It has been over a decade since the First International Symposium on Hormonal Carcinogenesis convened in 1991. Since then, the field has rapidly expanded with considerable progress in both breast and prostate cancers; while ovarian and endometrial cancer have been hampered, in part, due to the absence of suitable hormone-mediated animal models. While knock-out, transgenic, and cell-culture systems have been extremely useful in identifying specific gene/protein alterations and the ensuing pathways affected, the precise molecular mechanisms whereby sex hormones elicit their oncogenic effects still remain elusive. Moreover, despite the considerable progress made in breast cancer research, the exact role of progestins in the presence or absence of estrogen in breast growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation is lacking. Elucidating the incipient molecular alterations in early/pre-invasive lesions elicited by these hormones is a growing important focus of this field. The main purpose of these Symposia has been to address vital questions that impact our understanding of the causation, dependency, progression, resistance, and prevention of hormonally-associated cancers.

We are indebted to the Scientific Advisory Board members who worked with us reviewing and offering suggestions to finalize the scientific program. We offer special thanks for the guidance and support of Dr. Gerald Mueller. His wisdom played an indispensable role in maintaining the excellence of these Symposia. We also acknowledge the numerous external reviewers that worked diligently to revise and improve the quality of the manuscripts. We are very grateful to Ms. Tandria Price. Her enthusiasm for the project, her effective and diplomatic interactions with contributors and administrators, and her superb organizational skills were evident during the Symposium and in the preparation of this volume. We are deeply grateful to the Fundación Instituto Valenciano Oncología (IVO), Universidad de Valencia, and the Office of Science and Culture of the Valencia Community, who hosted this Symposium and provided funds and gracious staff that worked efficiently to make this a most memorable Symposium. We are indebted to Ms. Paula Callaghan, our Springer-Verlag editor, for her support and highest publication standards. We appreciate the financial support of the NIH institutes and companies, listed separately, which have been indispensable to the success of this Symposium.

Kansas City, Kansas, USA Jonathan J. Li, Ph.D.

Sara Antonia Li, Ph.D.

Valencia, SPAIN Antonio Llombart-Bosch, M.D, Ph.D.

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