Info

Nucleoli

Absent to distinct

Absent

Typmg

Polyclonal

Polyclonal

individuals and the other vulnerable populations, CMV disease can be severe and potentially fatal. Congenital CMV occurs when the mother develops an active CMV infection or when her latent CMV becomes reactivated due to pregnancy. It is the leading congenital viral disease. Affected infants may show low birth weight, jaundice, and enlarged spleen and the disease may predispose to psychomotor defects or deafness. Often, affected mothers are not even aware that they are infected. Donor blood administered to premature infants, multiply transfused populations, or immuno-compromised patients must be CMV negative.

THE EFFECT OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS/ ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME ON HEMATOLOGY PARAMETERS

The HIV is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this disease, immune function is eventually obliterated and patients frequently die of opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis carinii or Mycobacterium avium or the neoplasm Kaposi's sarcoma. Lymphocytes are primarily involved in this disease process, particularly CD4 helper, inducer cells and CD8 suppressor, cytotoxic cells. The normal ratio of CD4 to CD8 is 2:1. In HIV infection, the level of CD4 is drastically reduced, with the ratio being reversed, leading to a decline in immune capabilities. The CBC shows a pancytopenia with neutropenia, anemia, and a throm-bocytopenia. The lymphocytes will show reactive changes such as extremely basophilic cytoplasm or possibly clefting and vacuolization.

152 Part III • White Cell Disorders

Table 10.5 O

Enzyme Deficiencies

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