Develop Charisma and Become More Likable
Some conditions relevant to psychiatry, such as suicide and self-inflicted injury or poisoning, are classified in other sections of the ICD. For example, 'factors influencing health status and contact with health services', codes Z00-Z99, is a neglected section of the ICD. Codes such as 'Z60.4 Social exclusion and rejection Exclusion and rejection on the basis of personal characteristics, such as unusual physical appearance, illness or behaviour' seem to have a common-sense basis, and offer an antidote to the potential medicalization of some life problems through over-diagnosis of mental disorder. The Z codes to some extent fill the gap in the ICD left by the absence of the axes of the DSM, which cover aspects other than the presence or absence of mental illness (see next section).
In 1828, his father sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to take the common arts degree, with the idea that he should become a clergyman. Even in his youth Charles had expressed great interest in natural history, and at Edinburgh he learned of Lamarck's theory of evolution under the tutelage of Grant, who directed him in a study of marine invertebrates and who, as Darwin later recalled, burst forth in high admiration of Lamarck and his views on evolution. 14 At Cambridge Darwin associated with several university faculty, including John Stephens Henslow, professor of botany Adam Segwick, professor of geology and William Whewell, professor of mineralogy. Darwin took his degree in 1831, tenth in the list of those who did not seek honors. He did not pursue a religious vocation. Instead, his career took an unforeseen turn.
The limpkin is the only species in the family Aramidae and has no close relatives. However, within the Gruiformes, similarities to both cranes and rails have long been noted. In particular, the general physical appearance and hunting behavior of limpkins resemble that of cranes, but other aspects of behavior, including a more secretive nature, resemble that of rails and their relatives.
Referent power derives from the fact that some people, organizations, and interest groups engender admiration, loyalty, and emulation from others to such an extent that they gain power to exert influence as a result. In the marketplace for policies, this form of power, when it pertains to individuals, is called charismatic power. Charismatic power usually belongs to a select few people, who typically have very strong convictions about the correctness of their preferences and great self-confidence in their own abilities and who are widely perceived to be legitimate agents of change. It is rare for a person, organization, or interest group to be able to gain sufficient power to heavily influence policymaking simply from referent or charismatic power, even in political markets where charisma is highly valued. But it can certainly give the other sources of power in the political marketplace a boost.
Among the issues to be considered in the review of such proposals will be the number of hES cells to be transferred, what areas of the animal body would be involved, and whether the cells might migrate through the animal's body. The hES cells may affect some animal organs rather than others, raising questions about the number of organs affected, how the animal's functioning would be affected, and whether some valued human characteristics might be exhibited in the animal, including physical appearance.
Members of the cotinga family vary greatly in size and physical appearance. They range from tiny, 3-inch (8-centimeter) birds to 20-inch (50-centimeter) birds the size of crows. In the smaller species, the females tend to be larger and heavier than the male birds, but in the larger species, the females are smaller than the males. Males and females usually look different. The males are more colorful than the females.
The vagina is a 9-cm membranous tube that extends from the lower portion or cervix of the uterus downward and forward to the external opening in the vestibule (see Figure 13-2). The wall of the vagina is composed of fibroelastic tissue and smooth muscle, which is lined with a mucous membrane formed of squamous epithelial cells. These cells are quite responsive to estrogen, and their physical appearance under the light microscope changes corresponding to the phase of the ovulatory cycle.
Some Native Americans near the Arctic Circle share their land with wolves. Both subsist mainly on the caribou herds. Although guns have upset the balance of the relationship in the twentieth century to the present, humans still talk primarily of their respect and admiration for their fellow carnivores. The two hunters do not interact frequently, although each will scavenge from the other or commandeer kills from smaller groups. A wolf-trimmed coat is a mark of a skilled hunter. For the past million years most humans, like the Native Americans, have probably lived within earshot of the howls of members of the dog family, but there is no archaeological evidence that they had strong ecological or economic interactions. However our hunter-gatherer ancestors certainly knew about the animals around them and the distinguishing characteristics of our canid neighbors are deep within the folklore of most cultures. From Romulus and Remus to Mowgli, the nurturing characteristics of the wolf...
Because of the change in physical appearance and therefore in the pattern of measurements with time, we can expect that some diseases or disorders will be more obvious and more easily recognized during certain stages of development. The patterns of relative measurements may partly relate to the growth spurts that occur in different organ systems at different times. Theoretically they reflect secondary and tertiary effects of the basic process and underlying pathogenesis.
