Low 7.0 g/dL High 17.0 g/dL Platelets

Low 20.0 X 109/L High 1000 X 109/L

ence ranges have been established. Many anemias develop secondary to other conditions; yet there are those that are primarily a result of diseased red cells. Establishing a diagnosis of anemia requires a careful history and physical examination, as well as an assessment of the patient's symptoms. A thorough family history can provide information on diet, ethnicity, history of bleeding or anemia, and medical history of relatives. Patients with moderate anemias, having a Hgb of between 7 and 10 g/dL, may show few physical symptoms because of the compensatory nature of the bone marrow. Yet once the Hgb drops below 7 g/dL, symptoms invariably develop. Pallor, fatigue, tachycardia, syncope, and hypotension are some of the most common signs of anemia. Pallor and hypotension are associated with decreased blood volume, while fatigue and syncope are associated with decreased oxygen transport, and tachycardia and heart murmur are associated with increased cardiac output (Table 2.7).

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