Candida Overgrowth Treatment Diet

Yeast Infection No More

Linda Allen is a professional health expert who has worked as a health consultant and medical researcher for more than 17 years. Linda has worked with many experts to create the special online guide called Yeast Infection No More. The program had helped many yeast infection sufferers to cure their yeast infection permanently. This book contains a simple and fast treatment for mild to moderate type of yeast infections. All the treatments mentioned about are given by Linda herself. The treatment is based on natural remedies that are easily available and are scientifically proven to work on all types of yeast infections. The Yeast Infection No More program is a specially designed online guide that provides much useful information on the different types of yeast infections and the techniques to remove them forever. It is a highly rated and guaranteed to work program for both men and women. Read more here...

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Clinical Features of Oral Candidiasis

All Candida species form the same type of oral lesions clinically (Redding, 2001). However, recent evidence suggests that mixed infections with more than one species may be associated with more severe symptoms and are more difficult to treat (Redding et al., 2002). There are three main clinical variants of oral candidiasis the pseudomembranous (also known as thrush), the hyperplastic, and the erythematous (Axell et al., 1997). The hyperplastic form is accompanied by extensive epithelial hyper-plasia and hyperkeratosis, also termed can-didal leukoplakia. The erythematous form has been the predominant clinical form in HIV+ patients with CD4+ lymphocytes > 400, whereas as the lymphocyte counts drop, the lesions appear to become more of the pseudomembranous type (Weinert et al., 1996). Frequently all three forms coexist and the term multifocal candidiasis is used to describe the lesions. Candida is also frequently responsible for inflammatory lesions found between the lips (angular...

Candida Vulvovaginitis

Candida is the second most common diagnosis associated with vaginal symptoms. It is found in 25 of asymptomatic women. Fungal infections account for 33 of all vaginal infections. B. Patients with diabetes mellitus or immunosuppressive conditions such as infection with the HIV are at increased risk for candidal vaginitis. Candidal vaginitis occurs in 25-70 of women after antibiotic therapy.

Treatment of candida vulvovaginitis

Most C. albicans isolates are susceptible to either clotrimazole or miconazole. An increasing number of nonalbicans Candida species are resistant to the OTC antifungal agents and require the use of 3. Ketoconazole, 200-mg oral tablets twice daily for 5 days, is effective in treating resistant and recurrent candidal infections. Effectiveness is results from the elimination of the rectal reservoir of yeast.

Host Factors Predisposing to Oral Candidiasis

Oral candidiasis is a superficial mycosis and can present in a variety of clinical forms. The presence of Candida alone is not an indication of disease since yeasts can be found as a commensal in approximately 40 of the population. Candidiasis is essentially a disease of the diseased and reflects as much changes in host defences as increased pathogenicity of the organism. Oral can-didiasis has been associated with a variety of predisposing factors and these are summarised in Table 3.1.

Thrushes Chats And People

And offered on restaurant menus and sold in supermarkets, either bottled or as thrush pate. The practice has been going on for centuries. While no exact determination has been made regarding the threat this might be to the species, none are in short supply. Elsewhere in Western Europe, people prize such features as the song of the nightingale and have honored the birds through song and poetry. Many of these birds are among the best-loved garden birds throughout the world.

Classification of Oral Candida Infections

Candida species can be found as commensals in the mouths approximately 40 of normal subjects in amounts up to approximately 800 colony forming units (CFU) ml. There is usually some underlying precipitating factor for oral candidiasis, often an immunodeficiency and in patients with various forms of candidiasis (Table 3.2), salivary counts of greater than 20,000 CFU ml may be found. Oral candidiasis is a common condition, especially in patients with xerostomia, those taking immunosup-pressive drugs, those with other oral diseases, and in patients with HIV infection where approximately 40 may have oral candidiasis. All forms of candidiasis are Table 3.1. Host Factors Predisposing to Oral Candidiasis strongly associated with smoking. Oral can-didiasis is most commonly caused by the yeast Candida albicans, and to a far lesser extent by C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. pseudotropicalis, and C. guilliermondi (Odds and Webster, 1988). More recently oral candidiasis...

Spotted Quailthrush Cinclosoma punctatum

Physical characteristics Spotted quail-thrushes range in length from 10.2 to 11 inches (26 to 28 centimeters), and weigh between 2.4 and 3.1 ounces (67 and 87 grams). Their plumage is a mottled blend of white, buff, rust or reddish brown, brown, and black. They have light brown heads with a white brow stripe. Their throats are black with a white patch, and their breasts are a pinkish tone. Geographic range The spotted quail-thrush can be found in southeast Australia, Tasmania, and in the Mount Lofty Ranges, in south-central Australia. Spotted quail-thrushes prefer living on the ground, and are sedentary, secretive, and shy. (Illustration by John Megahan. Reproduced by permission.) Habitat Spotted quail-thrushes live in eucalyptus forest with a littered, open floor, and prefer areas on rocky hillsides. Diet Spotted quail-thrushes tend to be insectivores, eating insects and other invertebrates, but they also eat small vertebrates and seeds at times. They pick their prey from the ground...

General Considerations for Oral Mucosal Immunity to Candida

Theoretically, SIgA, serum IgG transu-dating through the mucosa, and cellular immunity might all play a role in protection of mucosal surfaces against Candida infections. Animal models have largely concentrated on systemic candidiasis possibly because of the difficulties in obtaining reproducible and relevant models of mucosal candidiasis. Evidence suggests a role for CMI, even at mucosal surfaces. Infection with C. albicans is an almost universal finding in patients with severe immunodeficiency of the T cell type. It is, however, rarely seen in patients with B cell defects in the absence of concomitant T cell defects. Oral Candida infections are found in about 40 of HIV-infected individuals and in over 75 of patients who suffer from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Palmer et al., 1996). Both erythematous and pseudomembranous candidiasis is found, particularly in association with low CD4 counts. However, in IgA-deficient individuals, a markedly increased prevalence of...

Functional Aspects of Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida

There have been many attempts to identify functional activity of serum or salivary antibodies in vitro and in addition some conclusions can be drawn from in vivo models. (Table 3.4) Thus Holmes et al. (2002) showed that while whole saliva promoted the binding of C. albicans to epithelial cell lines, human Candida-specific IgA antibodies could inhibit the adhesion. These antibodies could be absorbed by both Candida or by an anti-IgA. These findings seem to suggest that IgA in the human oral cavity could be functional. This concept is reinforced by the observation that saliva also promotes the adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene and that salivary IgA antibodies inhibited this adhesion (San-Millan et al., 2000) and the mechanism appeared to be blockage of the adhesins in the cell wall. Interestingly, these authors reported that while saliva increased the adhesion of whole cells of C. albicans to polystyrene, they inhibited the germinated cells, suggesting that function of antibodies...

Salivary IgA Subclass Antibodies to Candida

IgA subclass antibodies have been reported in a few studies in patients with CAC. IgA antibodies and IgA1 antibodies were increased in comparison with the controls (Ivanyi and Ivanyi, 1990). However, it is possible that some of this IgA1 antibody might have been derived from inflammation in the oral cavity itself. However, Coogan et al. (1994) showed that in HIV infection IgA1 and IgA2 subclass antibodies against Candida were raised in both whole and parotid saliva compared with controls. This suggested that patients with HIV were not significantly immunocompromised when compared with controls and that Candida infection could induce subclass responses in these patients. More recently, Wellington et al. (2003) have demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis of Candida by polymorphonu-clear leucocytes (PMNs) mediated by a recombinant human antibody single chain. This demonstrates another mechanism that may be operative in vivo, especially considering that PMNs are a major cell type around...

Humoral Immunity against Oral Candidiasis

Studies of antibodies in humans in oral candidiasis have used both serum and saliva, with the main objectives of identifying responses in relation to clinical disease or sometimes using antibodies to identify individual genes expressed (Cheng et al., 2003). A non-specific role of IgA has been suggested by the finding that in patients who are Candida positive, the carriage rate of Candida is inversely proportional to the non-specific secretory IgA level whereas serum levels are unrelated (Kurnatowski and Kurnatowska, 1999). In addition to secreted aspartyl pro-teinases (Saps), other specific antigens of Candida have been examined including heat shock mannoproteins. Antibodies in saliva and in serum have been reported against these mannoproteins in patients with oral or vaginal candidiasis (Ivanyi and Ivanyi, 1990 Swoboda et al., 1993 Polonelli et al., 1994). Kozel et al. (2004) used serum to identify antibodies reactive with C. albicans mannan and showed a normal distribution in 34...


