family and working within the context of the particular experiences and individual life story. The most obvious intervention for the genetic counsellor was educative, presenting the ethical dilemma of balancing the child's right to privacy against the parents' right to know and, to observe the effect of that educative intervention. The theme which repeatedly emerged in the consultation was the man's personal disappointment of his dream being frustrated and his desire to protect his child from a similar grief. This led the counsellor to concentrate on a more psychological approach and to make an empathic statement such as 'You are telling me something about your own emotional pain and your desire to protect your child from a similar experience'. The man continued to talk about his disappointment and the effect it had on his life. He thought he had got over it but his upset had been resurrected by his child's...

Prenatal Genetic Testing

The use of pre-natal testing has become accepted over the past twenty years. Routine use is made of ultrasound scans to date and check the development of the foetus and are accepted by parents as a normal part of the ante-natal process. In addition to blood testing (and in some cases this includes HIV), many of these tests are accepted to the extent that they barely need consent (Lippman, 1991, p.21).17 The acceptance, or otherwise, of such prenatal testing is regarded as responsible parenting and failure to conform implies an increased risk of harm to the foetus and may incur the alienation of the health service provider or members of society generally.18 It is considered the norm.

The United States constitutional right of privacy

The conflation of privacywith libertyis a common problem in the United States. Indeed, this is the primary criticism levelled at the US constitutional right of privacy that was interpreted out of the Constitution by the Supreme Court in Griswold v. Connecticut.164 This case concerned Estelle Griswold, who was the Executive Director of the Planned Parenthood League in that state. In defiance of a statute criminalising contraception and acts aiding and abetting the use of contraception,165 Griswold provided information, instruction and medical advice to married couples as to the various means of preventing conception. She was successfully prosecuted under the law and fined 100. The constitutionality of the statute was immediately challenged and the case was ultimately heard by the Supreme Court. In a seminal decision, the Court 'interpreted out' of the US Constitution a right to privacy that is not expressly included therein. It did so by reference to what it called penumbras,...

The Psychoanalytical View

Musaph defined vaginismus as a hysterical symptom, or a conversion symptom (18). In other words, a psychological complaint (anxiety) is changed into a physical symptom (a vaginistic reaction). According to Musaph, why some women are vaginistic whereas other are not depends on whether they have a primary disposition towards suppression as a defense mechanism this might be towards a disrupted mother-child relationship, or other stressful situations that occurred in the oral and oedipal phase of emotional development.

Studies by Traditional Plate Culture Methods

Although these early studies have not received wider acknowledgment in the scientific community, they are well in agreement with later studies that began to accumulate a decade later. In one study Klebsiellae species were again found more frequently in the feces of 6-month-old infants with atopic eczema (n 27) and the presence of Streptococcus species was less frequent than in the healthy controls (n 10) (44). Collectively, the predominant anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic microbiota of allergic infants has been characterized by significantly lower prevalence of gram-positive species. In a study by Bjorksten and co-workers (1999), colonization by lactobacilli was shown to be less common in both Estonian and Swedish two-year-old children with food allergies (n 27) than in the age compatible healthy children (n 36), whilst the opposite was true for coliforms and

Economic Outcome Measures

The most important economic outcome of interest for clinical decision making and health policy formation is cumulative total cost, which considers both the activity level over time and unit costs (32,33). The activity level represents the amount of various resources used and the time expended in providing medical care. Unit costs represent the cost associated with each unit of activity. The major focus of such economic analyses relates to those resources and costs, which might differ between treatment groups. Direct medical costs represent the costs of providing medical services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, rehabilitation, and palliation of disease. These costs include those associated with hospitalization, professional services, pharmaceuticals, radiologic and laboratory testing, and home health care services. Direct nonmedical costs represent additional expenditures incurred while receiving medical care, such as transportation costs to and from the...

Indicators of Skeletal Maturity in Children and Adolescents

Capitate And Hamate Ossification Centres

The purpose of this section is to describe which bones in the hand and wrist are the most suitable indicators of skeletal maturity during the different phases of postnatal development. In the majority of healthy children, there is an established sequence of ossification for the carpal (Figure 3), metacar-pal and phalangeal bones, which is remarkably constant and the same for both sexes. Overall, the first ossification center to appear in hand and wrist radiographs is the capitate, and the last is, most often, the sesamoid of the adductor pollicis of the thumb 18 .

Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella and zoster. Varicella is the primary infection, and zoster is due to reactivation of latent VZV acquired during chickenpox. Each disease is characterized by a macu-lopapular and vesicular skin eruption, which in varicella is generalized, and in zoster is unilateral and usually localized. Varicella is often mild and uncomplicated in otherwise healthy children, but it may unpredictably be associated with significant morbidity and even mortality. In the United States, in the pre-vaccine era, there were about 100 annual deaths from varicella and 11,000 hospitalizations 1 . Most deaths from varicella occurred in individuals who were healthy before contracting varicella. The risk of developing zoster is increased in the immunocompromised and the elderly, and zoster may be severe but is rarely fatal. Studies in vaccinated leukemic children showed not only that the vaccine was safe but also that it was highly protective against...

Put Up a Rubber Tire Swing

As with any swing, make sure that your kids know to play safely around the tire swing, and supervise them when they're using it. Check the rope or chain often to make sure it's still secure. Check the tree limb, as well tire swing ropes have a habit of sawing through their tree limbs if used a lot.

Attract Butterflies to the Garden

Plant a guaranteed butterfly-magnet plant like butterfly bush (Buddleia) or butterfly weed (Asclepias). Milkweed and lantana are other fine choices. Your kids can have much fun watching as the local butterflies, and possibly even hummingbirds, visit the bush. Look for a book about butterfly species so your kids can have fun learning about the butterflies that live in your area.

Crime Prevention And The Individual

Crime prevention initiatives at the individual level have been classified as family-based, school-based and peer group-based (Graham, 1998). Successful interventions from the former category include the famous Perry pre-school programme (Schweinhart and Weikart, 1980) which targeted both children and their parents from low socio-economic families. Providing training in parenting skills is another form of family intervention, with successful examples including Patterson (1982) in the USA, and Utting (1996 unpublished study cited in Graham, 1998) in the UK. Both School-based interventions include the 'Effective Schools Project' (Gottfredson, 1987) which was aimed at changing the organisation and ethos of the schools, including improving the clarity of rules and the consistency with which they were enforced. This parallels the implication of harsh and inconsistent parenting in the development of delinquency (Farrington, 1996) and highlights the importance of providing safe and...

Demography Of Lgbt People

Likely to live in metropolitan areas, they do not necessarily live in the same communities. Although gay and lesbian communities seem to overlap to a large degree, lesbians tend to be more broadly integrated into an array of neighborhoods (Bailey, 1999). Same-sex couples with children (whether gay or lesbian) tend to live in states and metropolitan areas with relatively low concentrations of same-sex couples but high concentrations of other families raising children (Gates and Ost, 2004).

Dysmorphology clinics

When a child is born looking different, odd, or disfigured, then the difficulty is initially the parents' who have to process their disappointment. The success or failure of that process will determine their perception of the child and, as a consequence, the parent child relationship. Later on, the child will have to make the adjustments to cope with being different, struggle with personal self-image, attempt to integrate and be accepted by the peer group.

Integrating DTI and WMT with Function

Alternatively, one could ask whether specific tracts are related to behavioural differences. Beaulieu, et al. (2005) used a voxel-based analysis to correlate FA with reading ability in a group of healthy children. The novel aspect to this work was that the authors then used the direction of the principal eigenvector in significant clusters as seeds for WMT. This allowed them to identify potential tracts passing through the significant clusters. They were

Children and Adolescents

Your child may have trouble remaining seated for long periods, may need physical attention, and may be absent from school. This is a delicate problem, as it may be unacceptable to the child, especially if an adolescent, if all the teachers are aware of the health problem. The best solution may be to ask for a meeting with the school doctor or nurse. They can be informed in confidence about the problem, and they can provide teachers with information that may be necessary for practical reasons without divulging medical confidentiality.

Role Of The Social Environment As People

Theories about the social environments in later life typically have viewed the individual as a recipient or adaptive user of social resources rather than as an active person that engages him- or herself in the construal or even the production of the social environment (Lang 2001 Steverink, Lindenberg, and Ormel, 1998). Recent life-span approaches on the development of social relationships in later life have more explicitly addressed processes that influence and gear the individual's motivations, attitudes, and behaviors toward other people throughout the life course. Most prominently among these are the social convoy model (Antonucci, Langfahl, and Akiyama, 2004), the socio-emotional selectivity theory (Carstensen et al., 1999) and resource-oriented models of social behavior (Lang, 2004). Also, research on parent-child relationships has a long tradition in research on social relations as people age (Frankel and DeWit, 1989 Rosenmayr and Kockeis, 1965 Tartler, 1961). In the following,...

