Bronchitis Causes and Treatment

How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis

How To Win Your War Against Bronchitis

Sick And Tired Of Your Constant Cough? Is Your Bad Immune System Leading You To The Path Of Fever And Sore Chest? You Sure Have A Reason To Panic BronchitisThere Is Always A Way Out And, This Is It Finally Discover Some Of The Most Effective Tips That Can Curb Bronchitis, And Its Repeated Bouts Learn How To Keep The Chronic Cough, And Sore Chest Away Breathe Free, And Feel The Whiff Of Fresh Air, With No Hassles

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Relieve Your Bronchitis Cure

When you begin to take the specific natural ingredients outlined in the program you will be amazed at how you will really begin to feel the Phlegm and Mucus clear up nearly immediately! Within minutes of the first step you will feel the natural ingredients in action, targeting the specific root cause of the bronchitis. These ingredients will come in direct contact with the bacteria causing your infection, and get rid of them quickly. You will discover all the secrets I have come across while I was researching how to get rid of my own Bronchitis, and how you will not only get rid of your bronchitis, but actually prevent it from ever coming back again!

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Methods to Detect Involvement of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Disease

The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.6 million people die every year from pneumococcal infections - primarily pneumonia and meningitis - including more than 800,000 children under 5 years old. According to these estimates, 40 of total acute lower respiratory tract infection, and 35 of total meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. For each invasive, potentially deadly pneumococcal infection case, there are from 10 to over 100-fold more milder clinical infectious cases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. These entities, although milder, constitute the major pneumococcal disease burden to both individuals, their families and the society both in rich and in resource poor countries. But how are these estimates derived How reliable are they

Pulmonary Disease States Associated With Advanced

Airflow obstruction is generally quite reversible in asthmatics with appropriate treatment, which stands in contrast to patients with COPD for whom obstruction is not generally reversible despite therapy. Asthma prevalence in elderly populations may range as high as 8 (Burrows et al., 1991 Parameswaran et al., 1998), and it can be difficult to differentiate from COPD. Older asthmatics with long-standing asthma may have considerable airway remodeling with a prominent component of irreversible airflow obstruction (Finucane et al., 1985), and these individuals often have relatively severe and difficult-to-treat asthma. Some investigators view asthma and COPD as different expressions of one disease entity, a concept that has been named the Dutch hypothesis, because it was first proposed in Groningen in 1961 (Postma and Boezen, 2004). This hypothesis suggests that asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema have various genetic (atopy and airway hyperresponsiveness) and endogenous factors...

Pharynx Epiglottis Trachea

Anatomy The Upper Respiratory Tract

To make matters worse, excess mucus is produced and accumulates, clogging the air passageways. Pathogenic organisms that are normally removed now have easier access to the respiratory surfaces, and the resulting lung congestion favors their growth. This is why smokers are sick more often than nonsmokers. In addition, a lethal chain reaction begins. Smoker's cough leads to chronic bronchitis,

Examples Of Economic Analyses In Biosurveillance

In this economic study, investigators used prior clinical studies, charge data, and salary information to evaluate the economic benefit of employing different mass vaccination strategies to curtail a theoretical influenza pandemic. The analysts identified the diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition ICD-9 ) associated with each possible clinical sequela of influenza, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and exacerbations of pre-existing conditions (e.g., heart disease), and searched health insurance claims data to calculate the average charges associated with each code. Previous clinical studies furnished the risk of each outcome for each age and risk category (high risk versus not high risk for contracting influenza). Age- and sex-weighted average wage data helped estimate lost productivity for each outcome. As before, the economic cost of a death was equal to the present value of how much the victim would have earned in his or her remaining lifetime. By use...

Fenugreek Seed And Leaf

In Indonesia, fenugreek is used to promote hair growth. In India, Southeast Asia, and Ethiopia, the seeds are soaked in water (the seeds swell because they are coated with mucilage) and are then drained and eaten to aid digestion, as a laxative, to treat bronchitis, and to cure sore throats. It is used to prevent sharp rises in blood sugar and to lower cholesterol.