Candidiasis is an infection with yeast-forming fungi. Of the 150 Candida species known to date, only approximately 20 cause disease. By far the most frequent species is C. albicans. Other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei are rare, but may respond less readily to treatment with azoles. Although it is commonly assumed that azole resistance is a problem particularly with albicans strains, this has not been the case to date (Sanglard 2002). Mucocutaneous candidiasis is always a sign of immunodeficiency and should be seen as a reason to consider starting HAART, even with a good immune status. Esophageal candidiasis and even oral thrush often occur following other OIs. Fever, which is not a classic symptom of candidiasis, is a particular indication to be on the alert. If immune status is good, it must be remembered that there are also other reasons for thrush - alcoholism and steroid treatment are only two of many possibilities. In addition to candidiasis of the...

Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

Again, the most predominant organisms seen within this disease state are A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and species of Alternaria (Table 1.1). Additionally rare cases of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albi-cans have been seen in cases of acute invasive fungal sinusitis (Schell, 2000).

Structure of the Oral Mucosa

The most common form of Candida stomatitis affects the palatal and dorsal tongue mucosa (Samaranayake and Mac-Farlane, 1990), and therefore this infection mostly relates to oral stratified keratinized squamous epithelium. In general, stratified squamous epithelia are thought to protect the underlying tissues by the process of ker-atinization, which decreases the mucosal permeability, and also by the process of desquamation of keratinized cells, which is thought to play an important role in the

Innate Immune Effector Function

Activity, recently, a contact-dependent oral epithelial cell anti- Candida activity was described, which was significantly greater than that of vaginal epithelial cells (Steele et al., 2000). More specifically, primary human oral epithelial cells inhibited the growth of 40-85 of C. albicans at ratios ranging between 0.6 and 1, and 5 1 effector to target. This antimicrobial activity extended to other Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. krusei. Saliva appeared to have no effect on growth inhibition and cells isolated from HIV+ patients with OPC had reduced antifungal activity as compared to HIV+OPC- controls (Steele et al., 2000). Mechanistic studies also confirmed a growth inhibitory rather than a fungicidal effect (Nomanbhoy et al., 2002), and further demonstrated that an acid labile molecule was involved in the growth-inhibiting interactions (Steele et al., 2001 Yano et al., in press), although the specific molecule was not identified.

Oral Microbial Ecology

The oral mucosa is colonized by over 200 microbial species. Thus, the potential for bacterial and fungal infections is high, with a need for innate defense mechanisms. The oral cavity is comprised of at least four microbial ecological niches with a certain degree of variability in the composition of their indigenous flora the saliva, the tongue, and the tooth-associated supragingival and subgingival plaques (Slots, 1992). The most predominant indigenous bacterial flora in saliva, tongue and supragingival plaque are members of the Streptococcus species. These commensal bacteria may modulate yeast colonization by competing for nutrients and adhesion sites. Evidence for a protective role of the oral bacterial flora against fungal infection is derived from the fact that use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in humans and animals promotes oral Candida infection (Samaranayake et al., 1994 Deslauriers et al., 1995). In fact, many animal and in vitro studies have shown that oral Candida...

Lysozyme and Lactoferrin

The major sources of lactoferrin in the oral mucosa are the serous cells in salivary glands and the secondary granules of PMN. Although several antimicrobial mechanisms have been identified for lactoferrin, the classical mechanism involves high affinity for iron, which causes inhibition of microbial iron-dependent metabolism (Bellamy et al., 1992). While the iron-binding domain of this molecule is located at the carboxyterminus, the aminoterminus contains a microbicidal peptide sequence, known as lactoferricin (Bellamy et al., 1992). This peptide may be released by enzymatic degradation, which takes place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and is active against fungi like C. albicans (Wakabayashi et al., 1996), although the exact mechanism of its fungicidal activity is still unknown. The fungicidal role of lacto-ferrin in saliva has been questioned by certain investigators since phosphate and bicarbonate ions at physiological salivary concentrations completely blocked its antifungal...

Secretory Leukoprotease Inhibitor

Although the first report on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of SLPI was in saliva (McNeely et al., 1995), to date only one study has addressed the functional role of salivary SLPI during oral infection in vivo (Chattopadhyay et al., 2004). This report on HIV-associated oral candidiasis found significantly higher levels of SLPI among participants with a history of OPC as compared to those with no history of this oral infection, but failed to show significantly higher levels in individuals with current oral infection as compared to uninfected controls. In an attempt to explain these findings the authors suggested that elevated levels of SLPI in response to recurrent infection is an attempt of the host to limit oral infection, a response that may persist long after the infection is resolved (Chattopadhyay et al., 2004).

Summary and Future Directions

Oral candidiasis is characterized by a recurrent, persistent, acute inflammatory reaction to Candida infection, which is limited to the uppermost epithelial layers of the oral mucosa. The inflammatory response to this pathogen elicits chronic pain and discomfort upon mastication, but it may also be responsible for activation of immunoef- fector cells and the prevention of invasive infection. Although this chapter has concentrated on the innate immune and nonimmune mechanisms of the oral mucosal defense against Candida, it is well recognized that an intact arm of the adaptive immunity, represented mainly by Th1 cells, plays an instrumental role in regulating the clearance of this infection by innate immu-noeffectors. The mechanisms that trigger the acute inflammatory response in the oral mucosa are currently unknown. However, dissection of this process is critical to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this fungal infection and may be important for the development of strategies to...

Epithelial Cell Factors TLR etc

Innate immunity and that epithelial cells can produce factors interactive with the immune system upon contact with bacteria and other antigens. Some of these factors appear to be microbicidal to Candida. For example, Pivarcsi et al. (2003) showed that antimicrobials induced from epithelial cells can kill Candida. This appeared to be dependent on the Candida induction of TLR2 and TLR4 as well as IL-8 expression. Interestingly antibodies against TLR2 or TLR4 blocked both IL-8 and microbicidal activity. TLRs are a novel protein family that recognise conserved motifs called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which represent broad groups of microbial pathogens or components (bacteria, fungi, RNA, and DNA). Stimulation of TLRs causes an immediate defensive response, including the production of an array of antimicrobial pep-tides and proinflammatory cytokines (through NF-kB), and the expression of cos-timulatory molecules, which are essential for the activation of adaptive...

Other Soluble Factors

There are additional soluble factors in saliva, which have been shown to have antiCandida activity. Earlier work had reported that lysozyme in parotid saliva was increased in relation to the oral Candida load (Yeh et al., 1997) though the pathway of such stimulation was not identified. Statherin mediates a dose-dependent adhesion of C. albicans to epithelial cells (Johansson et al., 2000). This adhesion could be inhibited by specific IgG antibodies to statherin, suggesting that antibodies derived from the gingival crevice could be active in vivo. Other workers have suggested that complement factors may have a role in homeostasis of Candida. Triebel et al. (2003) showed that in normal sera containing complement factors that Sap activity was reduced, growth of Candida was reduced, and phagocytosis was enhanced. However, these results suggest that in vivo these could only be active around the gingival crevice and might explain why this is not a favourite site for Candida colonisation.

Stephen J Challacombe Durdana Rahman Mukesh Mistry and Julian R Naglik

Classification of Oral Candida 4. General Considerations of Oral Mucosal Immunity to Candida 41 5. Humoral Immunity against Oral 5.3. Functional Aspects of Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida 46 5.4. Oral Immunity to Candida in HIV 5.5. Serum Antibodies Responses to Oral Candida Infection in Humans 47 5.6. Salivary IgA Subclass Antibodies to 6. Innate Factors against Oral Candidiasis the cytokines that they produce has been the subject of much recent investigation. The oral mucosa is covered by a mucin layer some 30 im thick, but the superficial epithelial cells are constantly being desquamated so that attachment and reattachment of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Candida is a constant process. The oral mucous membranes are therefore protected by a series of both non-specific innate factors, which include the physical factors, i.e., mucin and the cornification of the epithelial cell layer and thickness of the epithelium as well as the...

Host Immune Responses to Saps

Very few studies have investigated the interaction between Saps and the host immune response. While high titres of anti-Sap IgG antibodies have been demonstrated in sera of candidiasis patients (Macdonald and Odds, 1980 Riichel and Boning, 1983 Ruchel et al., 1988), few detailed studies on mucosal antibody responses, using saliva or vaginal secretions, against the Saps have been performed. However, recently two reports have addressed this. In a small study of six patients with oral candidiasis and HIV infection, salivary IgA antibodies to Sapl and Sap6 were found to be raised in patients compared with controls. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies were also raised (Drobacheff et al., 2001). Similarly in a series of 15 patients with oral candidiasis and HIV infection, Millon et al. (2001) found salivary IgA antibodies to Sap2 and Sap6 to be raised and related to infection. These studies are suggestive of both inferences that responses in HIV are not impaired in this regard and that if shown to...