Observational Methods Parent Child Relations

Early Relational Assessment (Clark, 1985) with maternal self-report on the Brief Symptom Index (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983) and The Parenting Stress Index (Albin, 1990), depending on the parental construct and the context (feeding or free play) of the observation. In another observational study of parent-child interaction, Crowell, Feld-man, and Ginsberg (1988) found 93 discriminate validity for predicting infants' clinical status (i.e., placement into clinical or nonclinical groups) and attachment classification using their structured play procedure for assessing mother-infant interactional behavior.

Immune Suppression and Inflammation

The hallmark of vitamin A deficiency is an impaired capacity to generate an antibody response to T-cell-dependent antigens (444,461), including tetanus toxoid (462,463) and diphtheria antigens in humans (464), tetanus toxoid and other antigens in animal models (465-467), and T-cell-independent type 2 antigens such as pneumococcal polysaccharide (468). Antibody responses are involved in protective immunity to many types of infections and are the main basis for immunological protection for many vaccines. Depressed antibody responses to tetanus toxoid have been observed in vitamin A-deficient children (462) and in vitamin A-deficient animals (469,470). Vitamin A deficiency appears to impair the generation of primary antibody responses to tetanus toxoid, but if animals are repleted with vitamin A prior to a second immunization, the secondary antibody responses to tetanus toxoid are comparable to control animals (466). These findings suggest that formation of immunological memory and class...

Integration Of Practice Knowledge And Practice Skills

The last prerequisite for profesional competence in multicultural mental health is that each provider of service integrate research-based knowledge with knowledge gained from practice. Whether interventions are directed toward individuals, groups, or institutions, scientific practices dictate a feedback loop in which practice knowledge is evaluated to modify existing practices where deemed necessary and to modify theory, as well as research, when required. At the individual level this means that service providers change their service to be more consistent with the latest more efficient and effective practices. At the ecological level, this may mean that the basic structure of the culture, such as its institution(s) or its educational and parenting practices, require modification. Socioeconomic status is a particularly potent cultural force in human behavior, including prevalence of disorders, manifestations of illness, health

Clinical Characteristics

The prevalence and clinical symptoms of hMPV-infected patients, identified by RT-PCR in respiratory samples obtained from patients in a university hospital, indicated that the prevalence and clinical severity due to hMPV infections are slightly lower than those of hRSV infections during the winter season van den Hoogen, 2003 . Most of the hMPV-positive patients were children < 2 years old who did not have any underlying illnesses. hMPV was found significantly less frequently in children < 2 months old than was hRSV. Of the 31 hMPV-positive children < 2 years old, only 4 (31 ) were < 2 months old, whereas 43 (35 ) of the 122 hRSV-positive children < 2 years old were also < 2 months old. Others have found that the mean age of patients infected with hMPV was slightly lower than that compared to hRSV Williams, 2004 . Of the hMPV-positive patients who were > 5 years old, most had other diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) or had recently...

Computer Assisted Techniques for Skeletal Determinations

In the design of this digital atlas, the complexities associated with the design of software that integrates all morphological parameters was circumvented through the selection of an alternative approach. We designed artificial, idealized, sex- and age-specific images of skeletal development that incorporated the different degrees of maturation of each ossification center in the hand and wrist. The idealized image was derived from a composite of several hand radiographs from healthy children and adolescents that were identified as the perfect average for each ossification center in each age group.

Environmental adversity and sexual maturation

Suggested that environmental adversity is associated with a decreased quality of parental care that directly leads to early menarche and earlier onset of sexual activity in human females. There is strong evidence that insecure attachment is more prevalent in populations living under conditions of risk and uncertainty (i.e., poverty and inequality Belsky, 1997a McLoyd, 1990 Repetti, et al., 2002 and see above). The age of menarche is influenced by the quality of family function (Ellis et al., 1999), number of major life events (Coall and Chisholm, 2003 Surbey, 1990) family conflict (Graber et al., 1995 Moffitt et al., 1992), marital conflict (Kim and Smith, 1998a,b Wierson et al., 1993), and negative family relationships (Ellis and Garber, 2000 Kim et al., 1997). Despite some exceptions (Campbell and Udry, 1995 Graber et al., 1995), the majority of studies show that childhood psychosocial stress predicts earlier menarche. There is strong evidence for familial influences on sexual...