Immune Suppression and Inflammation

In mice, Trichinella spiralis infection usually stimulates a strong T-helper type 2-like responses, characterized by strong parasite-specific IgG responses and a cytokine profile dominated by IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 production. However, in vitamin A-deficient mice, infection by T. spiralis results in low production of parasite-specific IgG and a cytokine profile dominated by interferon (IFN)-y and IL-12 production (441-443). Lymphocyte stimulation to concanavalin A or P-lactoglobulin was higher and production of IL-2 and IFN-y was higher in lymphocyte supernatants from vitamin A-deficient rats compared with control rats, suggesting that vitamin A deficiency modulates a shift toward T-helper type 1-like responses in rats (444). Vitamin A appears to inhibit IFN-y, IL-2, and granulo-cyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by type 1 lymphocytes in vitro (445). The effect of high-level dietary vitamin A on the shift to T-helper type 2-like responses in BALB c mice has been used to...

HIV and Pulmonary Diseases

The spectrum of lung diseases in HIV-infected patients encompasses complications typical for HIV such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, lymphomas and HIV-associated pulmonary hypertension, but also includes typical everyday pulmonary problems such as acute bronchitis, asthma, COPD and bronchial carcinomas (Table 1). Classical diseases such as PCP have become rarer as a result of HAART and chemoprophylaxis, so that other complications are on the increase. None other than acute bronchitis is the most common cause of pulmonary problems in HIV patients (Wallace 1997). However, particularly in patients with advanced immunodeficiency, it is vital to take all differential diagnoses into consideration. Anamnestic and clinical appearance are often essential clues when it comes to distinguishing between the banal and the dangerous.

General Factors About Bacterial Involvement in HS Pathogenicity

Systemic infections such as bacterial meningitis, bronchitis or pneumonia are possible, due to the spread of microorganisms 27 . In the case of coagulase-negative staphylococci, the recently found inflammatory peptides called phenol-soluble modulins (microbial products that stimulate cytokine production in host cells) play a role in the pathogenesis and systemic manifestations of sepsis 42 .

Microscopic Description

The heart showed transmural myocardial necrosis of the anteroseptal wall with hemorrhage, fibrosis and granulation tissue consistent with a 12-14 days old infarct. There was severe calcific atherosclerosis of the coronaries with 100 occlusion of the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. Another significant finding was the large retroperitoneal hematoma involving the psoas muscle (Figure 8). The lungs showed mild congestion, severe emphysematous change, chronic bronchitis, focal scarring and granulomatous reaction with calcification consistent with old pulmonary tuberculosis. The pulmonary vessels were thickened consistent with pulmonary hypertension. The liver showed fatty infiltration, congestion and portal inflammation with bridging fibrosis.

Occupational exposure

A questionnaire-based study in Denmark (Raaschou-Nielsen et al., 1995) investigated the prevalence of respiratory diseases and other disease symptoms in street cleaners in Copenhagen. The street cleaners showed a significantly higher prevalence ofchronic bronchitis and asthma than cemetery workers, who are exposed to lower levels of pollution and served as controls. In the statistical analysis, adjusted for smoking and age, ORs for chronic bronchitis (2.5 95 CI 1.2-5.1) and asthma (2.3 95 CI 1.0-5.1) were significantly elevated for street cleaners.

Nonneoplastic Conditions

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema often occur together. Emphysema is characterized by an increase in the size of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles. It is classified into three types depending on the part of the lung involved by the process - centrilobular, panlobular (panacinar) and paraseptal. Chronic bronchitis results from hypersecretion from bronchial mucous glands.

Agerelated Changes in Respiratory Mechanics

Normal aging is associated with changes in the respiratory system that have important consequences on the ability of older subjects to cope with the decrease in lung compliance (infiltration by inflammatory cells related to infection) and increase in airway resistance (bronchial edema, secretions) caused by lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).

Clinical Manifestations

After an incubation of two to four days, colonizing toxigenic diphtheria strains produce toxin locally with initiation of the signs and symptoms of disease (5). In nasal disease, typically seen in infants, the illness appears similar to the common cold but then progresses to a serosanguinous and mucopurulent rhinitis. Excoriation of the nares and upper lip and a white septal pseudomembrane may be seen. Spread of the disease to the pharynx occurs next, causing a sore throat, tonsillitis, low-grade temperature and a white to gray pseudomembrane extending from the tonsils to the posterior pharyngeal pillars and nasopharynx, the most common site for clinical diphtheria. Hoarseness and a barking cough accompany the progression of disease. Laryngeal diphtheria most often develops as an extension of pharyngeal involvement, although occasionally it may be an isolated manifestation of diphtheria. As toxin production continues, there is profound malaise, weakness, cervical lymphadenitis, soft...