Saps and Oral Humoral Immunity

The contribution of the Saps to C. albi-cans pathogenesis has been clearly demonstrated using SAP-deficient mutants and proteinase inhibitors. These studies demonstrated that different SAP genes appear to be essential for mucosal (SAP1-3) (Watts et al., 1998 De Bernardis et al., 1999 Schaller et al., 1999) and systemic (SAP4-6) (Hube et al., 1997 Sanglard et al., 1997) infections. The Sap isoenzymes appear to have a variety of functions in vivo, which are probably called upon during different stages and types of C. albicans infections. There might be an expectation, therefore, that responses against different Saps might be different in mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Table 3.3. Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida in Humans Table 3.3. Serum and Salivary Antibodies to Candida in Humans

Peroxidase and Myeloperoxidase

Salivary peroxidase has potent fungicidal activity in vitro (Majerus and Courtois, 1992 Bosch et al., 2000). However the role of salivary peroxidase in oral Candida clearance in vivo is unclear since the presence of phosphate at concentrations equivalent to those found in saliva suppresses its fungicidal activity (Lenander-Lumikari, 1992). Human MPO deficiency is the most frequently encountered neutrophilic lysosomal enzyme deficiency. The importance of MPO in clearing Candida infections in vivo has been suggested by case reports, which have demonstrated that patients with this deficiency may develop rapidly disseminated cutaneous C. albicans infection (Nguyen and Katner, 1997). Similarly, patients with hereditary MPO deficiency have an increased susceptibility to oral thrush and invasive oral candidiasis (Okuda et al., 1991), therefore it appears that MPO activity may also play a role in limiting oral infection in vivo.

Histopathologic Characteristics

Chronic hyperplastic or pseudomembra-nous candidiasis is a form of infection with distinct clinical and histopathological characteristics. The histologic features of this infection include a hyperplastic and parak-eratotic response of the surface epithelium, which is invaded by hyphal organisms. The inflammatory infiltrate consists primarily of PMN, which form microabscesses within the epithelium, whereas very few PMN are found within the lamina propria in association with blood vessels (Eversole et al., In HIV+ patients, neutrophils appear to be a rare finding in oral candidiasis lesions and are only encountered in a limited number of erythematous forms. The inflammatory cell infiltrate is primarily mononuclear in both pseudomembranous and erythema-tous cases of HIV-associated infection (Romagnoli et al., 1997). Few Candida hyphae are associated with the atrophic epithelium in erythematous candidiasis, whereas numerous organisms are found invading into the prickle cell layer of oral...

Gingival Crevicular Fluid

Oral Innate Effector Molecules with Anti-Candida Function Modulate adhesion, candidacidal activity via electrostatic interactions with yeast membrane Efflux of Candida ATP, deprivation of energy stores Pore-forming cationic peptides Candidacidal mechanism unknown In conjunction with PMN, the complement system may play an important role in the innate immune protection of the oral mucosa. Complement activation takes place in the gingival crevice via the classical and alternative pathways (Cutler et al., 1991). Although formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) on the surface of C. albicans has been demonstrated (Lukasser-Vogl et al., 2000), direct killing of pathogenic fungi through this mechanism has not been conclusively proven (Kozel, 1996). In addition, although C5-deficient mice were extremely susceptible to systemic challenge with C. albicans, they cleared the oral infection at the same rate as controls (Ashman et al., 2003). Therefore it appears that complement is...


In general, both unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates are decreased in patients with oral candidiasis (Ueta et al., 2000) and reduced salivary flow rates, associated with senescence, have been reported to be a risk factor for oral candidiasis (Tanida et al., 2001), believed mainly to be due to compromised mechanical clearance. Xerostomia due to pathologic changes in salivary glands from disease (e.g. Sjogren's syndrome) or treatment (e.g., head and neck radiation therapy) promotes chronic Candida colonization and predisposes patients to oral infection (MacFarlane, 1975), an effect that has been confirmed in sialoadenectomized animals (Jorge et al., 1993). However, history of recurrent oral candidiasis was not found to be associated with reduced salivary flow rates, but rather with a significantly more acidic saliva in a small group of patients as compared to healthy controls (Bercier et al., 1999). In general, saliva inhibits adhesion of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells...


Neutropenia has long been recognized as the primary risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the mortality rate of which rises up to 90 , even with maximal antifungal treatment (Rodriguez-Adrian et al., 1998). Recently it has become evident that apart from neutropenia, a decrease in function of circulating neutrophils may also be responsible for reduced resistance to infection, thus cytokine treatment combined with white blood cell transfusions have been successfully tested in neutropenic patients with refractory-invasive fungal infections (Rodriguez-Adrian et al., 1998). Like G-CSF, GM-CSF is a cytokine, which also augments neutrophil antifungal activities in vitro and may have a protective function in oral candidiasis in vivo. It has been reported that administration of rhGM-CSF, as adjunctive treatment of fluconazole-refractory OPC in AIDS patients, exerts a PMN and macrophages are constantly entering the oral cavity by transepithelial migration through the oral mucosal epithelium, as...

Other Cell Types

Cell interface in C. albicans-infected oral tissues of HIV+ individuals in a more recent study (Myers et al., 2003). The functional role of these cells in oral candidiasis is currently unknown, however, it is tempting to speculate that they may be directly involved in the clearance of the microorganism acting as innate effectors in an major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unre-stricted manner, similar to the IL-2-acti-vated CD8+ cells in mice (Beno et al., 1995). CD4+ T cells and NK cells maintain a central role in the defense against Candida in vivo since they provide activating signals to PMN through the release of specific cytokines (Ashman and Papadimitriou, 1995). Although NK cells are unable to kill C. albicans directly (Djeu and Blanchard, 1987 Zunino and Hudig, 1988 Arancia et al., 1995), in a mouse model of OPC, these cells could substitute for T cells in phagocytic cell activation and protect the animals from lethal oral infection (Balish et al., 2001). Invasive oral...


These are histidine-rich proteins, which originate in the salivary glands of humans and higher primates (Oppenheim et al., 1988). Histatins 1 and 3 are synthesized in the parotid and submandibular glands, and together with histatin 5, which is a prote-olytic product of histatin 3, represent about 80 of the total histatin content in human saliva (Edgerton and Koshlukova, 2000). Histatin 5 is the most effective candidacidal peptide within the histatin family, killing both yeast and hyphal organisms in vitro when used within a physiologic range of concentrations (Raj et al., 1990 Xu et al., 1991). Unlike other cationic antimicrobial peptides, histatin 5 does not kill target cells by insertion into fungal cell membranes and pore formation (Raj et al., 1998). Edgerton and coworkers (2000) have demonstrated The relationship between salivary levels of histatins and protection from oral Candida infection in vivo is unclear. Quite unexpectedly, the concentration of total histatins was elevated...


An immunohistochemical study of human oral candidiasis biopsies showed that hBD-2 is expressed in infected as well as adjacent uninfected epithelium, although the staining intensity was much more pronounced in the presence of Candida (Sawaki et al., 2002). Neutrophils and oral epithelial cells present in infected tissues only expressed alpha defensins (human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1, HNP-2, and HNP-3). However, interpretation of the findings of this study are limited by the fact that it did not include control biopsies from healthy subjects (Sawaki et al., 2002). Expression levels of hBD-1 vary from person to person. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at site 668 of the hBD-1 gene exhibited a significant association with oral Candida carriage levels. Individuals carrying one or two copies of this SNP are predisposed to a lower Candida carriage in the oral mucosa (Jurevic et al., 2003). However, the biological relevance of this finding is uncertain since this


Calprotectin has candidastatic activity and inhibits yeast to hyphal transformation (Murthy et al., 1993). The mechanism of the antifungal function of calprotectin is unknown, however it has been suggested that it is based on zinc binding via histidine-containing sequences, which deprives the organism from this essential metal (Sohnle et al., 1991, 2000). In fact, zinc deficiency has a negative effect on C. albicans growth and germination in vitro (Yamaguchi, 1975). The individual peptide calprotectin chains do not exhibit antifungal activity even though they both have zinc-binding capabilities (Sohnle et al., 2000). To explain this finding it was suggested that formation of a stable heterodimer is necessary for maximum zinc affinity (Sohnle et al., 2000). Absence of a requirement for direct contact between calprotectin and the microorganism and reversibility of the antimicrobial activity in the presence of zinc also support zinc scavenging from a distance as a likely mechanism of...


In animal models, however, there has been some intensive study of cytokines in relation to oral candidiasis in an attempt to answer questions of their relationship with protection. Farah et al. (2001a), in an irradiated mouse model, showed that CD4 cell depletion led to increased colonisation and infection with Candida. This showed that IL-12 from the draining submandibular lymph nodes was higher in these infected animals than in controls, suggesting that IL-12 might have a role in clearance of the fungus. These same authors showed in a slight modification of this model that CD4 or CD8 cell depletion did not affect the severity of oral candidiasis but that depletion of PMNs did (Farah et al., 2001b). Again IL-12 as well as IFN-y were raised in draining lymph nodes, drawing an inference that the mechanism of action of CD4 was via PMNs. However, Farah et al. (2002b) suggested that TNF-a was best related to the recovery from oral infection or resistance to infection in nude BALB c mice....