Phenotypic variation in human female reproductive development

Cameron et al. (2005) suggest that the essential feature of the process by which SES in childhood influences health is that of parental care (Fig. 7.1) and, as described above, this is apparent in simpler species, suggesting a common strategy of adaptation to conditions of adversity in early life that has been conserved across evolution. This same argument applies to reproductive outcomes (Belsky, 1997b Coall and Chisholm, 2003 Ellis, 2005). The critical issue is that of parental mediation. In humans, the effects of SES on emotional and cognitive development are mediated by parental factors, to the extent that if such factors are controlled, there is no discernible effect of poverty on child development (Conger et al., 1994 Eisenberg and Earls, 1975 McLloyd, 1998). This is an important consideration for human research, since maternal adversity is common one in five teens and one in six adults, women experience abuse during pregnancy (Newberger et al., 1992 Parker, 1984). Environmental...

Relationship with adult disorder

Prospective follow-up studies indicate that children with conduct disorders often continue to behave antisocially in adult life. Neurotic disorders have a better prognosis, but are weakly associated with adult neurosis of the same type. Childhood psychosis has a poor long-term outcome. Retrospective studies of adults with major mental illness, schizophrenia, and bipolar affective disorder show an excess of both conduct and neurotic disorders in childhood. However, only a minority of emotionally disturbed children develop major mental illness when they grow up.

Causes and symptoms

Although Henry Maudsley, in the late 1800s, was the first psychiatrist to focus on very young children with mental disorders, it was the psychiatrist Leo Kanner who coined the phrase early infantile autism in 1943. Kanner believed that the parents of children with autistic behaviors were emotionally cold and intellectually distant. He coined the term refrigerator parents to describe them. His belief that parental personality and behavior played a powerful role in the development of autistic behaviors left a devastating legacy of guilt and self-blame among parents of autistic children that continues to this day. Recent studies are unequivocal, however, in demonstrating that parents of autistic children are no different from parents of healthy children in their personalities or parenting behaviors. In fact, many families with an autistic child also have one or more perfectly healthy children. Other neurological factors include lesions to the brain,...

The testing of children for adultonset disorders

The testing of children has been a topic of debate for some time (Clarke and Flinter, 1996 Michie, 1996) and has led to the production of Guidelines for genetic testing of healthy children by the Canadian Paediatric Society (2003). With the best interests of the child in mind, testing of healthy children for adult-onset disorders, where there is no benefit to the child, is controversial. Similarly, testing to determine the carrier status of a child where it would be of purely reproductive significance is not recommended. Within this framework, there is still different individual practice and there will be healthy children tested. There would appear to be agreement that a blanket refusal is unhelpful and it could lead to a reactive determination by some parents. Each request for testing of a child needs to be taken individually and the debate put in a balanced manner. This involves a counsellor listening to the parents' request and understanding their thinking, whilst balancing it with...

Ethical Issues Regarding Treatment Of Shortstatured Children

The treatment practices in non-GH-deficient, short-statured children by U.S. pediatric endocrinologists were recently reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (130). Because of the controversial nature of this common practice among pediatric endocrinologists, this article was accompanied by an editorial (131). An arbitrary definition of non-GH-deficient children with short stature would include otherwise healthy children with heights < 3 SD below the mean for age, abnormal growth velocity (< 25th percentile for bone age), and normal provocative testing with peak GH > 10 ng L (using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay). Parental pressure to mitigate short stature in their children is driven by a cultural heightism that permeates American society. Taller college graduates make more money, and most (80 ) presidents have been the taller candidate (132). Being teased or bullied, having poor self-esteem, feeling athletically incompetent, and being treated as younger than...

The Significance Of Childrens Mental Health Problems

Long-overdue concern for the mental health of children and adolescents is gradually coming to the forefront of the political agenda. For example, in the United States the new millennium witnessed White House meetings on mental health in young people and on the use of psychotropic medications with children. A Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health resulted in an extensive report and recommendations (U.S. Public Health Service, 2001a), closely followed by a similar report on youth violence (U.S. Public Health Service, 2001b). Increasingly, researchers in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, and developmental psy-chopathology are becoming attentive to the social policy implications of their work and in effecting improvements in the identification of and services for youth with mental health needs (Cicchetti & Toth, 2000 Weisz, 2000c). Greater recognition is also being given to factors that contribute to children's successful mental functioning,...

