Basic Red Cell Production

Red blood cell production is a dynamic process that originates from pluripotent stem cells, a phenomenal structure whose cells can give rise to many tissues, including skin, bone, and nerve cells. Next to the mapping of the human genome, the use of stem cells as agents of therapy is one of the paramount discoveries of the 20 th century. What makes stem cells so appealing is their versatility. They will respond to a programmed chemical environment in bone marrow or in cell culture, replicating and eventually producing the tissue that corresponds to their chemical menu. Red cells derive from the committed stem cells, the CFU-GEMM described in Chapter 2. This cell, derived from the pluripotential stem cell, is under the influence of chemical signals, the cytokines that orchestrate the differentiation and maturation of the cell to a committed pathway. Red cells are under the control of erythropoi-etin (EPO), a low-molecular-weight hormone produced by the kidneys, which is dedicated to red cell regeneration. EPO makes its way through the circulation and locks onto a receptor on the pronormoblast, the youngest red cell precursor, stimulating the production of 16 mature red cells from every pronormoblast precursor cell (pluripotent stem cell) (Fig. 3.1) .1

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

Do You Suffer From High Blood Pressure? Do You Feel Like This Silent Killer Might Be Stalking You? Have you been diagnosed or pre-hypertension and hypertension? Then JOIN THE CROWD Nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States suffer from High Blood Pressure and only 1 in 3 adults are actually aware that they have it.

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