Info

Hemoglobin collects in thicker areas of cell

Crystal precipitation

Target cell

As a result of decreased volume: Examples: Iron deficiency, thalassemia, and hemoglobinopathies (Hb S,E)

Loss of hemoglobin leads to an increase of surface volume ratio

Loss of hemoglobin leads to an increase of surface volume ratio

Target cell

As a result of increased surface membrane: Examples: Liver disease (obstructive jaundice), LCAT deficiency, and asplenism o

Decreased rate and extent of membrane lipid loss or

Plasma contains increased free cholesterol

As a result of increased surface membrane: Examples: Liver disease (obstructive jaundice), LCAT deficiency, and asplenism

Decreased rate and extent of membrane lipid loss or

Plasma contains increased free cholesterol

Figure 3.15 Three possibilities for target cell formation.
Figure 3.16 Target cell. Figure 3.17 Bite cells (helmet cells).

Text/image rig h ts n

Figure 3.19 Howell-Jolly bodies.

Figure 3.18 Burr cells.

Figure 3.19 Howell-Jolly bodies.

able to inspect and remove them from the cell cytoplasm (Fig. 3.19).

Siderotic granules/Pappenheimer bodies are seen in the iron loading processes such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron loading anemias subsequent to transfusion therapy. They appear as small beaded inclusions, light purple and located along the periphery of the red cells. Prussian blue staining is the confirmatory staining in determining whether these inclusions are iron in origin; consequently, these inclusions are termed siderotic granules in Prussian blue staining and Pappenheimer bodies in Wright's stain. Siderotic granules may also be viewed in thalassemic conditions and in patients post splenectomy (Fig. 3.20).

Basophilic stippling is a result of RNA and mitochondrial remnants. These remnants appear as diffusely basophilic granules located throughout the cytoplasm and are either dustlike or coarse in appearance. They are difficult to visualize in the peripheral smear without fine focusing, but red cell-containing basophilic stippling will often be polychromatophilic. Whenever ery-thropoiesis is accelerated, basophilic stippling is likely to be found as well in individuals with lead poisoning (Fig. 3.21).

Heinz bodies result from denatured hemoglobin and are defined as large structures approximately 1 to 3 pm in diameter located toward the periphery of the red cell membrane (Fig. 3.21). Although they cannot be visualized by Wright's stain, bite cells in the peripheral smear are evidence that a Heinz body has been formed and removed by the spleen. To visualize the actual Heinz body inclusion, staining with a supravital stain such as brilliant cresyl blue or crystal violet may be necessary. Heinz bodies are seen in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency or in any unstable hemoglo-binopathy such as hemoglobin Zurich (Fig. 3.22). See Figure 3.23 for a schematic representation of Heinz body formation.

Table 3.3 O Summary of Inclusions

Inclusion

Composition

Howell-Jolly body

DNA in origin

Basophilic stippling

RNA remnants

Siderotic granules/

Iron

Pappenheimer bodies

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Do You Suffer From High Blood Pressure? Do You Feel Like This Silent Killer Might Be Stalking You? Have you been diagnosed or pre-hypertension and hypertension? Then JOIN THE CROWD Nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States suffer from High Blood Pressure and only 1 in 3 adults are actually aware that they have it.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment