Wo R D

Alkylating agent • Agent that introduced an alkyl radical into the compound in place of a hydrogen atom; these agents interfere with cell metabolism and growth Angiogenesis • Development of blood vessels Organomegaly • Enlargement of any organ Refractory • Resistant to ordinary treatment

References

1. Hoffman WK, Ottmann OG, Ganser F, et al. Myelopdys-plastic syndrome: Clinical features. Semin Hematol 33:177-178, 1996.

2. Willman CL. The biologic basis of myelodysplasia and related leukemias: Cellular and molecular mechanisms. Mod Pathol 12:101-106, 1999.

3. Kjeldsberg CR, ed. Practical Diagnosis of Hematologic Disorders, 3rd ed. Chicago: ASCP Press, 2000: 369-397.

4. Bick RL, Laughlin WR. Myelodysplastic syndromes. Lab Med 11:712-716, 1993.

5. West RR, Stafford DA, White AD, et al. Cytogenetic abnormalities in the myelodysplastic syndromes and occupational and environmental exposure. Blood 95:2093-2097, 2000.

6. Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, Vardiman JE, eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001: 63-73.

7. Bennett HJM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 51:189-199, 1982.

8. Hellstrom-Lindberg E. Update on supportive care and new therapies: Immunomodulatory drugs, growth

226 Part III • White Cell Disorders factors and epigenetic acting agents. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Prog) 165, 2005. 9. Giralt S. Bone marrow transplant in myelodysplastic syndromes: New technologies, some questions. Curr Hematol Rep 3:165-172, 2004.

10. Hoffbrand VA. Deferiprone therapy for transfusional iron overload. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 18: 299-317, 2005.

11. Negrin RS, et al. Maintenance treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes using recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Blood 78:36, 1992.

12. Appelbaum FR. Immunobiologic therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes. Best Pract Res Clinc Haematol 4:653-661, 2004.

13. Williams JL. The myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative disorders. Clin Lab Sci 17:227, 2004.

14. Kalache GR, Sartor MM, Hughes WG. The indirect estimation of hemoglobin concentration in whole blood. Pathologist 23:117, 1991.

Part IV

Hemostasis ^Jéj and w

Disorders of Coagulation

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