— investigation of colorectal cancer is by endoscopy and biopsy with staging of biopsy-proven cancers by CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis for local and distant spread. MRI of rectal cancers complements clinical examination by imparting information about nodal disease and the status of the tumour edge in relation to the mesorectal envelope and its fascial plane, that influences neoadjuvant and operative management decisions.

— rectal/sigmoidoscopic/colonoscopic biopsy, right or left hemi-/ transverse/sigmoid/ subtotal or total colectomy/anterior or abdomino-perineal resection.

— weight (g) and size/length (cm), number of fragments. Curative colorectal cancer surgery excises the primary lesion with adequate longitudinal and deep radial margins and en bloc resection of the relevant colonic lymphovascular mesenteric pedicle, or the mesorectum.

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