Examining preadolescent responses to three self-concept instruments. Marsh (1990b) demonstrated the CFA approach to MTMM data based on preadolescent responses to three widely used self-concept instruments. He demonstrated two interesting variations on the typical MTMM design in that not all traits were assessed by all the different measures. First, two instruments contained self-esteem scales, whereas the third did not. Hence, the general self-trait factor was represented by two indicators instead of three. Second, one instrument contained two separate physical scales representing physical appearance and physical ability one instrument contained only one physical scale apparently representing physical ability one instrument contained only one physical scale apparently representing physical appearance. An evaluation of alternative MTMM models demonstrated the need to separate physical ability and physical appearance trait factors. The MTMM analyses provided support for convergent...
Physical appearance stereotypes (i.e., stereotypes related to age, sex, ethnicity, etc. that influence first impressions), The nine components of the WAM can each be related to sources of variances in informant ratings (i.e., perceiver effects, target effects, and relationship effects). Perceiver effects are largely represented by unique impressions and physical appearance stereotypes, which are unique to perceivers across a set of targets (e.g., perceiver effects comprise the unique knowledge and valid stereotypes on age, sex, ethnicity, etc.). Target effects, in contrast, refer to effects shared between informants across a set of targets and result from overlap, similar meaning systems, agreement about stereotypes, consistency, and communication. Finally, relationship effects refer to the specific dyadic relationship of an informant with the target and are largely attributable to unique impressions, lack of similar meaning systems, and nonoverlap.
And it is important to determine whether these symptoms cause clinically significant impairment or distress to the individual in comparison to what is culturally expected. Among Hispanics, this disorder might be confused with the cultural phenomenon of machismo in which a Hispanic male would be sexually seductive, feel uncomfortable if he is not the center of attention, and show exaggerated expression of emotions (Castillo, 1997 DSM-IV, 1994, p. 656). The DSM-IV did not provide descriptions of cultural variables in the case of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Several symptoms in this disorder, however, might suggest machismo in cultures that are hierarchical. For example, symptoms resembling Narcissistic Personality Disorder are common in the Swat Pukhtun culture (Castillo, 1997). These symptoms might also be seen among macho Hispanic males, including the need for excessive admiration and the belief that he has unlimited power toward others (particularly females).
Many protostomes are small in size and often overlooked among larger natural features and more charismatic creatures of the surrounding world. However, protostomes have played a variety of important roles in human cultures, economies, and health since ancient times. Some protostome species have instilled a sense of fear in the minds of humans, while others have represented fortune. Some have provided nourishing sources of food, while others have advanced medical treatments. Still other protostomes influence ecosystem functions, both for the benefit and to the detriment of humans. Although protostomes have figured prominently in societies throughout the course of history, many are threatened by current human activities, and conservation efforts are important for ensuring the future survival of some species.
The three copy processes have these respective names identification, recapitulation, and introjection. Using the SASB model and an early version of IRT procedures, Benjamin (1996) proposed that each of the symptoms of the DSM-IV personality disorders can be accounted for by specific copy processes usually found in their respective prototypic interpersonal histories. For example, if a child lives with a parent who unrealistically adores and serves him or her, the child is likely to develop a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, a need for admiration, and lack of empathy, as is characteristic of Narcissistic Personality Disorder defined in the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association APA , 1994).
Insidiously and repetitively pervade the patient's ongoing relationships and experiences. Not only are the expressive features of mood and drive conveyed by terms such as distraught, labile, fickle, or hostile communicated via self report, but they are revealed as well, albeit indirectly, in the patient's level of activity, speech quality, and physical appearance.
In my case, I practised on patients with a cold. The first four months in my post were as a GP and coincided with the winter months. Thus, every GP's ''heartsink'' patient - stricken by the common cold and demanding antibiotics - became my favourite assay. I tried everything on everyone. In fact, I looked forward to my next case so I could test out my latest technique. Mother with a sick child Express concern for their child and stress the side effects of the antibiotics. 25-year-old professional Show your admiration for their soldiering on within the tough working environment. 40-year-old who is worried about that horrible sore throat they had last year Buckle under and give them the prescription but predict that the cold will get better by this Sunday. And if it does not, then they can take the antibiotics immediately on that day . . . but not before.
According to the HSM and ELM, people use two cognitive processes to evaluate persuasive messages. People who engage in systematic (HSM) or central (ELM) processing expend a great deal of cognitive effort scrutinizing the content of a persuasive message. Systematic processors attend to argument quality and are more likely to adopt the position advocated in the persuasive message if it contains valid, high-quality arguments than if it does not (Petty and Cacioppo, 1984 Petty, Cacioppo and Goldman, 1981). Heuristic (HSM) or peripheral (ELM) processors, in contrast, rely on mental shortcuts or decision rules when evaluating a persuasive message and focus less on its content and quality. Various cues associated with a persuasive message (e.g. the length or number of arguments Petty and Cacioppo, 1984), its source (e.g. expertise, likeability, or physical attractiveness Chaiken and Maheswaran 1994), and the audience (e.g. positive or negative audience reactions Axsom, Yates and Chaiken...
