A series of other long-term and late effects are associated with specific systemic cancer drugs. For example, bleomycin causes pulmonary fibrosis at doses above 450 mg/m2, especially in the elderly and those on supplemental oxygen,66 and the acrolein metabolite of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide causes a hemorrhagic cystitis that in a small proportion of unfortunate patients can become chronic after a severe acute episode. Cisplatin can affect renal function, which can be either acute or of delayed-onset. Vinca alkyloids like vincristine cause sensory neuropathy, as do platinum drugs (cisplatin, oxaliplatin) and taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel). Many of these can reverse to some extent but take many months or even years to do so. Cisplatin's ototoxicity is often permanent.67
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