Phonological disorder

Nearly all children develop speech sounds in the same sequence. The consonant sounds are grouped into three main groups of eight sounds each the early eight, the middle eight, and the late eight. The early eight include consonant sounds such as m, b,, and p. The middle eight include sounds such as t, g, and chi,

Parental Behaviors and the Personalities of Children

Authoritarian parents are restrictive, rule-emphasizing individuals who expect children to be obedient and who punish behavior that deviates from their rules. In contrast, permissive parents are nondemand-ing individuals who permit children to establish their own standards of conduct. Finally, authoritative parents set behavioral limits and standards and enforce them with a combination of power and reasoning. The children of authoritative parents are encouraged to conform to these limits, but they are also permitted to contribute their own reasoning concerning them. Baumrind found that the children of both authoritarian and permissive parents behaved similarly in many respects The sons were more hostile than normal, and the daughters were more socially retiring individuals who gave up easily. The children of authoritative parents, whom Baumrind considers the most effective of all three parenting styles, were able to conform to group norms without sacrificing...

Population Aging and Kinship Structure

The demographic forces responsible for population aging (declining fertility and declining mortality at older ages) have significant implications for the structure of kinship networks. Particularly relevant for the well-being of both older and younger people are changes in the structure of intergenerational relationships associated with an aging society. The basic relationship among fertility, mortality, and supply of intergenera-tional kin can be seen by thinking about extreme situations. In a society where everyone has a large number of children and few people survive to very old ages, grandparents would be in short supply for children, but individuals who survive to old age would tend to have many grandchildren. Similarly, most middle-aged adults would not have surviving parents, but individuals who survive to old age would typically have multiple children. This type of kinship structure is quite similar to the one existing in China before 1900. At the opposite extreme is the ideal...

Theoretical Considerations

An important area of theorizing has been why some women and not others pursue paid work in the labor force. Structural characteristics of the economy help to shape the general demand for women's labor (Cotter et al. 1998). Women's family responsibilities, both as wives and as mothers, have often been seen as intervening variables between their human capital endowment and their eventual labor force participation. The relationships vary by generation, ethnicity and immigrant status (Stier and Tienda 1992), and religion. More recently, analysts have examined characteristics of jobs that facilitate or impede women's labor force participation. The availability of child care, or the ability of husbands and wives to work different shifts so that they can care for their children themselves, are currently important areas of research for understanding the circumstances under which mothers can participate in the labor force.

Alternative Family Structures

One alternative family form consists of two adults of the same sex, sometimes raising children. About 2.4 of men and 1.3 of women in the U.S. identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual and have same-gender partners (Laumann et al. 1994). Although information on the number and characteristics of gay and lesbian couples has not generally been available, in the U.S., one estimate suggests that in 1990 fewer than 1 of adult men lived with a male partner and about the same percentage of adult women lived with a lesbian partner (Black et al. 2000). These estimates are based on responses to the unmarried partner'' question in the U.S. census and are thus thought to be conservative estimates of the numbers of same-sex cohabitors. This is the case because some of those living in gay and lesbian couples do not identify as such in survey and other data. Legal and social recognition of these unions as marriages is generally not available in the United States.

Preconceptual counseling

About the future as a family, including possible disability or death of one of the partners. A supporting, empathic and accepting mode of counseling is advisable, as many couples feel distress if their motives for, or entitlement to, parenthood are questioned. In many cases, it is necessary to discuss the risks of unprotected intercourse, not only during reproductive treatment but at all times. In cases where professional psychosocial services are not integrated, co-operation with organizations in the AIDS counseling system or self-help groups is advisable. Possible stress occurring during the work-up and treatment of the couple should be discussed as well as doubts or fears of the couple. Many couples for example are afraid that their test results might indicate that parenthood is impossible.

Curriculum Applications

Set the stage for contemporary research. Research in early childhood education has contributed to a new understanding of preschool learning and development and the settings in which young children participate. Important discoveries are reviewed about the role of play in all aspects of development, likely progressions in play, and the relationship of play behavior to a multitude of interrelated skills such as communication, artistic and musical ability, and early literacy and mathematical skills. Contemporary use of art, play, and music in early childhood education is reviewed, including how teachers might use play to create an environment to nurture and enhance children's mental and moral development (originally proposed by Dewey in 1916). In the first section, the authors review important research contributions in learning and teaching across the domains of play, art, music and literacy. In the second section, issues of diversity and cultural pluralism and their impact on the field...