Evaluation Of The Returned Worker

Although there is limited data on humanitarian disaster workers and patterns of disease and injury, some data from travel medicine studies can be extrapolated. It should be remembered that common accidents (car accidents, drowning) and illnesses (coronary artery disease, upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections) still happen abroad. Fever, diarrhea, and skin conditions are common complaints. A detailed discussion of the febrile traveler is beyond the scope of this chapter. However, initial evaluation entails a careful history and physical exam. Laboratory results can help limit the differential diagnosis and should include a complete blood count with differential, thick and thin blood film for malaria (where endemic), blood cultures, urinalysis, and liver function tests. Chest x-ray and serolog-ical studies may be obtained depending on the history. Patients with diarrhea should have three sets of stool examined for fecal leukocytes, ova, and...

Gross Description

The lungs weighed 1550 g, were voluminous, looked essentially identical, and did not collapse upon entering the thoracic cavity. The pleural surfaces had fibrous adhesions. On section, marked pulmonary edema was noted. The left lower lobe showed patchy areas of consolidation and hemorrhage. The right lower lobe showed diffuse acute hemorrhage. Chronic bronchitis was noted. The pulmonary artery and its major branches were unremarkable. The kidneys weighed 200 g combined and had no significant gross abnormalities.

Respiratory Disorders

Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, including bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and allied conditions, ranked fourth as causes of death in the United States in 1994, while pneumonia and influenza ranked sixth (Rosenberg et al., 1996). Over 100,000 people in this country died of obstructive pulmonary diseases, and over 80,000 died of pneumonia and influenza in that year.

The Real World of Health Policy

SUMMARY This rule sets forth the initial air quality designations and classifications for all areas in the United States, including Indian country, for the fine particles (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule so that citizens will know whether the air quality where they live and work is healthful or unhealthful. Health studies have shown significant associations between exposure to PM2.5 and premature death from heart or lung disease. Fine particles can also aggravate heart and lung diseases and have been linked to effects such as cardiovascular symptoms, cardiac arrhythmias, heart attacks, respiratory symptoms, asthma attacks, and bronchitis. These effects can result in increased hospital admissions, emergency room visits, absences from school or work, and restricted activity days.

Other environmental risk factors that may predispose smokers to COPD

The association between environmental pollution and lung disease has been recognized since the London smogs of the 1950s, where the greatest excess in mortality resulted from an increase in deaths related to chronic bronchitis (Ministry of Health, 1954 Logan, 1953). Moreover, urban

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD

COPD is defined as airflow obstruction that does not vary significantly over time. It is a heterogeneous disease which may develop from destruction of the lung parenchyma (emphysema) or inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis). In any affected individual there may be considerable overlap, with each of these components contributing a varying amount to airflow obstruction. Chronic bronchitis is defined by the presence of cough with sputum production that is present for three or more months of the year, for at least two consecutive years. The most common cause of COPD is cigarette smoking (Anderson and Ferris, 1962 Fletcher and Peto, 1977 Surgeon General, 1979). Although chronic bronchitis is associated with cigarette smoking, and is often present in patients with COPD, it is not synonymous with COPD. The terms should not be used interchangeably as chronic bronchitis may occur in the absence of airflow obstruction.

Respiratory Tract Infections

Licorice increases mucous production within the respiratory tract and exerts an expectorant action. When combined with its anti-inflammatory, antiviral and possible immune-enhancing effects, it is a popular treatment for upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In practice, it is often used to treat coughs (especially productive types) and bronchitis (Bradley 1992).

Hookworm and strongyloidiasis

Hookworm and Strongyloides are parasites that are acquired by walking barefoot (or wearing thongs or sandals) on earth contaminated by faeces. The larvae penetrate the skin, travel through the lungs and settle in the small intestine. The first sign is local irritation or 'creeping eruption' at the point of entry known as 'ground itch', which is often unnoticed. This subsides within 2 days or so and is followed 1-2 weeks later by respiratory symptoms, which may be associated with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia. Eventually a severe and chronic anaemia may develop. Hookworm infection is the commonest cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the world. Strongyloidiasis, which usually does not present with anaemia, is an important pathogen since it remains undetected for decades and presents as a severe infection such as septicaemia when the host becomes immunocompromised for any reason.

