8. Release the tension clip and remove the sample chamber and filter card. Remove the slide from the clip and allow to fully air-dry.

9. Stain the slides in the stainer and allow to completely dry.

10. Perform a differential count on the stained smear. See Table 20.10 for normal results.

a. Identify the cells as segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and others. The others include mesothelial, macrophages, and tumor cells. For a chart including abnormal cells in CSF, see Table 20.11.

b. Upon completion of the differential, any abnormal cells should be reviewed by a pathologist. For abnormal cells in serous fluids, see Table 20.12. For synovial fluids, see Table 20.13. For color and appearance for CSF, see Table 20.14. (see page 318.)



Presently, coagulation instruments are fully automated to analyze large volume of samples with a high degree of accuracy. Many of the instruments have the capability to analyze samples using clotting, chromogenic, or immunoassay methods. The clot method of photode-tection is described here. This method uses light transmission (optical detection method) to determine prothrombin (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) times. The optical detection method detects the change in absorbance as a light-emitting diode recognized fibrin or clot formation. A sensor picks up the light beam and converts into an electrical signal. The electrical power is signaled and calculated by a microcomputer to determine the coagulation time. Some automated coagulation testing now identifies variables such as lipemia and hemolysis and are still able to present accurate clotting times.

Reagents and Equipment

1. Automated coagulation analyzer that uses optical detection

2. Volumetric pipettes: 1 mL and 10 mL

3. Centrifuge

4. Thromboplastin a. Reconstitute with 10 mL of reagent grade deionized water.

b. Immediately, recap and mix until contents are completely dissolved.

c. Allow reagent to stand for 15 minutes.

d. Check package insert for stability, once reconstituted.

Table 20.9 O Fluid Worksheet

Dilution No. of Squares A, B, or C Counted

No. of Cells Count 1 Count 2

Average No. of Cells



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