Of Children

Social cohesion has also been associated with health outcomes among adults and children (Berkman and Kawachi, 2000). Social cohesion refers to the extent of connectedness and solidarity among groups in a society. Social capital has also been associated with health outcomes in children (Aneshensel and Sucoff, 1996 Gold, et al., 2002). Social capital is defined as those features of social organizations which act as resources for individuals and facilitate collective action (Berkman and Kawachi, 2000). These would include neighborhood trust and the existence of robust social networks (Kawachi, et al., 1997). Socially cohesive communities then, are ones in which there exists greater stocks of social capital (Berkman and Kawachi, 2000). In terms of health outcomes, lower levels of social capital are associated with poorer mental health, increased school delinquency, inhibition of successful child development, increased teen pregnancy rate, increased child abuse, and increased infant...

Placental mammals

Primates are recognized by many as the most advanced mammals, possibly because of advanced cognitive skills and a larger brain relative to body size. Many primates including humans do not have an estrous cycle, but instead a menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle typically leads to more frequent ovulation (every 28 days on average in humans) and considerable bleeding associated with breakdown of the endometrial lining in the uterus (menstruations). Moreover, females of advanced primate species including humans do not show clear sign of ovulation and in many females, ovulation fits into a process called the menstrual cycle. In this cycle, the uterus is prepared prior to ovulation, the egg or eggs are released several days later, and if fertilization does not occur, the lining of the uterus degenerates and is shed during a period called the menstruations. The combination of regular but hidden ovulation in females probably allow primates to evolve promiscuous mating systems because males...

Empirical Findings

Child care costs form a major barrier to continuous labor force participation by young mothers (Baum 2002). Child care costs do lower women's labor force participation (Han and Waldfogel 2001). One-third of a sample of Detroit-area mothers of preschool-aged children reported that child care problems had reduced their employment (Mason and Kuhlthau 1992). Browne (1997) finds that the presence of children under the age of six, together with less than high school education and long-term welfare receipt, help to explain the black-white gap in labor force participation in women-headed households.


Van Acker, P. C. Rodkin, K. K. Bost, M. Coe, and W. Henley. The social integration of students with mild disabilities in general education classrooms Peer group membership and peer-assessed social behavior. Elementary School Journal 99, no. 2 (Nov 1998) 167-185. Ryan, A. M. The peer group as a context for the development of young adolescent motivation and achievement. Child Development 72, no. 4 (Jul-Aug 2001) 1135-1150. Schwartz, D. Subtypes of victims and aggressors in children's peer groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 28, no. 2 (Apr 2000) 181-192.

Child Rearing

Because a child competes for their attention and often dominates their lives, the parents' personal happiness and satisfaction with their marriage frequently suffers (Wallace & Gotlib, 1990). Mothers in particular complain that they are tied down by children and that children limit their ability to work outside the home and achieve financial stability (Jacoby, 1982 Roper Organization, 1985). In a study by Thompson and Walker (1990), one-third of the mothers who were interviewed reported that they derived no meaning or enjoyment from motherhood, and another one-third had mixed feelings about it. These negative responses should, however, not be interpreted as meaning that parenthood is without rewards. A child brings love, joy, and meaningful-ness to most mothers and fathers, and the process of bringing up a child can have a positive effect on the development of both the child and the parents. For example, Lowenthal, Thurnher, and Chiriboga (1975) found that the parents they...

Play therapy

Some insight and guidance to parents. At times, the clinician will provide suggestions about parenting techniques, about alternative ways to communicate with their child, and will also serve as a resource for information about child development. Details of child sessions are not routinely discussed with parents. If the child's privacy is maintained, it promotes free expression in the therapist's office and engenders a sense of trust in the therapist. Therapists will, instead, communicate to the parents their understanding of the child's psychological needs or conflicts.


During the past two decades, multiple studies on normal growth and skeletal development have been conducted at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles. The hand and wrist radiographs obtained for these studies form the basis of the data used to develop the digital bone age atlas. Participants were healthy children and adolescents who were recruited from schools and boys and girls clubs in the Los Angeles area. All studies were approved by the local IRB and all subjects and or their parents signed informed consent.

