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Drosophlia Immunity

Toll Pathway Human Versus Drosophila

Many more combinations are possible than are circulating in the blood at any one time, and these cells are being recycled throughout life. The system generates variation in a combinatorial way, but it need not be exhaustive tiny voles and huge elephants have essentially the same immune diversity, with orders of magnitude differences in the number of lymphocytes they can circulate. There are no major differences in adaptive immunity associated with life span or body size in higher vertebrates...

Thinspined porcupine

Hystrix subspinosa (Olfers, 1818), Cameta, Para, Brazil. Formerly classed with the Neotropical porcupines (Erythrozonti-dae), but now recognized as an echimyid and as a remarkable example of parallel evolution. Characteristics that led to this reassessment included the retention of deciduous premolars throughout life and the lack of an internal carotid artery. Rabbit-sized and weighing some 2.87 lb (1.3 kg), C. semi-spinosus has its back covered with long thin bristles. On the head, neck, and...

Digoxin Lanoxin

Actions positive inotropic effects (inhibition of the sodium potassium ATPase pump which acts to increase the intracellular sodium-calcium exchange to increase intracellular calcium leading to increased contractility) negative chronotropic effects (direct suppression of the AV node conduction to increase effective refractory period and decrease conduction velocity). Indications CHF, ventricular heart rate control in atrial fib flutter, PSVT. Dose see chart. Pharmacokinetics onset of action is...

Proboscis monkey

Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb, 1787), Indonesia. This is now the only species in the genus Nasalis, and no subspecies are recognized. The species Simias concolor has sometimes been included in the genus Nasalis, but it is sufficiently distinctive to deserve its own genus. French Nasique German Nasenaffe Spanish Mono narigudo. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS This is the largest species in the subfamily Colobinae. Fur reddish orange on the crown and back and grayish white ven-trally. The fur on the shoulders,...

Physical characteristics

Tarsiers are very small nocturnal and crepuscular primates. They possess a short-snouted, round head, ranging between 1.4 and 1.7 in (3.5-4.4 cm) in length, and middle-sized to very large, skinny, mobile ears. Their eyes are huge, with one eye weighing nearly as much as the whole brain. The eyes do not fit into the cranial orbit, but protrude from their sockets like an egg in an egg cup. The owl-like appearance of tarsiers is a consequence of many common features in the biology of both these...

Conservation status

Both species of Brachyteles, along with the recently recognized genus, Oreonax, are classified as Critically Endangered based on their highly restricted distributions, small population size, and deteriorating habitats. Brachyteles is the only genus of Atelidae endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. The brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba, is also endemic to the Atlantic forest, and is classified as Vulnerable. The status of Brachyteles hypoxanthus is probably more critical than that of B....

Calabar boa

Charina reinhardtii Schlegel, 1848, originally designated as Old Calabar, West Africa and now annotated to Gold Coast. English Burrowing python, Calabar ground python German Erdpython. The Calabar boa is a small species that only rarely grows longer than 30 in (80 cm). The head is small and not distinguished from the neck. The body is round, the skin is soft, the scales are smooth, and the tail is blunt. Individuals are dark brown or black with red or orange scales randomly scattered on the...

Reproductive Biology

Spawning is seasonal, usually in spring and summer months (May-August in the northwest Atlantic March-May and September-November in the southwest Atlantic, north of the equator September-December in the Southern Hemisphere), and occurs serially. Females are remarkably fecund, with egg counts ranging from 400,000-2,000,000 depending upon body size of the female. Eggs are pelagic and buoyant, about 0.04 in (1.09 mm) in diameter, and hatch after 1.5-2 days. Larvae are pelagic, possess large heads...

Bats as a Novel Model for Aging Research

Rossinni Despite small body size and high metabolic rate, bats are exceptionally long-lived mammals. This longevity, the ecological, behavioral and morphological diversity, and the unique life history traits of this multispecied order of mammals make bats well-suited as model systems for aging research. Including bats in comparative investigations may provide insight into universal mechanisms of senescence as well as reveal mechanisms that confer resistance...