The general conclusion is that societies can and do choose a variety of criteria to sort people. Some societies have used or continue to use caste systems, whether explicit, as in India, or implicit, as in the United States. Others use or have used race, religion, or wealth of parents as bases for sorting people. Many societies use a combination of criteria. Once a system is in place, those who gain access to the power structure, whether via their passage through elite education or elsewhere, are likely to look for others like themselves to enter into positions of power. The reason, quite simply, is that there probably is no more powerful basis of interpersonal attraction than similarity, so that people in a power structure look for others similar to themselves. The result is a potentially endlessly looping closed system.
Preoccupation with an imagined physical deformity may be determined by cultural concerns about physical appearance and the importance of physical self-presentation (DSM-IV, 1994, p. 467 Castillo, 1997). For example, among some Hispanics thinner is associated with being sick, whereas hefty is perceived as healthy. Among many Anglo-Americans, the opposite is the accepted belief. In this context, a Hispanic client confronting these two conflictive beliefs in the North America culture would be very concerned with a defect involving his or her physical appearance in public. This concern, however, might be culturally appropriate in the sense that this client would be responding to racial discrimination and humiliation directed toward an individual's appearance, which differs from those expected in the North American culture.
Internal, covert ideas and fantasies become disguised through specific external representations. Thus, ideas or fantasies support characteristic behavior without any accompanying distress. For example, submissive, deferential, or even competitive or dominating behavior may be set off in persons who experience problems with authority whenever they interact with others who symbolize greater authority through external features such as physical appearance, advanced age, or occupational position.
Environmental testing laboratories perform physical, chemical, and microbiological analysis of specimens collected in the environment. For example, a water sample may undergo physical testing (temperature, turbidity, odor, color), chemical testing (nitrates, sulfates, pesticides, metals), and microbiological testing (total plate counts, coliforms, Giardia, cryptosporium). Environmental testing laboratories provide a wide range of testing that is in many ways similar to the testing performed in clinical laboratories. Sanitarians or water quality technicians often perform basic tests (e.g., for temperature, pH, volatility, and physical appearance) at the site where samples are collected. They transmit the results of these simple tests to the laboratory along with the samples, where chemists and micro-biologists perform additional presumptive and confirmatory testing. Results from the simple tests may suggest the need for more definitive testing using instruments such as atomic...
General practitioners have an ideal opportunity to practise the art of careful observation and to notice all the signs and features characteristic of a patient from the time seen in the waiting room until the physical examination. We should be 'like Sherlock Holmes' in our analysis of the patient and accept the challenge of being astute diagnosticians and proud members of a noble profession. It is important to stand back (so to speak) and look at the patient's general appearance and demeanour. We should be assessing their mood and affect as much as their physical appearance.The first assessment to make is 'Does the patient look sick '
From 1949 to 1970, disease reporting evolved into its modern form partly owing to the charismatic influence of Alexander Langmuir, chief of the Bureau of Epidemiology at the CDC2 (Fumento, 2001). At the 1950 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials meeting, Langmuir was the driving force behind the revised specifications of the diseases to be
The preceding observations can be summarized by saying that moral disapprobation takes on various forms. It is context sensitive. The same may be true for moral approbation. We may feel gratitude or admiration when a stranger does something good, and we might feel pride or self-righteousness when we do good ourselves. Disapprobation and approbation refer to ranges of emotions. In a word, they are sentiments. Sentiments can be defined as dispositions to experience different emotions in different contexts (Prinz, 2004). For example, the sentiment of liking ice cream may involve feeling happiness when ice cream is obtained, sadness when it is unavailable, and craving when it comes to mind. Disapprobation and approbation are sentiments that can be defined as dispositions to experience various different emotions as a function of context.
Of course, Americans have had their choice of electronic medical textbooks for quite some time. The Five Minute Clinical Consultant is similar, although it does not have the charisma of the Oxford Handbooks. On the other hand, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins have gone much further and provided medical books for many specialties in a handheld computer format (www.lww.com).
Persons of this type are frequently difficult to differentiate from those with a histrionic personality. Whereas the histrionic person is focused largely on romantic fantasies, the narcissistic person is additionally concerned with achievement in fact, any and all achievement is over-valued. The major problem for the narcissistic person, however, revolves around concerns with self-esteem. An exaggerated sense of self is reinforced by any meager evidence as well as diminished by minor slights. Consequently, there are moments of profound self-doubt in which the self is correspondingly undervalued. Fantasies largely focus on conquests characterized by themes of power, admiration, and exceptional success, along with anything else that may be perceived as exceptional about the self. In addition, such persons expect special entitlements and cannot understand why their needs cannot be gratified. Their interpersonal relationships tend to focus on what people can offer them rather than on...