Family education

More often than not, mental health professionals did not educate families about what to expect or how to care for their loved one. In fact, for much of the twentieth century it was believed that mental illness was caused by overly strict or overly permissive parenting styles, and families were unfairly blamed for causing these disorders. Mothers were labeled schizophrenogenic and even well-meaning clinicians tried to keep them and other fam-

Public Policy

One public policy approach would be the creation of programs that support family caregiving, for example, training family members to provide certain services for the dependent family member. Financial compensation to family members who provide care would be an added incentive (Kapp, 1991) that might also reduce the financial burden assumed by families in providing care, especially when caregivers are required to quit paid work in order to take care of the older person. For example, public policy changes in criteria for foster care programs would provide an additional income source for grandparents raising grandchildren. By enhancing family members' ability to care, public policy encourages both beneficence and autonomy. Autonomy in financial management can also be enhanced by legal devices such as ordinary power of attorney and joint bank accounts. In this way, an older person who cannot physically conduct his or her financial business can make decisions and assign a substitute person...

Race and Ethnicity

Moreover, it would be unwise not to consider that the ascription of genetic risk to ra-cialized groups may engender stigma in a way in which such information appears not to in the white population (Watson et al, 1992 Burn, 1993) particularly as one such historical example apparently exists (Stamatoyannopoulos, 1974). Although in the case of beta-tha-lassaemia and a Pakistani Moslem community in Britain stigma is not socially constructed, this is because of very specific cultural factors, namely that the pattern of consanguinity in marriage means that to ascribe stigma would be to stigmatize one's own family (Darr, 1990). Indeed, where genetic information disturbs the one valued social role open to black women living in poverty, namely raising children, genetic information relating to sickle cell may be rejected or blurred (Hill, 1994). Apolitical economy analysis also reveals implications for racial discrimination. Firstly, the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs, such as...

Theoretical Models

Second, transfers may be a nonmarket transaction between family members or others in a society. In this instance transfers involve an implicit contract or a quid pro quo. The form of these transactions can be relatively straightforward or quite complex. For example, grandparents may provide child care for their grandchildren and receive room and board, or adult children may provide personal care to their elderly parents with the understanding that they will receive a bequest. Parents may send their children to an expensive university with the understanding that, in return, they will receive old-age support from those children. When families insure their members against a variety of risks, this is also a form of exchange. Children may insure their parents against longevity risk. If parents die at an unexpectedly young age, children receive a bequest. If parents live longer than expected, outliving their resources, children provide support.

Before Intervention

Leagues (1998), who examined patterns of brain activity in children with and without ADHD on ritalin during performance of the go no-go task (Casey et al., 1997b) described previously. Overall, Vaidya showed improved behavioral performance and an increase in prefrontal activity for healthy children on ritalin and for children with ADHD on ritalin. Significant changes in basal ganglia activity were observed for the ADHD children when on ritalin. Specifically, the pattern of activity in this region for children with ADHD on ritalin was almost identical to the pattern observed in the healthy children off ritalin, suggesting normalization of activity in the basal ganglia with medication.

Prevention of AOM

Preventive approaches include reducing environmental risk factors, vaccination, antibiotic prophylaxis, tympanostomy tubes and adenoidectomy (Giebink, 2001). Prevention of frequent recurrences of AOM includes the possible use of daily antibiotic prophylaxis. The effects of this may be limited, and are associated with emergence of resistant bacteria, adverse drug reactions and suppression of symptoms without affecting the actual disease process (Williams et al., 1993). The addition of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine to the routine childhood series in the USA has led to a fall in infections caused by the pneumococci strains included in the vaccine (Veenhoven et al., 2003 Kilpi et al., 2003). There is some evidence that the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract may have a role in preventing infection with pathogenic bacteria by inhibiting growth of common pathogenic bacteria. One randomized placebo controlled trial of a spray containing alpha streptococci to prevent recurrence...


Deprivation in childhood includes children living in extreme poverty, those who experience disordered parenting because of mental illness or MR of a parent, and children faced with family stress, crisis, or neglect for any reason. The actual parent-child problems can include inadequate stimulation, deficient interpersonal nurturance, physical abuse, or malnutrition. In addition, there can be a confounding effect when children with disabilities and low cognitive function live in family chaos or in families with insufficient support systems. Societal advances that decrease the percentage of children living in poverty or increase the proportion of children attending stimulating child care can reduce deprivation and the exacerbating effect it has on children with established developmental deficits. Efficacious programs targeted at families without adequate resources to provide early stimulation can improve outcomes in these children. However, research has shown variability in the...