Salivary Histatins

Salivary histatins are a family of basic histidine-rich proteins in which therapeutic potency against oral candidiasis is apparent and thus have promise as therapeutic agents for humans with oral candidiasis. Salivary histatins appear to be particularly active against intact cells rather than hyphae (Edgerton et al., 1998) and appear to bind to a 67-kDa protein in the cell wall. Salivary histatin 5 (Hst5) is a potent toxin for C. albi-cans it induces non-cytolytic efflux of Candida cellular ATP, potassium, and magnesium in the absence of cytolysis without implicating these ion movements in the toxins' fungicidal activity. Potassium is regulated by a TOK-1 gene and this has now been described in C. albicans (Baev et al., 2003). However, even in TOK-1 knockouts Hst5 treatment still resulted in substantial killing of Candida, demonstrating that the TOK-1 pp channels are not the primary site of Hst5 action. The mechanism of action of Hst5 is not confirmed. Thus Baev et al. (2002) showed...


There are several soluble factors that may be active against oral candidiasis in the oral cavity. The major one of these is antibody but anti-Candida factors also include defensins, histatins, and cytokines. Analysing protective factors in the oral cavity is challenging since both systemic and mucosal immunity can play a role, and there are several different forms of oral candidia-sis where either yeast or hyphal forms predominate, and these infections may be acute or chronic. Review of the literature reveals a common though not universal finding that serum IgG antibodies are raised in different forms of oral candidiasis and there is a majority view that salivary IgA antibodies may also be raised. These studies indicate that the presence of Candida in the oral cavity in disease can stimulate a response in both mucosal and systemic humoral systems. The main target antigens in yeast and hyphal forms may be different. Functional aspects of antibodies have largely been examined in vitro....

CDC Classification System

Thus, the current CDC classification categorizes persons on the basis of clinical conditions and CD4 T lymphocyte counts. There are three clinical categories (A, B, C - see Table 1) and three CD4 T lymphocyte categories (1, 2, 3 - see Table 2). For example, a patient with oropharyngeal candidiasis and a CD4 cell count of 250 l would be classified as B2 someone with asymptomatic infection and a CD4 cell count of 550 l would be in category A1. Categorization of the CD4 cells should be based on the lowest accurate CD4 cell count (CD4 nadir) and not on the most recent one. Candidiasis, oropharyngeal (thrush) Candidiasis, vulvovaginal persistent, frequent, or poorly responsive to therapy Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal

Health Issues Affecting Lgbt Populations

Of those health problems related directly to sexual behavior, HIV is currently the one most closely identified with the gay community, though it was foreshadowed by hepatitis B. The clinical and epidemiological evidence that hepatitis B was prevalent among gay men resulted in landmark hepatitis B vaccine trials in New York City in the late 70's and early 80's (Dienstag, et al., 1982 Stevens and Taylor, 1986 Szmuness, et al., 1980 Szmuness, et al., 1981). Ironically, an epidemiological study tracking the incidence of gay hepatitis B among gay men in three gay urban areas (San Francisco, New York, and Amsterdam) provided some of the earliest evidence about the emergence and progression of HIV (Hessol, et al., 1994 Van Griensven, et al., 1993). HIV has profoundly affected the LGBT community, both in terms of the unprecedented loss of community members and in terms of the community mobilization and institution-building it engendered. Despite advances in treatment and a broad-based change...

Asymptomatic Patients above 350 CD4 cellspl

It is now more widely recognized that only two studies have been able to show the advantage of beginning with HAART at these CD4 cell counts all others have not found any such advantage for the patient. Proponents of early initiation of therapy often cite a matched-pair analysis from Switzerland, which indicated a small, though statistically significant clinical benefit if HAART was started with CD4 cells above this level (Opravil 2002). 283 patients, who were started on HAART with a count above 350 CD4 cells l, were matched by age, sex, CD4 count, viral load and risk group for HIV infection with control patients who had been untreated for at least 12 months. At follow up around three years later, the AIDS risk was more than twice as high in the untreated group. However, besides considerable methodological problems due to the design of this study, one challenging question remains when looking more closely at the 52 CDC Category B illnesses (including 10 AIDS cases) which occurred...

Conservation status

In 2000, the IUCN listed the rail-babbler and western whipbird as Near Threatened through loss of habitat. The population of the western whipbird in the southwest Australia is endangered. Inappropriate fire regimes are blamed for the small distribution and small numbers. From a low of 17 pairs or less in the 1960s, this species has been slowly recovered through dedicated conservation efforts. Restriction of burning, captive breeding, and transfer of individuals have brought the population to over 500 individuals. The subspecies of the spotted quail-thrush from the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, may have been extirpated through loss of habitat.

Colonization And Succession Of Human Intestinal Microbiota With

Group one is lactic acid-producing bacteria including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus (including Enterococcus), which may possess a symbiotic relationship with the host. Group two includes putrefactive bacteria such as Clostridium prefringens, Clostridium spp. Bacteroides, Peptococcaceae, Veillonella, E. coli, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Others are like Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Megasphaera, Mitsuokello, C. butyricum and Candida, group three. Normally, near-stability exists in these habitats and each person has an individually fixed microbiota as far as qualitative composition is concerned.

The Risks Resistance Clinical Problems AIDS

The risk of AIDS seems to be low for single interruptions provided the immune defect is only moderate. In the Swiss Cohort, the risk of progression was not increased (Taffe 2002). In 127 patients who interrupted treatment, we observed no increased risk of AIDS after 18 months, compared to 252 matched controls (Jaeger 2002). However, almost all these patients were immunologically stable. The risk is probably higher in patients with severe immunodeficiency. In a smaller study in significantly immunocompromised patients, several AIDS-defining illnesses occurred (Deeks 2001). CPRC064 came to a similar troubling conclusion 270 patients with multiresistant viruses and mostly significant immunodeficiency (median 144 CD4 cells l) participated in this randomized study (Lawrence 2003). One group of patients underwent a four-month treatment interruption before starting the salvage regimen, while the control group continued treatment. During the observation period of almost 12 months, a...

Other Routine Checks What Should Be Monitored

Besides the CD4 cell count and viral load, several other parameters should be monitored in the HIV patient. The following recommendations apply to clinically asymptomatic patients with normal results on routine laboratory evaluation, who have been on stable treatment for several months, or who are not taking antiretrovi-ral therapy. Of course, if treatment is started or changed, or if the patient develops complaints, more frequent monitoring is required. Depending on the problem, additional tests may be necessary. A complete physical examination should be performed regularly, and this often leads to the discovery of important findings such as Kaposi lesions or mycoses (thrush ). The lower the CD4 cells, the more frequently patients should be examined.

Evolution and systematics

Early ornithologists focused on the hooked, rather robust bills of these birds to associate them with various groups of flycatchers or shrikes from other parts of the world. Whistlers and their kin are now believed to be part of the largely endemic Australo-Papuan songbird assemblage. Generic relationships within the family are poorly understood. As currently delimited, the Pachycephalidae comprises a central cluster of three genera (whistlers Pachycephala, shrike-thrushes Colluricincla, and pitohuis Pitohui) and several smaller ones, some whose affinities may lie elsewhere. With 26 to 33 recognized species, whistlers constitute the largest and most widespread genus. Four species are sometimes merged with Pachycephala or, alternatively, each is segregated into its own monotypic genus, the rufous-naped whistler (Aleadryas ruf nucha) and mottled whistler (Rhagologus leu-costigma) of New Guinea and the yellow-flanked whistler (Hy-locitrea bonensis) and maroon-backed whistler (Coracornis...

Physical characteristics

Birds in this family range in length from the 5 in (12.5 cm) goldenface to the 11 in (28.0 cm) rusty pitohui (Pitohui fer-rugineus). They are characterized by a robust body and large, rounded head, the latter the reason for the earlier name thickhead bestowed to whistlers and as a group name for the family. Legs and feet are strong, wings broad and rounded, and tail unadorned. The bills are robust, although often of moderate length and, in some of the larger species, rather imposing, especially when attached to the finger of an unwary handler. There is a shrike-like hook at the tip, part of the origin of the name shrike-thrush for the thrush-sized species in the genus Cotturicmda. Together with a well-developed notch, this makes the bill efficient at grasping prey. The most specialized bills are those of the shrike-tits and ploughbill. These are strongly laterally compressed, making them much deeper than wide. The shrike-tits, in particular, are endowed with powerful jaw muscles....

