Increased neutrophils

Increased lymphocytes

Acute inflammation Early viral meningitis Bacterial meningitis (see Fig. 20.13)


Viral, fungal, and tubular meningitis Alzheimer's disease Multiple sclerosis Tumors

Lymphocytic leukemias and lymphomas Reactive lymphocytes to include plasma cells in most of the above diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis and viral meningitis

Increased monocytes

Increased macrophages

Increased eosinophils Tumor/malignant cells Others

Newborn infants Recovery phase of meningitis

Siderophages present, indicating a CNS hemorrhage in past 48 hours

Erythrophages present, indicating an active CNS bleed and if siderophages are also present Lipophages present in brain abscesses and cerebral infarctions Parasitic infections Postmyelogram specimens

Acute and chronic leukemias Primary neurologic tumors Choroid plexus and ependymal cells seen in post pneumoen-cephalogram specimens

318 PartV • Laboratory Procedures

Table 20.12 O

Abnormal Cells

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