Extent Of Local Tumour Spread

Border: pushing/infiltrative. Lymphocytic reaction: prominent/sparse.

The TMN classification applies only to carcinoma:

pTis carcinoma in situ pT1 tumour invades lamina propria or submucosa pT2 tumour invades muscularis propria pT3 tumour invades through muscularis propria into subserosa or into non-peritonealized perimuscular tissue (mesentery or retroperitoneum) with extension <2cm pT4 tumour perforates visceral peritoneum or directly invades other organs/structures (including loops of small intestine, mesentery, retroperitoneum >2 cm and abdominal wall via serosa; also for duodenum—invasion of pancreas).

The non-peritonealised perimuscular tissue is, for jejunum and ileum, part of the mesentery and, for duodenum in areas where serosa is lacking, part of the retroperitoneum.

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