Northern plains gray langur

Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne, 1797), Bengal, India. This species was previously included in the genus Presbytis, but there are enough distinctive characters to justify a separate genus. Furthermore, several of the original subspecies included in the species Semnopithecus entellus are now regarded as separate species. English Hanuman langur, sacred langur, common langur French Houleman German Hanuman Spanish Langur hanuman. Fur gray to brownish gray dorsally and white to creamy white...

Genetic Variation

An obvious and pervasive feature of life is variability. Consider a group of students in a typical college class, the members of which vary in eye color, hair color, skin pigmentation, height, weight, facial features, blood type, and susceptibility to numerous diseases and disorders. No two students in the class are likely to be even remotely similar in appearance (< Figure 23.2a). Humans are not unique in their extensive variability almost all organisms exhibit variation in phenotype. For...

Mulgara

Dasycercus cristicauda (Krefft, 1867), South Australia, Australia, probably Lake Alexandrina. Two subspecies described. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Crest-tailed marsupial mouse. Length 4.9-8.7 in (125-220 mm). Light brown above, pale below with crest of long black fur distal two-thirds of short tail short, rounded ears stores fat in the base of the tail. Inland central and western Australia. HABITAT Found in arid, sandy regions. BEHAVIOR Lives solitarily in burrows it digs in flats between or on...

Significance to humans

Atelidae are represented in the art and legends of the people they live nearby. Their large body size and social habits have probably always made them a source of prized meat. The large testes of Brachyteles were associated with sexual potency, and made into purses by hunters. None of the Atelidae are considered to be agricultural pests or dangerous to humans. The docile behavior of Ateles and Brachyteles also contribute to their desirability as pets. A Geoffrey's spider monkey (Ateles...

Aging Research on Bats

Few studies have examined bat longevity, and due to continually improving lifespan data, it is not surprising that some of these studies have reached contradictory conclusions. Some of the earliest work that considered the question of why bats live so long was a comparative survey of lifespans by Bourliere (1958). Addressing the question from the standpoint of the rate of living theory (Pearl, 1928 Sacher, 1959), Bourliere described the extreme longevity of bats as a simple consequence of...

Quantitative Measurements Of The Heart

HEART WEIGHT Total heart weight is the most reliable single measurement at autopsy for correlation with cardiac disease states (7). The assessment must take into account the size of the patient. Other described measurements such as linear external dimensions, surface areas, and volume of the entire heart or myocardium (7) are less useful than the total heart weight. Hearts are weighed after the parietal pericardium has been removed, the great vessels have been trimmed to about 2 cm in length,...

Sociocultural Factors

It has been proposed that''dieting disorders'' is a more proper term than ''eating disorder'' because the underlying essential feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and associated conditions is the ''inappropriate and excessive pursuit of thinness'' (32). For individuals with either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, attempts at weight loss and dietary restriction (often severe) almost invariably precede the development of the significant symptoms of disordered eating. The current...

Gestation and neonate type

Period Gestation

With only a few exceptions, each mammal species has a characteristic gestation period that shows remarkably little variation. In comparisons between species, gestation periods tend to increase as body size increases. However, effective comparisons of gestation periods among mammals must take into account a fundamental distinction in the state of the neonate at birth. As a general rule, it is possible to distinguish fairly clearly between mammals that give birth to several poorly developed...

Evolution and systematics

Choloepus Didactylus

Evolved in South America, this diverse order first appears in the fossil record in the Paleocene, about 60 million years ago (mya). It has two main groups, the Pilosa and the Cin-gulata. The Pilosa contains sloths and anteaters, also known as the hairy xenarthrans, and the Cingulata includes the extinct glyptodonts and armadillos, the animals with bony carapaces. The group name Xenarthra refers to the additional articulations between the lumbar vertebrae, called xe-narthrous processes. These...

Orthonectidans

Phylum Orthonectida

Phylum Orthonectida Number of families 1 Minute dioecious and dimorphic or hermaphroditic parasites found in tissues of a wide variety of marine invertebrate phyla. Photo A female Rhopalura ophiocomae. Specimens in Nouvel collection, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. Photo by Hidetaka Furuya. Reproduced by permission. Phylum Orthonectida Number of families 1 Minute dioecious and dimorphic or hermaphroditic parasites found in tissues of a wide variety of marine invertebrate phyla. Photo A...

