of sickle cells: irreversible or reversible or oat-shaped sickle cells.

• Spherocytes are seen in hereditary spherocytosis, in autoimmune hemolytic anemias, or as a part of red cell senescence.

• Target cells are seen in any condition affecting hemoglobin function and also in liver disease or other processes where cholesterol is loaded in the circulation.

• Fragmented cells occur as a result of membrane loss and may be seen in heart valve disease, in burns, or in conditions where there is a predisposition of thrombi.

• Ovalocytes can be seen in thalassemic processes and in the megaloblastic anemias where macro-ovalocytes are seen.

• Elliptocytes are seen in iron deficiency anemia, hereditary elliptocytosis, and idiopathic myelofibrosis.

• Howell-Jolly bodies are DNA in origin and seen in conditions of accelerated erythropoiesis: basophilic stippling is RNA in origin and is seen in lead poisoning and accelerated erythropoiesis.

• Heinz bodies are formed from denatured hemoglobin, usually from individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

• Pappenheimer bodies/siderotic granules are iron in origin and seen in iron loading process or in patients who are hypertransfused.

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