Histological Type

For the most part this mirrors the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Tumours, but draws on other classifications where appropriate, e.g. REAL—Revised European American Lymphoma classification—and the Heidelberg classification of renal carcinoma. The classifications have also been partially edited to reflect those diagnoses that are more commonly encountered or discussed as differential diagnoses.

Histological type influences:

1. Prognosis—breast carcinoma

— excellent: tubular, cribriform, mucinous.

— good: tubular mixed, alveolar lobular.

— intermediate: classical lobular, invasive papillary, medullary.

— poor: ductal (no special type), mixed ductal and lobular, solid lobular.

2. Management—lung carcinoma

— non-small cell carcinoma: surgery ± radiotherapy depending on stage.

— small cell carcinoma: chemo-/radiotherapy.

3. Tumour distribution

— thyroid papillary carcinoma: potentially multifocal.

— ovarian epithelial borderline tumours: bilaterality, peritoneal implants, pseudomyxoma peritonei, appendiceal neoplasia.

4. Associated conditions

— thyroid medullary carcinoma: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN).

— duodenal periampullary carcinoma: familial adenomatous polypo-sis coli.

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