75. Woods, S. A., Marmor, E., Feldkamp, M. et al. (2002). Aberrant G protein signaling in nervous system tumors. J Neurosurg 97(3), 627-642.
76. Lau, N., Feldkamp, M., Roncari, L. et al. (2000). Loss of NF1 causes activation of Ras/MAPK and PI-3K/Akt signaling in an NFl-associated astrocytoma. J Neuropathology Expt Neurology 59(9), 759-767.
77. Ding, H., Roncari, L., Shannon, P. et al. (2001). Astrocyte-specific expression of activated p21-ras results in malignant astrocytoma formation in a transgenic mouse model of human gliomas. Cancer Res 1, 61(9), 3826-3836.
78. Ding, H., Shannon, P., Lau, N. et al. (2003). Astrocyte-specific expression of activated p21 ras and constitutively active form of EGFR results in malignant oligodendroglioma formation. Cancer Res 63, 1106-1113.
79. Uhrbom, L., Dai, C., Celestino, J. C., Rosenblum, M. K., Fuller, G. N., and Holland, E. C. (2002). Ink4a-Arf loss cooperates with KRas activation in astrocytes and neural progenitors to generate glioblastomas of various morphologies depending on activated Akt. Cancer Res 62(19), 5551-5558.
80. Tamanoi, F., Kato-Stankiewicz, J., Jiang, C., Machado, I., and Thapar, N. (2001). Farnesylated proteins and cell cycle progression. J Cell Biochem Suppl 37, 64-70.
81. Du, W., and Prendergast, G. C. (1999). Geranylgeranylated RhoB mediates suppression of human tumor cell growth by farnesyltransferase inhibitors. Cancer Res 59, 5492-5496.
82. Prendergast, G. C., and Rane, N. (2001). Farnesyltransferase inhibitors: mechanism and applications. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 10, 2105-2116.
83. Ellis, C. A., Vos M. D., Howell, H., Vallecorsa, T., Fults, D. W., and Clark, G. J. (2002). Rig is a novel Ras-related protein and potential neural tumor suppressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(15), 9876-9881
84. Gibbs, J. B. (1991). Ras C-terminal processing enzymes: new drug targets? Cell 65, 1-4.
85. Tamanoi, F. (1993). Inhibitors of Ras farnesyltransferases. Trends Biochem Sci 18, 349-353.
86. Gibbs, J. B., and Oliff, A. (1994). Pharmaceutical research in molecular oncology. Cell 79, 193-198.
87. Gibbs, J. B., Oliff, A., and Kohl, N. E. (1994). Farnesyltransferase inhibitors: Ras research yields a potential cancer therapeutic. Cell 77, 175-178.
88. Lowy, D. R., and Willumsen, B. M. (1995). Rational cancer therapy. Nat Med 1, 747-748.
89. Gibbs, J. B., and Oliff, A. (1997). The potential of farnesyl-transferase inhibitors as cancer chemotherapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 37, 143-166.
90. Cox, A. D., and Der, C. J. (1997). Farnesyltransferase inhibitors and cancer treatment: Targeting simply Ras? Biochim Biophys Acta 1333, F51-F71.
91. Omer, C. A., Anthony, N. J., Buser-Doepner, C. A. et al. (1997). Farnesyl: Proteintransferase inhibitors as agents to inhibit tumor growth. Biofactors 6, 359-366.
92. Lee, S., Park, S., Oh, J. W. et al. (1998). Natural inhibitors for protein prenyltransferase. Planta Med. 64, 303-308.
93. Nagasu, T., Yoshimatsu, K., Rowell, C., Lewis, M. D., and Garcia, A. M. (1995). Inhibition of human tumor xenograft growth by treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor B956. Cancer Res. 55, 5310-5314.
94. Sepp-Lorenzino, L., Ma, Z., Rands, E. et al. (1995). A peptidomimetic inhibitor of farnesyl: protein transferase blocks the anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of human tumor cell lines. Cancer Res 55, 5302-5309.
95. Kohl, N. E., Omer, C. A., Conner, M. W. et al. (1995). Inhibition of farnesyltransferase induces regression of mammary and salivary carcinomas in ras transgenic mice. Nat Med 1, 792-797.
96. Mangues, R., Corral, T., Kohl, N. E. et al. (1998). Antitumor effect of a farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor in mammary and lymphoid tumors overexpressing N-Ras in transgenic mice. Cancer Res 58, 1253-1259.
97. Norgaard, P., Law, B., Joseph, H. et al. (1999). Treatment with farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitor induces regression of mammary tumors in transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha and TGF alpha/neu transgenic mice by inhibition of mitogenic activity and induction of apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res 5, 35-42.
98. Lebowitz, P. F., Sakamuro, D., and Prendergast, G. C. (1997). Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce apoptosis of Ras-transformed cells denied substratum attachment. Cancer Res 57, 708-713.
99. Hung, W. C., and Chuang, L. Y. (1998). Involvement of caspase family proteases in FPT inhibitor II-induced apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. Int J Cancer 12, 1339-1342.