Feeding ecology and diet

Whistlers and their relatives are, for the most part, rather sedate feeders. They search foliage and limbs in a methodical fashion, gleaning prey from leaves or bark, and some pick items from the ground by pouncing. Because these species do not pursue flying insects, most lack rictal bristles of more aerial insectivorous birds. Most species feed in the top to middle of the canopy, but some like the rufous-naped whistler and olive whistler (Pachycephala olivacea) forage in low dense understory. The larger shrike-thrushes and, more frequently, the crested bellbird feed on the ground, hopping in a thrush-like manner. The ploughbill and shrike-tits use their strong bills to strip bark from branches, feeding on insects they expose. The main prey are insects and other small invertebrates. The mangrove-inhabiting white-breasted whistler frequently eats small crabs and small mollusks. The larger species of shrike-thrushes opportunistically take eggs, baby birds, and small vertebrates. Many...

Reproductive biology

In the golden whistler and gray shrike-thrush, both male and female contribute to nest construction, incubation of eggs, and care of young. The rufous whistler is similar, except that the female builds the nest. In shrike-tits, the female does most nest construction and incubation, and both adults care for young additional birds serve as helpers at the nest. Helpers are also known for the whitehead (Mohoua albicilla), in which the female builds the nest. Incubation may be by both parents at some nests or by the female at others. The latter tend to be nests with helpers. After hatching, the chicks are fed by the parents and the helpers. In the whistlers, the nest can range from the substantial bowl built by the red-lored whistler (Pachycephala rufogularis) to the thin, flimsy cup of the mangrove whistler. Twigs and bark comprise much of the coarsely constructed nest of many species. In habitats with taller trees, nests may be higher, up to 33 ft (10 m) in the case of the rufous...

The His Cys Box Family of Homing Endonucleases

Candida albicans Candida dublineinsis tron in the rDNA gene (Haugen et al. 2004). They found that the Naeglaria family of enzymes, with the exceptions of I-Nmol and I-NaeII, appear to be examples of vertical inheritance. Here, highly related endonuclease ORFs situated in the same position (the P6 arm) of related group I introns are found in the same rDNA site (S516). However, examples of likely lateral transfer of endonuclease sequences independent of the encoding intron also exist. In one case, four endonuclease ORFs that group together phylogenetically (I-Ppol, I-Naell, and two Candida pseudogenes) are found at different sites in two different subclasses of group I introns. The ORFs of I-Ppol and I-NaeII are found in the sense orientation in the PI element of the IC1 subclass of group I introns, whereas the Candida pseudogenes are in the antisense orientation in the P2.1 element of the IE subclass. Interestingly, both of these introns are located in similar locations of the LSU gene...

Significance to humans

A few species are shy but most are curious and tame. In parks and inhabited areas, this confiding and vocal nature draws attention. Many species readily respond to human whistles and squeaks, and so can be readily attracted. The gray shrike-thrush will nest in potted plants around houses. For the most part, however, these birds remain unfamiliar to most of the public. 1. Golden whistler (Pachycephala pectoralis) 2. Whitehead (Mohoua albicilla) 3. Regent whistler (Pachycephala schlegelii) 4. Crested bellbird (Oreoica gutturalis) 5. Little shrike-thrush (Colluricincla megarhyncha) 6. Eastern shrike-tit (Falcunculus frontatus) 7. Rufous-naped whistler (Alead-ryas rufinucha) 8. Gray shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica) 9. Rufous whistler (Pachycephala rufiventris) 10. Variable pitohui (Pitohui kirho-cephalus). (Illustration by Emily Damstra)

Biotransformation in ionic liquid

Hexafluorophosphate ( bmim PF6 ), with water (1 4) in July 2000. Then Russell and co-authors3b reported that thermolysin-catalyzed amidation of CBz-asparagine with L-phenylalanine methyl ester proceeded in a mixed solvent of bmim PF6 with aqueous buffer solution. These examples showed that the IL had no inhibitory action against the enzymes because bmim PF6 was insoluble in water and enzymatic reactions took place in the water layer. The first example of enzymatic reaction in a pure IL solvent system was reported by the Sheldon group in December 2000.4 The authors successfully demonstrated two types of Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-B) catalyzed reaction in a pure IL CAL-B catalyzed amidation of octanoic acid with ammonia and also the formation of octanoic peracid by the reaction of octanoic acid with hydrogen peroxide (Fig. 1). We initially tested Candida antarctica lipase using imidazolium salt as solvent because CAL was found to be the best enzyme to resolve our model substrate...

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor

Ment, and an increase in the proportion of Gr-1+ cells that have initiated apoptosis as detected by mercocyanine 540 staining (42). G-CSF deficiency results in increased susceptibility to pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans (43). Surprisingly, despite the unexpected impairment of monocyte macrophage responses in G-CSF- - mice during Listeria infections (40,44,45), Mycobacterium avium infections were not exacerbated in G-CSF- - mice, and high levels of interferon (IFN)-y production accompanied infection with this pathogen (46). Candida infection of G-CSF- - mice was accompanied by a vigorous neutrophilia, exceeding the magnitude of that in wild-type mice, and early control of the pathogen load. However, after 1 wk of infection, deep tissue infection with high Candida pathogen loads persisted in G-CSF- - mice at a time the infection was resolving in wild-type mice (43).

Trihydroxytoluene oxygenase

This reaction has been observed with protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Hydrogenophaga palleronii J218 , and catechol 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhizobium trifolii, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous and R. erythropolis A3769, B754, C84, C342, D247, D672, E204, G647, J703 . Candida tropicalis catalyzes this reaction A943 , and many reports suggest that this reaction may be common in microorganisms.

Physical Examination

HEENT Herpetic lesions, oropharyngeal thrush, hairy leukoplakia oral Kaposi's sarcoma (purple-brown macules) retinitis, hemorrhages, perivascular white spots, cotton wool spots (CMV retinitis) visual field deficits (toxoplasmosis). Neck rigidity, lymphadenopathy. Pelvic Rectal Candidiasis, perianal herpetic lesions, ulcers, condyloma. Dermatologic Signs of AIDS Rashes, Kaposi's sarcoma (multiple purple nodules or plaques), seborrheic dermatitis, zoster, herpes, molluscum contagiosum, oral thrush.

Clinical Investigations

Identification of pathological forms of Candida species can be achieved by direct visualization of Periodic acid Schiff-stained smears sampled directly from affected mucosa. Precise subclassification can be performed following culture of swabs or an oral saline rinse, the latter also providing a quantitative measure of oral fungal load.

Antimicrobial And Immuneenhancing Activity

Allicin is believed to be chiefly responsible for garlic's antimicrobial activity. More specifically, it has been found to exert antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant enterotoxicogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Proteus spp., Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa antifungal activity particularly against Candida albicans antiparasitic activity against some of the major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and antiviral activity (Ankri & Mirelman 1999). Ajoene is another important antimicrobial constituent, with greater antiviral activity than allien, according to one in vitro test (Weber et al 1992).

Signs and symptoms

The oropharynx is usually affected, with taste disturbances and a burning sensation on the tongue. White, non-adherent plaques on the buccal mucosa, tonsillar ring and tongue confirm the diagnosis. Involvement of the tongue alone is rare. Occasionally, there may be atrophic candidiasis, which presents only with an erythematous mucosa. Candida esophagitis usually occurs with oropharyngeal involvement, but in about one third of cases there is no oral thrush. It often presents with dysphagia (drinking is ok, but food can't go down) and retrosternal pain. Some patients complain of nausea, although vomiting occurs only rarely.

Expression Vector and Identification of an Expression Strain

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify two alcohol oxidase-encoding genes in P. methanolica AUG1 and AUG2 (alcohol utilization gene Raymond et al, 1998). The alcohol oxidases encoded by these genes share 83 identity with one another. Auglp shares 84 identity with Moxlp from Hansenula poly-morpha, 72 identity with Aodlp from Candida boidini, and 69 identity with Aoxlp from P. pastoris. Three lines of evidence indicate that Auglp is the dominant alcohol oxidase in P. methanolica and therefore the AUG 1 promoter is appropriate choice to drive recombinant protein expression. First, amino-terminal sequence analysis of the alcohol oxidase induced by methanol in a high-cell density fermentation demonstrated that only Auglp was present. Second, an auglA mutant grows poorly in minimal methanol broth whereas an aug2A mutant has a wild-type growth phenotype (an auglh aug2A double mutant cannot grow at all). Finally, the levels of recombinant protein expression driven by...

Antimicrobial Activity

Garlic has in vitro antifungal effects against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida spp., Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Aspergillus spp., and Mucorpusillus (40). When five volunteers consumed 10-25 mL of fresh garlic extract, urine samples had antifungal activity, but susceptibility from serum samples dropped significantly (42).

Keratinocyte Derived Effector Molecules in the Innate Immune System of the Skin

In keratinocytes, various microbial compounds induce a rapid TLR-dependent intracellular Ca2+ response. In addition, keratinocytes respond to the challenge with S. aureus or Candida albicans (C. albicans) with TLR2-MyD88-NF-kB-dependent induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), supporting the key role of the TLR-MyD88-NF-kB pathway in innate immune functions of the skin 49, 59 .