Sexual dimorphism

Male and female mammals obviously differ in various features that are directly linked to reproduction, as is the case with the sex organs of both sexes and the mammary glands of females primary sexual characteristics . However, males and females can also differ in a variety of features that are not directly associated with reproduction secondary sexual characteristics . Such secondary differences between males and females, like the human facial beard, are collectively labeled sexual dimorphism....

Earthworms

Earth Worms Africa

Photo A giant earthworm Haplotaxida burrows back into the moist leaf litter in the subtropical rainforest floor. Photo by Wayne Lawler Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Earthworms belong to a well-defined clade, the Clitellata, which includes leeches, branchiobdellids, many aquatic and small terrestrial worms with a single cell-layered clitellum, and the earthworms, most of which have a multi-layered clitellum. However, earthworms as a group lack a defining characteristic unique...

Tantulocarida

Millipedes Have Two Penises

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Maxillopoda Subclass Tantulocarida Number of families 4 Tiny parasitic crustaceans that spend most of their lives attached to the external body surface of their hosts, a wide range of other marine crustaceans Photo The tantulus larva and globular adult female of Microdajus langi, a tantulocaridan parasite, attached to its host, a tanaidacean crustacean. Photo by G. A. Boxshall. Reproduced by permission. Photo The tantulus larva and globular adult...

Blood Volume and Composition

Plasma And Blood Solids

Blood volume varies with body size, changes in fluid and electrolyte concentrations, and the amount of adipose tissue. Blood volume is typically about 8 of body weight. An average-sized adult has a blood volume of about 5 liters. If a blood sample stands in a tube for awhile and is prevented from clotting, the cells separate from the liquid portion of the blood and settle to the bottom. Cen-trifuging the sample quickly packs the cells into the lower part of the centrifuge tube, as figure 14.2...

Extension in the Dwarf

Dwarf mice are remarkably long-lived. Congenital deficiency of growth hormone GH , prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH due to mutations at the Pit1 or Prop1 loci, as well as GH resistance due to targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene lead to major increase in both average and maximal lifespan. Prolonged longevity of Snell dwarf Pit1dw , Ames dwarf Prop1df , and GHRKO mice is associated with a major extension of ''health span'' and multiple symptoms of delayed aging. Suspected...

Blood and Blood Cells page 547

Blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 1. Blood volume and composition a. Blood volume varies with body size, fluid and electrolyte balance, and adipose tissue content. b. Blood can be separated into formed elements and liquid portions. 1 The formed elements portion is mostly red blood cells. 2 The liquid plasma includes water, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes. a. Blood cells develop from hemocytoblasts in bone marrow. b. Cells descended from...

Nervous system and sensory organs

Convolutions The Neo Cortex

Mammals have relatively larger brains than other vertebrates. From monotremes to marsupials to eutherians, the mammal brain increases in size and complexity, primarily by the expansion of the neopallium. The neopallium or neo-cortex is a mantle of gray matter that first appeared as a small region between the olfactory bulb and the larger archipallium. The neopallium in mammals has expanded over the primitive parts of the vertebrate brain, dominating it as the cerebral cortex. The cerebral...

Muscle ion

Neuron Motor End Plate

A muscle fiber contraction is a complex interaction of several cellular and chemical constituents. The final result is a movement within the myofibrils in which the filaments of actin and myosin slide past one another, shortening the sarcomeres. When this happens, the muscle fiber shortens and pulls on its attachments. Actin, myosin, troponin, and tropomyosin are abundant in muscle cells. Scarcer proteins are also vital to muscle function. This is the case for a rod-shaped muscle protein called...

Feeding and digestion

Rattlesnake Illustration Feeding

Many of the prominent and interesting adaptations of reptiles are related to the capture and digestion of food. Most reptiles seize prey as individual items, and feeding strategies can largely determine the shape of the head and characteristics of the skull and jaws. The reptilian skull varies in relation to feeding requirements. Skulls of turtles and crocodilians are comparatively rigid and compact. Those of lizards and especially snakes exhibit evolutionary reduction of structure and...

