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I. THE SPINAL CORD AND LOWER BRAIN STEM are supplied with hlood through the anterior spinal artery (Figure 3-1).

A. The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord.

B. In the medulla, the anterior spinal artery supplies the pyramid, medial lemniscus, and root fibers of cranial nerve (CN) XII.

Internal carotid a.

Post. inf. cerebellar a.

Vertebral a.

Ant. spinal a.

Ant. cerebral a.

Medial striate a.

Middle cerebral

Lat. striate aa. Ant. choroidal a.

Medial Striate Artery

Figure 3-1. Arteries of the base of the brain and brain stem, including the arterial circle of Willis.

Post. inf. cerebellar a.

Vertebral a.

Ant. spinal a.

Internal carotid a.

communicating a. CN III

cerebral a. CN V

Ant. cerebral a.

Medial striate a.

Middle cerebral

Lat. striate aa. Ant. choroidal a.

Sup. cerebellar a.

Basilar a.-

Transverse pontine

CN VII-

CN VIII-

Ant. inf. cerebellar a.

Figure 3-1. Arteries of the base of the brain and brain stem, including the arterial circle of Willis.

II. THE INTERNAL CAROTID SYSTEM (see Figure 3-1) consists of the internal carotid artery and its branches.

A. The ophthalmic artery enters the orbit with the optic nerve (CN II). The central artery of the retina is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. Occlusion results in blindness.

B. The posterior communicating artery irrigates the hypothalamus and ventral thalamus. An aneurysm of this artery is the second most common aneurysm of the circle of Willis. It commonly results in third-nerve palsy.

C. The anterior choroidal artery arises from the internal carotid artery. It is not part of the circle of Willis. It perfuses the lateral geniculate body, globus pallidus, and posterior limb of the internal capsule.

D. The anterior cerebral artery (Figure 3-2) supplies the medial surface of the hemisphere from the frontal pole to the parieto-occipital sulcus.

1. The anterior cerebral artery irrigates the paracentral lobule, which contains the leg-foot area of the motor and sensory cortices.

2. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries. It is the most common site of aneurysm of the circle of Willis, which may cause bitemporal lower quadrantanopia.

3. The medial striate arteries (see Figure 3-1) are the penetrating arteries of the anterior cerebral artery. They supply the anterior portion of the putamen and caudate nucleus and the anteroinferior part of the internal capsule.

E. The middle cerebral artery (see Figure 3-2)

1. This artery supplies the lateral convexity of the hemisphere, including:

a. Broca's and Wernicke's speech areas b. The face and arm areas of the motor and sensory cortices C. The frontal eye field

Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke

Anterior cerebral artery

Middle cerebral artery

Posterior cerebral artery

Figure 3-2. Cortical territories of the three cerebral arteries. (A) Lateral aspect of the hemisphere. Most of the lateral convexity is supplied by the middle cerebral artery. (J3) Medial and inferior aspects of the hemisphere. The anterior cerebral artery supplies the medial surface of the hemisphere from the lamina terminalis to the cuneus. The posterior cerebral artery supplies the visual cortex and the posterior inferior surface of the temporal lobe. (Modified from Tondury, as presented in Sobotta J: At/as der Anatomic des Mcnschcn. Munich, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1%2, pp. 157-1*8.)

2. The lateral striate arteries (Figure 3-3) are the penetrating branches of the middle cerebral artery. They are the arteries of stroke, and they supply the internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus.

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Responses

  • Bladud
    Why ant cerebral artery common aneurysm?
    8 years ago
  • Tauno
    Why is Middle cerebral artery most common?
    7 years ago
  • ermanno
    What artery supplies the foot area of the cerebral hemisphere?
    5 years ago

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