Clinical Manifestationssystemic

An extensive discussion of the systemic manifestations of HIV AIDS would be quite lengthy and beyond the scope of this chapter. Note will be made of the PHI, which presents with fever, myalgias, pharyngitis, arthralgias, headache, and malaise. Nonpruritic maculo-papular rash of the face and trunk is reported in 30 to 70 of cases (10) Generalized lymphadenopathy, nausea, vomiting, neurological complications, oral ulceration, and candidiasis might be observed. Since PHI can present before antibody test seroconversion, diagnostic testing should utilize measurement of specific viral antigens or viral load for detection of HIV infection.

Evolutionary Origins of the HO Gene and Other Components of the MAT Switching System

The evolutionary origin of HO is enigmatic because the gene has a very limited phylogenetic distribution. Apart from S. cerevisiae and its close relatives such as S. bayanus (the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group of species), the HO gene is present only in Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces castellii, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Butler et al. 2004). In these species, mating-type switching probably occurs by HO-catalyzed switching between an active MAT

Pchiral hydroxy phosphorus Pboranes

Lipase ANL, lipase from Aspergillus niger BCL, lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia) CAL-B, lipase from Candida antarctica B PFL, lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens PPL, pig pancreatic lipase. Lipase ANL, lipase from Aspergillus niger BCL, lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia) CAL-B, lipase from Candida antarctica B PFL, lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens PPL, pig pancreatic lipase.

Relationship of HO to VDE

The HO protein has strong sequence similarity to inteins, which are unusual selfish genetic elements found primarily in bacteria (see Perler, this Vol.). Only two nuclear genes of eukaryotes are known to contain inteins (Perler 2002), one of which is the vacuolar H+-ATPase gene VMA1 of S. cerevisiae which contains the VDE intein (Gimble and Thorner 1992). HO has higher sequence similarity to VDE than to any other intein and clusters with it in a phyloge-netic tree (Dalgaard et al. 1997 Gogarten et al. 2002). This fact, together with their co-occurrence in S. cerevisiae despite the rarity of inteins in eukaryotes, suggests that HO shares a relatively recent common ancestor with VDE and is a sort of renegade intein. Although the VMA1 ATPase gene is a highly conserved gene with homologues in all eukaryotes, eubacteria and archaea, the distribution of the VDE intein is limited to a few hemiascomycete species closely related to S. cerevisiae. Among these species, VDE has a patchy...

Deficiency Signs And Symptoms

Clear deficiency signs are difficult to establish because the symptoms may vary enormously. Local signs and symptoms of an imbalance of the intestinal flora (intestinal dysbiosis) include bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and or constipation and fungal overgrowth (such as Candida).

Allergic rhinosinusitis

A more effective approach to nasal congestion and inflammation is the use of a topical nasal corticosteroid spray. This class of agent is the most potent and effective modality for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and is effective against all of the manifestations of this disorder (8). Common side effects include local nasal irritation and occasional thrush. Less common, but possibly important in the case of long-term use, are an increase in incidence of glaucoma, cataracts, and osteoporosis. These drugs diminish the inflammatory influx of cells into the nasal mucosa and diminish the strength of the local allergic response.

Antiretroviral And Antibacterial

Hyperforin has also demonstrated antiviral and antibacterial activity (Medina et al 2006). Hyperforin exhibits effective antibacterial activity against MRSAand other Gram-positive bacteria, but no growth-inhibitory effect on Gram-negative bacteria or Candida albicans (Schempp et al 1999).

Perspectives for the Future

J Biol Chem 268 7372-7381 Hall TM, Porter JA, Young KE, Koonin EV, Beachy PA, Leahy DJ (1997) Crystal structure of a hedgehog autoprocessing domain homology between hedgehog and self-splicing proteins. Cell 91 85-97 Hanada K, Yewdell JW, Yang JC (2004) Immune recognition of a human renal cancer antigen through post-translational protein splicing. Nature 427 252-256 Hirata R, Anraku Y (1992) Mutations at the putative junction sites of the yeast vmal protein, the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase, inhibit its processing by protein splicing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 188 40-47 Hirata R, Ohsumi Y, Nakano A, Kawasaki H, Suzuki K, Anraku Y (1990) Molecular structure of a gene, vmal, encoding the catalytic subunit of H+-translocating adenosine triphosphatase from vacuolar membranes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 265 6726-6733

Dihydrochelirubine 12monooxygenase

Several publications have briefly reported on benzpyrene hydroxylase without specifying the site of hydroxylation. Many publications (see 3,4-Benzpyrene) report on 3-hydroxylation, but a significant number additionally report hydroxylation at positions 1 (rat, man and sole, e.g A458, C473, J94 ), 4 (rat C204 ), 7 (rat, man, mouse and scup, e.g. A458, B122, D965, G445 ), 8 (rainbow trout A1424 ) and 9 (rat, monkey, hamster, rabbit, mouse, man and Saccharomyces, e.g. A458, A2327, A2379, A2814, A3326, A3412, A3681 ). 3-Hydroxylation (E.C. occurs in a large range of species, including man, rat A13 , monkey A1869 , tree shrew, pig A1997 , rabbit A2729 , camel H103 , quokka, kangaroo, bandicoot, A2420 , mouse A3681 , guinea pig B82 , pigeon, crow, kite, egret C307 , trout A2145 , goldfish, bullhead D465 , bluegill E480 , scup D965 , sole G374 , killifish B259 , mullet C141 , barnacle B744 , Saccharomyces A3326 and Candida B775 . Candida parapsilosis enzyme is a monomer, molecular...

Frequent Skin Problems In Newborns Diaper Dermatitis

Diaper candidiasis is a fungal-infected diaper dermatitis. The most common causative agent is a yeast fungus called Candida albicans. It is a known fact that extensive use of antibiotics in newborns and small children increases that incidence of diaper candidiasis. Initially, diaper candidiasis can be treated with a specific antimycotic therapy (nystatin, clotrimazole), then followed up with the healing methods for basic diaper dermatitis as previously described 22 .

Advantages over Antibiotics

Eliminating pathogenic groups with antibiotics is an obvious approach to beneficially modifying the intestinal microbiota. However, perturbation of indigenous microbial ecosystems caused by the collateral damage to desirable populations can lead to potentially serious side effects. These include antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis involving overgrowth of Clostridium difficile as well as oral or vaginal candidiasis (173-175). Prebiotics and probiotics can ameliorate the potential of opportunistic infections caused by disturbances to the microbiota by restoring populations of beneficial bacteria (176-179). No long-term side effects have been reported for either prebiotic or probiotic ingredients, enabling their safe long-term use in prophylactic strategies to minimize disease. In contrast, long-term use of antibiotics may elicit a range of side-effects including liver damage, hypersensitivity, sensitivity to sunlight, and increasing the risk of developing...

AIDSHuman Immunodeficiency Virus

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that is transmitted through blood or other body fluids. As the HIV destroys the CD4+ helper T-cells, the patient inevitably becomes immunodeficient, at which point the patient is considered to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS. The conversion to the diagnosis of AIDS is met when the CD4+ count drops below 200 or when the patient exhibits any immunodeficient-defining symptom such as Kaposi's sarcoma, candidiasis, CMV disease, toxoplasmosis, or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Initial symptoms are mild, most often fever, night sweats, fatigue, and mild lymphadenopathy. As the virus progresses and the patient becomes immunodeficient, opportunistic infections predominate. Immunosuppression also predisposes patients to neoplasms, particularly Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma. Diagnosis is usually made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. If the ELISA test is positive, a Western blot test is...

Developmental Immunodeficiency Disorders

Depressed CMI permits infections caused by opportunistic organisms (e.g., Candida, Pneumocystis, viruses). E. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a highly specific T cell disorder that is characterized by an absence of immunity to Candida. Patients have apparently normal T cell absolute numbers and functions. Approximately 50 of patients with this disorder also have endocrine dysfunctions (e.g., hypothyroidism).

Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome

Following numerous yeast infections after using a new oral contraceptive pill 2 years ago, Sandra, a 25-year old primary school teacher, started experiencing an intense burning pain at the entrance of her vagina during sexual intercourse. The pain started with initial penetration, lasted throughout intercourse, and was present for 30 min afterwards. Thinking that it was caused by yet another yeast infection, Sandra purchased her usual treatment from the pharmacy over-the-counter antifungal vaginal suppositories. However, this only increased her pain to the point that, 6 months later, she had become apprehensive about sexual activity with her long-term partner. She also noticed a tensing up of her pelvic floor muscles while engaging in foreplay and a marked decrease in her sexual desire and arousal levels, which further contributed to her pain. Sandra began avoiding all sexual activities, even nonpenetrative ones. She sought treatment from several medical professionals, underwent...