The most diversified animals

There are about 4,600 species of mammals. This is a relatively small number compared to the 9,600 species of birds or 35,000 fish species and almost nothing in comparison to about 100,000 species of mollusks or some 10,000,000 species of crustaceans and insects. Even such groups as extant reptiles with 6,000 species and frogs with about 5,200 species are more diversified at the species level. Nevertheless, in diversity of body sizes, locomotory types, habitat adaptations, or feeding strategies,...

Feeding ecology and diet

Marmoset Diet

All callitrichids include fruit, gums and other plant exu-dates, and insects in their diet. Most species also feed on nectar, other arthropods e.g., butterflies and spiders , and small vertebrates e.g., frogs, lizards, bird eggs, and nestlings . Leaves and buds are very rarely consumed. The relative proportion of different dietary components varies considerably between species. Eastern Brazilian marmosets and pygmy marmosets rely heavily on plant exudates that they procure by gouging through...

Behaviors guided by tactile cues

Tactile cues are important contributors to social and reproductive behaviors. Although chemical cues usually guide males to females, once the individuals meet, tactile information comes into play. If several males are simultaneously attracted to the same female, male combat is likely in some species. The winner is the male that eventually mates with the female. In some species, many males are present simultaneously, all competing for one female. This process is called scramble competition...

Structure of a Skeletal Muscle

Aponeuroses

A skeletal muscle is an organ of the muscular system. It is composed primarily of skeletal muscle tissue, nervous tissue, blood, and connective tissues. An individual skeletal muscle is separated from adjacent muscles and held in position by layers of dense connective tissue called fascia fash'e-ah . This connective tissue surrounds each muscle and may project beyond the end of its muscle fibers to form a cordlike tendon. Fibers in a tendon intertwine with those in the periosteum of a bone,...

Conventional Techniques for Skeletal Determinations

Greulich And Pyle Atlas

In the evaluation of physical development in children, variations in maturation rate are poorly described by chronological age. Thus, for many decades, scientists have sought better techniques to assess the degree of development from birth to full maturity. Measures of height, weight, and body mass, although closely related to biological maturation, are not sufficiently accurate due to the wide variations in body size. Similarly, the large varia tions in dental development have prevented the...

Center of Mass and Its Motion

Center Mass Body Segment

The center of mass of a body B, living or nonliving, is defined by the following equation 2m1 is the total mass in B, rc is the position vector for the center of mass of B, mi is the mass of the ith element in B, and r' is its position vector. These entities are shown in Fig. 3.1. Note that the center of mass is also commonly known as the center of gravity. Let us now perceive center of mass as if it were a particle in space. In reality, the center of mass may not correspond to any point of the...

Krzisnik Krk Longevity

Al-Regaiey, K.A., Masternak, M.M., Bonkowski, M., Sun, L., and Bartke, A. 2005 . Long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice Interaction of reduced insulinlike growth factor 1 insulin signaling and caloric restriction. Endocrinology 146, 851-860. Bartke, A. 1965 . Influence of luteotrophin on fertility of dwarf mice. J. Reprod. Fertil. 10, 93-103. Bartke, A. 1979a . Genetic models in the study of anterior pituitary hormones. In Genetic Variation in Hormone Systems,, Shire, J.G.M. ed . Boca...

Variegated lemur

Lemur variegata Kerr, 1792, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ruffed lemur. Varecia variegata is the largest in body size of the living Lemuridae species. The adult head-and-body length is 20-22 in 51-56 cm , tail length is 22-25.5 in 56-65 cm , and adult body weight is 7-10 lb 3.2-4.5 kg . Females are larger than males. The ruffed lemur carries a scent gland on its neck, and females have six mammae. There are two subspecies black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata and...

Head Circumference OFC

Head Circumference Lubchenco

Definition Maximum circumference of the head. Landmarks The maximum head circumference usually horizontal just above the eyebrow ridges , is measured from just above the glabella area to the area near the top of the occipital bone opisthocranion Fig. 6.1 . Position The patient should look straight ahead Fig. 6.1 . Alternative It is often easier, in young infants, to have them stay seated on an adult's lap while measuring the head circumference, and to do the measurement from behind. Remarks The...

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