NTM Lymphadenitis

Assessment should include investigation for other possible differential diagnoses. Although an underlying immuncomprimising illness should be considered, routine immune studies are not generally indicated. An acute bacterial infection is usually clinically apparent but a normal full blood count and C-reactive protein may be reassuring. Potential viral etiologies such as Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus and mumps should be evaluated. Bartonella henselae and Toxo-plasma gondii should be considered particularly in those children exposed to cats. In patients from endemic areas or with a contact history, TB should be excluded. A chest radiograph is usually normal in both TB or NTM lymphadenitis. Almost all healthy children with TB adenitis will have a positive tuberculin reaction, however, up to 30 with NTM lymphadenitis will have 10 mm+ of induration with PPD. Diagnosis maybe aided by comparing tuberculin with NTM skin tests (Daley and Isaacs, 1999 Saggese et al., 2003) but...

Raymond W Gibbs Jr

Sam describes the black hole (i.e., the infertility) as a terrible constricting force that prevents him and his wife from experiencing the pleasures and responsibilities of parenthood. This black hole sucks significant, much desired elements out of their relationship, and as a metaphor, reflects a dismal image of their deteriorating marriage, one that both partners seem to have little control over. Although Sam has never fallen into a black hole, the metaphor seems apt precisely because we can simulate what that event must be like, given some of the embodied actions we have experienced in our lives, such as feeling forcefully drawn to something or someone, or falling and feeling out of control.

Vitamins Golden Rice

Millions of people in the world suffer from vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which leads to vision impairment and increased susceptibility to diarrhoea, respiratory diseases, and measles. In Southeast Asia it is estimated that five million children develop xerophthalmia (alteration in the structure of the conjunctiva and cornea found predominantly in children) every year. This problem may be equally severe in certain areas of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, around 500,000 children annually become irreversibly blind as a result of VAD.


With a more general approach involving family members and caregivers. Teaching children with this disorder specific communication skills so that they can interact with their peers is important, as problems in this area may lead to later social isolation, depression, or behavioral problems. Children who are diagnosed early and taught reading skills may benefit especially, because problems with reading are often associated with mixed receptive-expressive language disorder and can cause serious long-term academic problems. There is little information comparing different treatment methods often several are tried in combination.

Conduct disorder

Conduct Disorder Symptoms

There is no known cause for conduct disorder. The frustrating behavior of youngsters with conduct disorder frequently leads to blaming, labeling, and other unproductive activities. Children who are acting out do not inspire sympathy or the benefit of the doubt. They are often ostracized by other children. Parents of such children are often blamed as poor disciplinarians or bad parents. As a result, parents of children with conduct disorder may be reluctant to engage with schools or other authorities. At the same time, there is a strong correlation between children diagnosed with conduct disorder and a significant level of family dysfunction, poor parenting practices, an overemphasis on coercion and hostile communication patterns, verbal and physical aggression and a history of maltreatment. Medication is sometimes used and may be effective in controlling aggression. Generally, a variety of treatment modes are used to address such a complex disorder. Severe antisocial behavior on the...

Matrimonial Disputes

Quality of the parent-child relationship, parental depression and socio-economic adversity. Rodgers and Pryor (1998) estimate that 19 of children born to married couples will experience parental divorce by the age of 10 and 28 by age 16. Haskey (1993,1994) states that in the early 1990s in England and Wales 160 000 families with children under 16 went through the experience of parental divorce. Of these children one in three was under 5, and a further 7000 were between 5 and 10 years. Dunn, Deater-Deckard, Pickering, O'Connor, Golding and Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) Team (1998) have looked at a community sample to examine the implications for children. The risk factors are socio-economic, parental mental health and well-being (such as depression), patterns of family relations with a high level of conflict and a lack of coherence or joint activities, poor educational achievement, transitions in family settings, and finally subsequent cohabitations. They...

Effects of neglect

Parental figures who neglect may have been neglected or abused themselves. There is a tendency for parental figures that neglect their children to have low self-esteem, poor impulse control, and to experience anxiety or depression. Other factors associated with neglect often include inadequate information about child development, including age-appropriate expectations of what children may be able to do. The parents may also feel overwhelmed by parenting responsibilities, and feel negatively about the child's demands on them. Such parents may never have fully adopted the role of parent or the care-giving the parental role requires. Internal pressures often push the caregivers to take care of their own needs (perhaps inappropriately), while ignoring the needs of the child. Substance abuse is often associated with neglect, particularly for those parents who are more self-absorbed and focused on their needs rather than their child's. This characteristic is also consistent with the...