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Aids

Depletion of the Th cell population results in a loss of cytokines (which activate other immunocompetent cells) and a diminished capacity to offset normally noninvasive, infectious agents. Infections in patients with AIDS are caused primarily by endogenous and nosocomial agents. Common organisms include Pneumocystis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Toxoplasma, Candida, Mycobacterium, herpesvirus, and Cryptococcus. (1) At CD4 T cell levels of 200-400 cells il, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and varicella-zoster infections dominate.

Pectin Glycerol Ester

To find a suitable enzyme to catalyze the transesterification reaction (methyl ester to glycerol ester) under mild conditions, we screened a number of lipases and esterases. We found two lipases (Candida cylindracea lipase and porcine pancreatic lipase) to exhibit catalytic activity for this reaction. The reaction conditions entailed elevated temperatures, with the use of glycerol as the solvent and an acyl acceptor. The enzyme catalyzed the esterification of the carboxyl group of the pectin to the C1 (primary) alcohol of the glycerol to form the monoester. No substantial glycerol

Experimental Section A Pectin Glycerol Ester

HM-pectin (1 g, 73 DE, GENU) was partially swollen in 20 mL of glycerol. Then 50 mg of lipase from Candida cylindreacea (Lipase OF-360, Meito-Sangyo) was added to the solution and the mixture was stirred a 55 C for 24 h. The modified pectin was precipitated in methanol and recovered by filtration. After being washed extensively with methanol, the product was obtained as a powder. The yield was 0.98 g. Analysis of the product (MW 125,000, MW Mn 6.8) by size-exclusion chromatography indicated around 2-3 increase in the average molecular weight from the starting material (MW 123,000, MW Mn 6.4), corresponding roughly to a degree of esterification of 2 (with glycerol). 1H NMR analysis showed the presence of glycerol moiety. The aqueous solution viscosity of the modified product slightly increased in comparison to the starting pectin.

Comparative genomics

As far as the genome as a whole is concerned, comparisons between E. cuniculi and A. locustae have already revealed one surprising characteristic. Over time, the conservation of gene order is lost, mostly due to many short-range events and a few longer-range events which eventually randomize the genome. A. locustae and E. cuniculi are very distantly related species of microsporidia (Slamovits et al. 2004b), so it is surprising that they share a fairly high level of gene order conservation. Comparing 94 pairs of genes it was found that 13 of pairs were present in both genomes, while almost 26 of pairs were within five genes of one another (Slamovits et al. 2004a). It is impossible to quantify our expectations for gene order conservation without knowing how long ago two species diverged, which we cannot know for microsporidia, but if we compare this level of conservation with other fungi, the contrast is obvious. The closely related yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans...

Differential Diagnosis

In addition to the clinical symptoms of anemia, iron deficiency produces a microcytic, hypochromic anemia. Serum iron is low. Total iron-binding capacity is elevated. A similar clinical appearance of the tongue mucosa may be seen in Vitamin B complex deficiencies and pernicious anemia (Fig. 43). Atrophic candidiasis (Fig. 45) may also produce a sensitive, erythematous, depapillated lingual mucosal surface. In severe xerostomia, the tongue may exhibit atrophy of the lingual papillae and erythema that is frequently secondary to atrophic candidiasis. Central papillary atrophy is a localized form of depapillation secondary to candidiasis (Fig. 46).

Mycobacterial Infections

Oroesophageal Candidiasis or Candidosis. Oroesophageal candidiasis or candidosis is a superficial infection of the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal mucosa caused by the fungus Candida. It represents the most common fungal OI among HIV-infected individuals about 90 of all patients will develop it during the course of the disease. Normally present in the oral cavity in healthy persons, Candida can overgrow and through upregulation of genes or via infection with more virulent strains can cause infection. In 75 of cases, the oral infection is associated with concurrent involvement of the esophagus or the larynx and tracheobronchial tree, especially in deep immunosuppression. Typically seen in the pre-HIV era as a complication of antibiotic treatment, it has been one of the cardinal presentations of advanced HIV infection with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells mm3, but can be seen during acute HIV infection or in the asymptomatic stage. Presence of oral candidiasis or oral hairy...

Studies by Traditional Plate Culture Methods

The first reports associating allergy with characteristic microbial composition in the gut appear to be from studies in the former Soviet Union in the early1980s (38-40). One of these studies, reported also in English, involved an assessment of 60 under one-year-old infants with food allergy and atopic eczema. It was claimed that the severity of the disease was in direct correlation with the stage of aberrancy in the fecal microbiota. This aberrancy was characterized as low prevalence of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and high prevalence of Enterobactericeae, pathogenic species of staplylococci and streptococci as well as Candida species (39). Indication that such differences may persist beyond infancy was provided a few years later by Ionescu and co-workers (1986) who studied 10- to 45-year-old subjects. Subjects with atopic eczema (n 58) were shown to have lower prevalence of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and enterococci species than the healthy subjects (n 21) but higher...

Parenterally Administered Cephalosporins

Significantly decreased numbers of enterobacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been observed in connection with parenteral administration of cefmenoxime in healthy subjects. Furthermore, there was a concomitant increase in numbers of clostridia and Candida species (37). Cefoperazone is mainly excreted in bile giving rise to high fecal concentrations and thereby major changes in the intestinal microbiota can be expected. The impact of cefoperazone on the fecal microbiota has been evaluated in adult patients (38) and in sick children (39,40). The Gram-negative aerobic rods as well as numbers of staphylococci and streptococci were markedly suppressed in all studies. Overgrowth of resistant enterobacteria, enterococci and Candida species were observed and anaerobic species were also suppressed.

Perorally Administered Cephalosporins

Alterations in the intestinal microbiota during administration of cefaclor have been studied in patients (19) and in healthy volunteers (51,52). In the microbiota of patients there were reduced numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. Enterococci, enterobacteria and Bacteroides species increased and there were also increased numbers of Candida albicans. In healthy subjects only minor changes occurred in the anaerobic microbiota.

Establishment of Microbial Limits

Microbial limits for finished products. Maximum 1000 organisms g or mL, and absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one gram or milliliter of the product. Exceptions are baby-care products, eye products, and products for intimate hygiene maximum 100 organisms g or mL, and absence of Staphylococus aureus, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one gram or milliliter of the product. 2. Microbial limits for raw materials. Maximum 100 organisms g or mL, and absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, and Pseudomonas aer-uginosa in one gram or milliliter. Limits for water as raw material could be fixed at maximum 100 organisms mL and absence of coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 100

Exploring sequenced metagenomes for novel BVMOs

D Sixteen yeast and 12 fungal genomes have been screened 33 BVMOs discovered in fungi and three in the yeast Candida albicans SC5314. e Other eukaryotes included Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Tetraodon nigroviridis. d Sixteen yeast and 12 fungal genomes have been screened 33 BVMOs discovered in fungi and three in the yeast Candida albicans SC5314. e Other eukaryotes included Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Tetraodon nigroviridis.

Clinical Manifestations

NME is the hallmark finding in glucagonoma syndrome. It is characterized by a polymorphous eruption that most commonly presents as scaly, erythematous papules and plaques with superficial erosions. The lesions typically are in a perioral distribution on the face (Fig. 9), but also involve the perineum, lower abdomen, thighs, buttocks, and less commonly the distal extremities. NME has been reported to be the presenting complaint in approximately two-thirds of patients with this tumor, but there are only rare cases of glucagonoma without NME ever occurring. Stomatitis, glossitis, dystrophic nails, and alopecia can also be seen. The eruption is frequently misdiagnosed as seborrheic dermatitis or intertrigo and can also resemble pemphigus foliaceus, acrodermatitis enteropathica, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, or psoriasis.

Nonneoplastic Conditions

Chronic gastritis predisposes to peptic ulceration, gastric carcinoma and malignant lymphoma. Unusual variants such as lymphocytic, granulomatous or eosinophilic gastritis are occasionally seen - infective gastritis occurs in immunosuppressed patients (e.g., CMV) or opportunistically overlying ulceration (e.g., candida fungus). Peptic ulceration there are two patient groups

Ringopening polymerization to polyesters

Various cyclic esters have been subjected to lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization. Lipase catalyzed the ring-opening polymerization of 4- to 17-membered non-substituted lactones.16-18 In 1993, it was first demonstrated that medium-size lactones, 8-valerolactone (8-VL, six-membered) and e-caprolactone (e-CL, seven-membered), were polymerized by lipases derived from Candida cylindracea, Burkholderia cepacia (lipase BC), Pseudomonas fluorescens (lipase PF), and porcine pancreas (PPL).1920 P-Propiolactone (P-PL, 4-membered) was polymerized by Pseudomonas family lipases as catalyst in bulk, yielding a mixture of linear and cyclic oligomers with molecular weight of several hundreds,21 whereas poly(P-PL) of high molecular weight (molecular weight > 5 x 104) was obtained by using Candida rugosa lipase (lipase CR).22 In polyester synthesis via ring-opening polymerizations, metal catalysts are often used. For medical applications of polyesters, however, there has been concern about...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects

John's wort has been used topically for wound healing for hundreds of years. Antibacterial properties have been reported as early as 1959, with hyperforin found to be the active component. Using multiple concentrations, it was discovered that no hyperforin dilutions had antimicrobial effects on Gram-negative bacteria or Candida albicans. There was, however, growth inhibition for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, some with the lowest dilution concentration of 0.1 g mL. Hyperforin was also shown to be effective at inhibiting methacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (25).