Perorally Administered Cephalosporins

The ecological effects on the intestinal microbiota of cefixime have been investigated in healthy volunteers (51,54) and in patients with exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (53). In all three studies, disturbances were observed in the aerobic microbiota as reduced numbers of enterobacteria and increased numbers of enterococci. Growth of C. difficile was common in all studies while the impact on the anaerobic microbiota varied between the studies, from reduced numbers of clostridia to reductions of several species including bacteroides.

Subjective and indirect indicators of exposure

A number of studies reported the associations of bronchitis and cough with different self-reported and surrogate indicators of exposure to transport-related air pollution. High exposure to transport-related air pollution was associated with A few studies, however, did not find associations between traffic-related exposures and specific non-allergic symptoms, such as bronchitis and cough in

Controlled animal exposure studies

Controlled animal exposure studies have also sought an association between transport-related air pollution and non-allergic respiratory morbidity. In the United States, Clarke et al. (1999) treated healthy rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (induced by over 500 mg m3 sulfur dioxide) with CAPs from Boston air. The CAP treatment (206-733 pg m3 for 5 hours a day, for 3 days) induced a significant increase in tidal volume (the volume of air inhaled and exhaled at each breath) in both sets of animals and an increase in peak expiratory flow in the bronchitic animals. The CAP treatment also induced inflammation in both groups, as indicated by neutrophil, lymphocyte and protein content of lavage fluid measured 24 hours after the exposure. In a study by the same group, Saldiva et al. (2002) also treated healthy and bronchitic rats with CAPs from Boston air. Short-term exposure again induced a significant inflammatory reaction, as indicated by neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage, and this...

Upper Airway Colonization

Periodontal disease and dental plaque are clearly identified risk factors for the development of nursing-home acquired aspiration pneumonia. Recent studies have focused on the relationship between oral hygiene, colonization of dental plaques, and subsequent risk of pneumonia (El-Solh et al., 2003 El-Solh et al., 2004). A high plaque index and or evidence of periodontal disease has been associated with presence of anaerobic bacteria in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples (Imsand et al., 2002). In a study of 49 older patients from chronic long-term facilities requiring intensive care for a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), El-Solh et al. (2004) assessed dental status (plaque index, culture of dental plaques) upon admission to the ICU BAL was performed in 14 subjects. The study showed a high rate of colonization of dental plaque by aerobic bacteria (S. aureus 45 P. aeruginosa 13 other GNB 42 ). Furthermore, pathogens recovered from BAL matched the micro-organisms recovered from...

Measured compounds

Janssen et al. (2003) reported on 24 schools located within 400 m of busy motorways in the Netherlands the study included 2503 schoolchildren aged 7-12 years. PM2.5, soot and nitrogen dioxide were measured in the schools for a year. Non-allergic respiratory symptoms (such as current phlegm and current bronchitis) were increased near motorways with high traffic counts of lorries, not cars. The adverse effects on health were mostly restricted to allergic, sensitized or A study of 5421 children aged 5-11 years in a 1-km2 grid in Dresden, Germany, showed that all measured traffic-related pollutants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and benzene) increased the risks of morning cough and bronchitis (Hirsch et al., 1999). Impaired lung function was seen only in children with high exposure to benzene, while bronchial hyperreactivity was lower in children exposed to higher levels of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide (Hirsch et al., 1999). A study of 843 children from 8 Austrian...


Parainfluenzaviruses are unstable viruses producing nonpersisting infection in immunecompetent rodents and persisting infection in immune-deficient rodents.143,144 They may be divided into type 1, type 2, type 3, and type 4, the latter, however, have only been found in humans. Sendai virus, a type 1 parainfluen-zavirus, produces respiratory infections in rats and mice. Isolates are antigenically alike and show the same pathogenecity for both species. Clinical symptoms are rare, but a high mortality may be seen in young mice before or around weaning. DBA 2 and 129 mice may be more sensitive than other strains.145 Pathological signs are catarrhal bronchitis eventually extending into the alveoli of the lung. Transmission is mainly respiratory.146 Diagnosis can easily be made by serology, but the virus does not spread efficiently among sentinels by the dirty bedding technique.147 Rabbits may be experimentally infected by Sendai virus,148 and spontaneously occurring antibodies have also...


