Summary Points

• Segmented neutrophils are held in the marginating pool for 7 to 10 days before release to circulation.

• The white cell series in order of least mature to most mature is myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band, and segmented neutrophils.

• Cell identification is based on cell size, N:C ratio, presence or absence of granules, presence or absence of nucleoli, chromatin pattern, and texture of cytoplasm.

• The marginating pool designates those white cells located along the vessel endothelium.

• The circulating pool designates those white cells present in the bloodstream.

• Lymphocytes originate not only from the bone marrow but also from the thymus and the lymphatic system.

The bone marrow and the thymus are the primary lymphoid organs.

Spleen, lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and the tonsils are the secondary lymphoid organs.

The lymphatic system plays an important role in blood filtration, fluid balance, antibody generation, and lymphopoiesis.

T cells represent 60% to 80% of the total lymphocyte count.

B cells represent 10% to 20% of the total lymphocyte count.

T helper and T cytotoxic/suppressor cells are essential in cell-mediated immunity. B cells support humoral immunity, which is antibody production by plasma cells. Absolute counts are derived from the total white counts multiplied by the relative percentage of a particular cell in the differential.

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