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Dysphagia and odynophagia are common symptoms, with swelling and airway obstruction occurring less frequently. Dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss are common in severely affected patients without a secondary means of alimentation. Treatment is symptomatic. Appropriate hydration, in addition to the use of salivary substitutes and sucralfate, is recommended acutely. Salivary flow may be increased chronically with cholinergic drugs such as pilocarpine. Mouthwashes containing combinations of carafate, aluminum hydroxide, diphenhydramine, and nystatin can be useful for symptomatic relief. Superinfections with bacteria or fungi such as candida are common and should be managed accordingly. Oral or systemic glucocorticords may provide short-term relief of symptoms in severe manifestations of radiation pharyngitis.

Gross Description

Sections of the heart showed bilateral myocyte hypertrophy. The aorta had focal fibrous plaque and subendothelial degeneration with increased basophilic ground substance. All lobes of the lungs showed extensive bronchopneumonia with hemorrhage and associated bronchiolitis. Fungal stain revealed pseudohyphal forms in the upper lobes consistent with Candida species. The most significant finding was present in the pulmonary arteries. The small pulmonary arteries showed variable degrees of intimal hyperplasia with thickening of the media. Some vessels had evidence of complete luminal occlusion with recanalization (Figure 41). Many vessels had reduplication of their elastic lamellae making it very difficult to distinguish bronchial and pulmonary arteries. No bronchopulmonary anastomoses were identified on the sections examined.

Engineering Homing Enzymes with Novel Functions

Domain shuffling between the Pl-Scel and its Candida tropicalis analog, Pl-CtrIP, was used to design altered specificity proteins (Steuer et al. 2004). Replacement of the Pl-Scel protein-splicing domain with that of Pl-CtrIP resulted in inactive proteins. Thus, proper register between domains is likely to be critical for domain shuffling to work. However, an active chimera results when the DNA recognition region (DRR) of Pl-Scel, which is a subdomain of the protein-splicing domain that makes some of the base-specific DNA contacts, was replaced with its analog from Pl-CtrIP. Interestingly, this protein displayed a small preference for the Candida tropicalis site, which differs from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae site at six nucleotide positions, suggesting that at least a portion of the specificity has been transferred to Pl-Scel (Steuer et al. 2004). Genetic screens and selections for homing endonucleases that cleave altered recognition sequences have been developed. In a study of...

Vaginitis And Cervicitis

Clinical data support the use of tea tree oil for vaginitis and cervicitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis or Candida albicans (WHO 2003). An open study found that intravaginal application of tampons saturated in a diluted emulsified solution successfully healed vaginitis and cervicitis (n 130) caused by T. vaginalis. Vaginal pessaries containing 0.2 g essential oil inserted nightly eradicated symptoms of leucorrhoea and burning in 86 of women with C. a b 'cans vaginitis after 30 days in with 75 becoming free of infection. A case report shows that a 5-day course of 200 mg tea tree oil in a vegetable oil base inserted into the vagina may also be successful at treating vaginal candidiasis (Blackwell 1991). As used here, tea tree oil treatment eradicated anaerobic bacterial vaginosis, confirmed upon examination 1 month later.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Other head and neck manifestations include parotid gland enlargement, orophar-yngeal candidiasis, nasopharyngeal neoplasms (Kaposi or lymphoma), oral ulcerations, and oral hairy leukoplakia. Nontender parotid gland enlargement may be a heralding sign of HIV infection (14) and may be uni- or bilateral. Enlargement is most often attributable to the benign lymphoepithelial cyst, which is characterized by uni- or multilocular cyst masses, similar to the benign lymphoepithelial lesion found in Sj gren's syndrome. In contrast to the Sj gren's lesion, the cysts noted in HIV infection are thought to originate from ductal pressure induced by intraparotid lymph node hyperplasia associated with generalized lymphadenopathy (15). Please see Chapter 2 for detailed discussion of Sj gren' s syndrome.

FIGURE 16 Oral hairy leukoplakia associated with EBV Source From

Epstein-Barr Virus and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia. OHL has been encountered since the early epidemic and has been strongly linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (3). It has a typical appearance of whitish thickening of the lateral tongue (Fig. 16), more specifically of the foliate papillae on either or both sides, appearing corrugated or hairy (Fig. 17) it is rarely found in other areas of the oral cavity. In contrast to pseudomembranous oral candidiasis, the lesions cannot be scraped away with a tongue blade. It is the most common oral lesion in HIV-infected persons, encountered in 20 of asymptomatic patients and becoming more frequent with disease progression, with pseudomembranous candidiasis the second most common, encountered in about 6 . It does not, however, signify the presence of HIV infection, being infrequently found in solid organ or bone marrow transplant recipients or patients undergoing chemotherapy. Presence of OHL, regardless of the size of the lesion, signifies a more rapid...


Friedland GH, Saltzman BR, Rogers MF, et al. Lack of transmission of HTLV-III LAV infection to household contacts of patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex with oral candidiasis. N Engl J Med 1986, 314 344-9. http lit.php id 3456076 Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 1981, 305 1425-31. http lit.php id 6272109


Hydro-alcoholic extracts have been shown to have antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. The in vitro antifungal activity of calendula flower extracts has been investigated against Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus japonicum, Candida albicans, C. tropicalisand Rhodotorula glutinis. Calendula extract showed a high degree of activity against all fungi and the inhibitory effect was comparable to that of standard antifungals (Kasiram et al 2000). A flower extract has been shown to inhibit trichomonas. The oxygenated terpenes are thought to be the main active compounds (Gracza & Szasz 1968, Samochowiec et al 1979). A 70 hydro-alcoholic extract demonstrated virucidal activity against influenza virus and suppressed the growth of HSV (Bogdanova et al 1970). Calendula flower extract has also been shown to possess anti-HIV activity in vitro (Kalvatchev et al 1997).

Symptomatic Patients

On the other hand, typical illnesses that may be relatively harmless in comparison, such as oral candida or oral hairy leukoplakia, are also unerring indications of an impaired immune system. They may often precede far more serious illnesses. In such cases, it is advisable to offer the patient therapy, even if the CD4 count is relatively stable.

And Infection

Over the past two decades, mycotic infections in patients with severe neutropenia have steadily increased (14). Fungal infections are a greater problem with prolonged neutropenia and antibiotic administration in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and high-dose chemotherapy than with conventional chemotherapy for solid tumors (15). Predisposing factors for fungal infections include diabetes mellitus and corticosteroid treatment. Most infections are caused by Candida species, and an increased proportion is caused by resistant organisms (16). Major morbidity and mortality continue to be associated with infections by invasive molds, especially Aspergillus and Fusarium species. By the time these invasive molds are clinically recognized with current techniques, the chance of survival is generally < 50 , even with optimal therapy (17).

Topical Reactions

A 38-year-old woman developed a garlic burn after applying a poultice made from fresh, uncooked garlic to her breast for treatment of a self-diagnosed Candida infection secondary to breastfeeding her 6-month-old son (101). Despite a burning sensation upon application, she left the poultice in place for 2 days. The infant continued to feed with no apparent adverse effects. She presented to the emergency room 2 days after removal of the poultice. Physical exam revealed that the area where the poultice had been applied appeared as a burn with skin loss, ulceration, crusting, hyperpigmentation, granulation tissue, serous discharge, minor bleeding, and erythema on the periphery. The area was tender. The patient was treated with 1 silver sulfadiazine cream.

Viral Infections

CMV disease in HIV is usually reactivation of a latent, previously acquired infection in patients with CD4 count of less than 100 cells mm3 (19) The typical primary CMV infection, presenting with a mononucleosis-like syndrome characterized by fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and malaise, is not usually encountered in the setting of HIV infection. In the pre-HAART era, CMV reactivation disease could be asymptomatic or cause fever and constitutional symptoms or end organ disease, occurring in 40 of AIDS patients. The most common organ involved is the retina, in 85 of cases, with the GI tract accounting for another 10 . In the HAART era, incidence of new CMV-reactivation disease has decreased dramatically and is usually seen with CD4 counts less than 50 cells mm3. Oral and esophageal ulcers are the most common upper GI tract manifestation, CMV being the second most common cause of esophagitis after Candida, with HSV being the third. Necrotizing gingivitis and...

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