Cilia play a significant role in the human body. The mucociliary transport that occurs in the respiratory epithelium is one of the important mechanisms protecting the body against invading bacteria and other pathogens. Failure of the mucociliary transport system is caused by several hereditary disorders grouped under the general name of immotile cilia syndrome. Kartagener's syndrome, for instance, is caused by a structural abnormality involving absence of dynein arms (see electron micrograph at right). Young's syndrome is characterized by malformation of the radial spokes and the dynein arms. The most prominent symptom of immotile cilia syndrome is chronic respiratory difficulty (including bronchitis and sinusitis), although situs inversus of the viscera is also common. Respiratory problems are caused by severely impaired or absent ciliary motility that results in reduced or absent mucociliary transport in the tracheobronchial tree. The transposition of the viscera may be related to...

Figure 184

In human respiratory mucosa, ciliated pseudostratified epithelium may change to stratified squamous epithelium. This transformation is a normal occurrence on the rounded, more exposed portions of the turbinates, on the vocal folds, and in certain other regions. Changes in the character of the respiratory epithelium may, however, occur in other ciliated epithelial sites when the pattern of airflow is altered or when forceful airflow occurs, as in chronic coughing. Typically, in chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis, the respiratory epithelium changes in certain regions to a stratified squamous form. The altered epithelium is more resistant to physical stress and insult, but it is less effective functionally. In smokers, a similar epithelial change occurs. Initially, the cilia on ciliated cells lose their synchronous beating pattern due to noxious elements in smoke. As a result, removal of mucus is

Pulmonary Function

Epidemiology that suggests an association with air pollution-related human mortality morbidity, especially among individuals with cardiopulmonary disease. Several mouse models with genetically based cardiopulmonary diseases are now being incorporated into inhalation toxicology studies to investigate mechanisms that underlie host susceptibility. Current evidence indicates that mouse models of pulmonary hypertension, bronchitis, asthma, and cardiovascular disease, but not emphysema, appear to exhibit greater susceptibility to air pollution particulate matter. As in humans, host susceptibility appears to involve multiple genetic and environmental factors, but is poorly understood. As existing mouse models gain wider use, further development will encourage integration of genetic and environmental factors to better mimic the human conditions.

Herpes simplex

Infections with herpes simplex viruses are a frequent and inconvenient problem for HIV-infected patients (Chang 1995). Two viruses should be distinguished. HSV-1 is transmitted by direct contact with mucosal membranes, as well as by kissing, and causes the typical, itchy perioral herpes blisters on the lips, tongue, gums or buccal mucosa. HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and leads to herpetiform lesions on the penis, vagina, vulva and anus. Herpes lesions have a tendency to spread with decreasing immune status. Chronic disease is frequent, particularly with severe immunodeficiency (below 100 CD4 T cells l). In severe cases, other organs may be affected. These include mainly the esophagus (ulcers), CNS (encephalitis), eyes (keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis) and respiratory tract (pneumonitis, bronchitis). In such cases and with persistence of lesions for a period of more than four weeks, herpes simplex infection is an AIDS-defining illness.

Clinical Summary

The patient was a 77 year old obese, Hispanic man who presented to the emergency room with a 2 hour history of shortness of breath. The patient had a past medical history significant for hypertension and a myocardial infarction 10 years previously. The day prior to his current admission, he was seen by a physician, who diagnosed bronchitis and prescribed antibiotics as well as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication for his back pain.

