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180 Part III • White Cell Disorders

70% to 80%.51,52 The cure rate in adults is somewhat more variable at 60% to 85%.19 Prognostic indicators in ALL are listed in Table 11.10.

Although the FAB morphology classification has been used for more than a quarter of a century, the discovery of genetic markers that can help predict clinical outcome prompted the WHO to redefine the classification scheme. For a given case, the initial therapy for treating an acute leukemia based on morphological or cytochemical findings may be amended when the cytogenetic and immunophenotypic testing is completed.

Age and WBC count are used for risk assessment in all pediatric clinical trials, with WBC less than 50 X 109/L as the minimal criteria for low-risk ALL.53 Other prognostic factors used to determine outcome are sex,

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