— central (main/segmental bronchus): <2 cm or >2 cm from carina; RUL/RML/RLL/LUL/LLL.

— peripheral (parenchymal/pleural).


— length x width x depth (cm) or maximum dimension (cm). Squamous carcinomas can attain a large size and remain localized, whereas small cell carcinomas can be small primary lesions but with extensive local and distant spread.


— necrosis/haemorrhage/mucoid/cavitation.

— polypoid/nodular/ulcerated/stenotic.

— endobronchial/bronchial/extrabronchial.

Squamous cell carcinoma frequently cavitates, central carcinoid is polypoid or nodular, small cell carcinoma is submucosal and bronchostenotic or shows extrinsic compression.


— circumscribed/irregular.

Pulmonary changes

— scar: peripheral adenocarcinoma.

— fibrosis/asbestosis.

— partial and hilar or total: atelectasis/obstructive pneumonitis, the extent of which helps determine the pT stage.

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