As with love, friendship is most apt to flourish when beliefs, values, and personalities are similar. Beliefs and values are, of course, related to age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, proximity, abilities, and interests. With respect to proximity, friendships are more apt to develop between people who live and work in the same area and among those who spend a great deal of time together. Physical appearance is also a factor in friendships. Though we may appreciate and even desire beautiful people, we tend not to pursue them but rather to choose as friends those who are similar to us in physical appearance, so our advances are less likely to be rebuffed (Cash & Derlega, 1978 Murstein & Christy, 1976).
Client feedback can be misleading for several reasons. First, clients may be reluctant to dispute their therapists' hypotheses. This can occur if clients are passive, suggestible, fearful of authority, or motivated to be pleasing. Second, clients may be unable to give accurate feedback because they may not be able to describe all of their traits and symptoms accurately. Even their reports of whether they have improved will be subjective and will be influenced by how they feel when they are asked. Finally, mental health professionals may describe clients in general terms. Their descriptions may be true of clients in general and may not describe traits that are specific to a client (e.g., You have a superb sense of humor and You have too strong a need for others to admire you from Logue, Sher, & Frensch, 1992, p. 228). This phenomenon has been labeled the Barnum effect, after the circus figure P. T. Barnum (Meehl, 1954). Occurrence of the Barnum effect will be misleading to clinicians...
Despite the notable variation in physical appearance, the endemic carnivores of Madagascar arose from a single African ancestor 24-18 million years ago (mya). Their common ancestry and close phylogenetic relationship to the mongooses requires placement of the large cat-like fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) within the Herpestidae, even though, superficially, it bears little resemblance to its mongoose kin. In Africa and Asia, herpestid evolution may have been constrained by competition with other carnivore families that dominated several specialized niches. As a result, mongoose radiation in Africa and Asia involved numerous, but rather subtle adaptations and specializations in diet and habitat, most evident in morphology of ears, muzzle, whiskers, jaw, and teeth. However, in Madagascar, the lack of canids, felids, or mustelids allowed a
This person is very low an Agreeableness. People who score in this range are antagonistic and tend to be brusque or even rude in dealing with others. They are generally suspicious of other people and skeptical of others' ideas and opinions. They can be callous in their feelings. Their attitudes are tough-minded in most situations. They prefer competition to cooperation, and express hostile feelings directly with little hesitation. People might describe them as relatively stubborn, critical, manipulative, or selfish. (Although antagonistic people are generally not well-liked by others, they are often respected for their critical independence, and their emotional toughness and competitiveness can be assets in many social and business roles.)
The completion of the human genome project has heralded a new era in biology. Undoubtedly, knowledge of the genetic blueprint will expedite the search for genes responsible for specific medical disorders, simplify the search for mammalian homologues of crucial genes in other biological systems and assist in the prediction of the variety of gene products found in each cell. It can also assist in determining the small but potentially significant genetic variations between individuals. However, sequence information alone is of limited value without a description of the function and, importantly, of the regulation of the gene products. Our bodies consist of hundreds of different cell types, each designed to perform a specific role that contributes to the overall functioning of the organism. Every one of these cells contains the same 20 000 to 30 000 genes that we are estimated to possess. The remarkable diversity in cell specialization is achieved through the tightly controlled expression...
Age changes in appearance and physical functioning in adulthood are inevitable, but they occur at different rates in different individuals and species. The effects of these changes on the self-concept also vary from person to person. Greying hair, wrinkles, and other signs of old age are obviously of greater concern to individuals for whom a youthful appearance is more important for occupational success and social prestige. Physical appearance, of course, is not the exclusive concern of aging women, though the cosmetics industry and purveyors of other treatments for aging skin and bodies focus principally on the female sex. Aging is accompanied by alterations in physical appearance and by declines in the structure and functioning of the cardivascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and nervous systems, as well as the sense organs. The efficiency with which the heart pumps blood is affected by the thickening and stiffening of heart muscle and valves and...
A number of factors are associated with enduring marriages. Included among them are the relative maturity of the partners when they are married, the degree of financial security, and a feeling that the relationship is an equal one (Diamond, 1986). Among other factors that can interfere with marital happiness and have an effect on the length of a marriage are pregnancy or delivery prior to the marriage ceremony, the physical appearance of one's spouse (Margolin & White, 1987), whether or not there are children in the home, and the personal and behavioral characteristics of the spouse (dependency argumentativeness addiction to alcohol, tobacco, and drugs). With older couples, the situation in which the husband is retired but the wife continues to work outside the home can become a source of conflict and dissatisfaction in marriage (Lee, 1988).
The Power Of Charisma
You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.