Red clover

Historical note Red clover has been used for a long time as an animal fodder as well as a human medicine. Traditionally, it is considered an alternative remedy with good cleansing properties useful in the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis, eczema and rashes. A strong infusion was used to ease whooping cough and other spasmodic coughs due to measles, bronchitis and laryngitis. It was recommended for 'ulcers of every kind, and deep, ragged-edged, and otherwise badly-conditioned burns. It possesses a peculiar soothing property, proves an efficient detergent, and promotes a healthful granulation'. Combined with other herbs, red clover was recommended for syphilis, scrofula, chronic rheumatism, glandular and various skin affections (Felter & Lloyd 1 983). Interestingly, red clover was not traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

Other Uses

Adhatoda is traditionally used to treat cough, asthma, bronchitis and colds, but has also been used to treat fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, jaundice, to stimulate the birthing process and aid healing afterwards, tuberculosis, headache, and as an antispasmodic (Claeson et al 2000). It has also been used as an abortifacient in some Indian villages.

Modelled exposure

Studies using models have also sought an association between transport-related air pollution and non-allergic respiratory morbidity. Exposure to transport-related air pollution at residences was assessed by a combination ofmeasurements and GIS-based models in the Dutch part of the EU-funded international project on the effect of transport-related air pollution on childhood asthma (TRAPCA). In the project, the Dutch birth cohort of4000 children showed significantly increased risks of ear, nose and throat infections, as well as influenza (Brauer et al., 2002), but a weak association with cough and bronchitis. The German sister study in the TRAPCA project included nearly 2000 children living in Munich. Children with higher estimated exposure to transport-related air pollution showed a statistically significant increase in risk of cough without infections and dry cough at night, but not of respiratory infections (Gehring et al., 2002). pollutants. After adjusting for hereditary influences...


The number of CD4 cells provides an excellent indication of the individual risk of a patient of suffering from specific opportunistic infections. In patients with a CD4 cell count of more than 200 l, infection with typical opportunistic HIV-associated diseases is very unlikely. Here, as with HIV-negative patients, one generally tends to expect more normal problems such as acute bronchitis and bacterial pneumonia. However, tuberculosis should always be considered as a possibility. Although the risk of becoming infected with tuberculosis grows along with increasing immunodeficiency, more than half of all tuberculosis infections in HIV-positive patients occur at a CD4 cell count of above 200 l (Lange 2004, Wood R 2000). At less than 200 CD4 cells l, PCP occurs and, more rarely, pneumo-nia pneumonitis with cryptococci however, bacterial pneumonia is the most common pulmonary disease at this stage, too.


Thyme extract has been used to treat the common cold, bronchitis, laryngitis and Bronchitis Encouraging data have been reported for chronic bronchitis treated by thyme in combination with other herbs in large (n 3000) comparative clinical trials, although no data are available for thyme as a stand-alone treatment (Ernst et al 1997). Thyme is approved by Commission E in the treatment of bronchitis, whooping cough and upper respiratory tract catarrh (Blumenthal et al 2000).


In an initial study, Mancuso (1970) found no overall evidence of an increased mortality in beryllium workers but encountered 6 cases of lung cancer in a group of 142 cases of beryllium-related bronchitis and pneu-monitis (Mancuso, 1970). The age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rate was 284.3 per 100,000 compared with 77.7 for all white adult males employed in the same beryllium plant. Mancuso concluded that prior chemical pneumonitis influenced the subsequent development

Asthma bronchiale

It could be supposed that an immunosuppressing disease such as HIV infection would at least protect patients from manifestations of exaggerated immune reaction such as allergies and asthma. However, the opposite is the case in a study from Canada concerning HIV-infected men, more than half of the interviewees had suffered an episode of wheezing within the previous 12 months, and nearly half of those showed evidence of bronchial hyperreactivity. These findings were particularly distinct among smokers (Poirer 2001). With progression of the disease, it is likely to lead to an imbalance between too few good TH1 cells, producing interferon and interleukin-2, and too many allergy-mediating TH2 cells with an increased total IgE. In cases of unspecific coughing, dyspnea or recurrent bronchitis, the possibility of bronchial hyperreactivity, asthma or emphysema should be kept in mind.

Carriage of K kingae

Although the niche of the organism was initially unknown, it was suspected that the bacterium was a respiratory tract commensal. This assumption was supported by several lines of evidence 1 other members of the Neisseriaceae family are part of the normal respiratory flora 2 K. kingae has been found in 1 of nasal and throat cultures 3 children with invasive K. kingae infections frequently present with concomitant signs of upper respiratory tract infections 4 K. kingae has been isolated from blood or respiratory secretions of patients with pneumonia, pleural empyema or laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis (Yagupsky, 2004).