100. Hung, W. C., and Chuang, L. Y. (1998). The farnesyltransferase inhibitor, FPT inhibitor III upregulates Bax and Bcl-xs expression and induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells. Int J Oncol 12, 137-140.
101. Ashar, H. R., James, L., Gray, K. et al. (2000). Farnesyl transferase inhibitors block the farnesylation of CENP-E and CENP-F and alter the association of CENP-E with the microtubules. J Biol Chem 275, 30451-30457.
102. Suzuki, N., Del Villar, K., and Tamanoi, F. (1998). Farnesyl-transferase inhibitors induce dramatic morphological changes of KNRK cells that are blocked by microtubule interfering agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 10499-10504
103. Bernhard, E. J., McKenna, W. G., Hamilton, A. D. et al. (1998). Inhibiting Ras prenylation increases the radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines with activating mutations of ras oncogenes. Cancer Res 58, 1754-1761.
104. Lebowitz, P. F., Davide, J. P., and Prendergast, G. C. (1995). Evidence that farnesyltransferase inhibitors suppress Ras transformation by interfering with Rho activity. Mol Cell Biol 15, 6613-6622.
105. Lebowitz, P. F., and Prendergast, G. C. (1998). Non-Ras targets of farnesyltransferase inhibitors: focus on Rho. Oncogene 17, 1439-1445.
106. Du, W., Lebowitz, P. F., and Prendergast, G. C. (1999). Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. Mol Cell Biol. 19, 1831-1840.
107. Adamson, P., Marshall, C. J., Hall, A. et al. (1992). Post-translational modifications of p21rho proteins. J Biol Chem 267, 20033-20038.
108. Delmas, C., End, D., Rochaix, P., Favre, G., Toulas, C., and Cohen-Jonathan, E. (2003). The farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 reduces hypoxia and matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression in human glioma xenograft. Clin Cancer Res 1, 9, 6062-6068.
109. Kieran, M. W., Packer, R., Boyett, J., Sugrue, M., and Kun, L. (2004). Phase I trial of the oral farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor Ionafarnib (SCH66336): A Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) study. J Clin Oncol 22 (14S), 15-17.
110. Nabors, L. B. (2004). Targeted Molecular Therapy for Malignant Gliomas. Curr Treat Options in Oncol 5, 519-526.
111. Gilbert, M. R., Hess, K., Gaupp, P. et al. (2004). A phase I study of Temozolomide (TMZ) and the farnesyltransferase inhibitor
(FTI), Tipifarnib (Zanestra, R115777) in recurrent glioblastoma: A dose and schedule intensive regimen. Neuro-Oncol 6, 375.
112. Bouterfa, H. L., Sattelmeyer, V., Czub, S., Vordermark, D., Roosen, K., and Tonn, J. C. (2000). Inhibition of Ras farnesylation by lovastatin leads to downregulation of proliferation and migration in primary cultured human glioblastoma cells. Anticancer Res 20(4), 2761-71.
113. Wang, W., and Macaulay, R. J. (1999). Apoptosis of medullo-blastoma cells in vitro follows inhibition of farnesylation using manumycin A. Int J Cancer 82(3), 430-443.
114. Perkins, E., Calvert, J., Lancon, J. A., Parent, A. D., and Zhang, J. (2003). Inhibition of H-ras as a treatment for experimental brain C6 glioma. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 111(1-2), 42-51.
115. Whyte, D. B., Kirschmeier, P., Hockenberry, T. N. et al. (1997). K-Ras and N-Ras are geranylgeranylated in cells treated with farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors. J Biol Chem 272, 14459-14464.
116. Zhang, F. L., Kirschmeier, P., Carr, D. et al. (1997). Characterization of Ha-ras, N-ras, Ki-Ras4A, and Ki-Ras4B as in vitro substrates for farnesyl protein transferase and geranylgeranyl protein transferase type I. J Biol Chem 272, 10232-10239.
117. Rowell, C. A., Kowalczyk, J. J., Lewis, M. D., and Garcia, A. M. (1997). Direct demonstration of geranylgeranylation and farnesylation of Ki-Ras in vivo. J Biol Chem 272, 14093-14097.
118. James, G. L., Goldstein, J. L., and Brown, M. S. (1995). Polylysine and CVIM sequences of K-RasB dictate specificity of prenylation and confer resistance to benzodiazepine peptidomimetic in vitro. J Biol Chem 270, 6221-6226.
119. Prendergast, G. C., Davide, J. P., Lebowitz, P. F., Wechsler-Reya, R., and Kohl, N. E. (1996). Resistance of a variant ras-transformed cell line to phenotypic reversion by farnesyl transferase inhibitors. Cancer Res 56, 2626-2632.
120. Del Villar, K., Urano, J., Guo, L., and Tamanoi, F. (1999). A mutant form of human protein farnesyltransferase exhibits increased resistance to farnesyltransferase inhibitors. J Biol Chem 274, 27010-27017.
Was this article helpful?
Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.