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Physical characteristics

Aye-ayes are the largest nocturnal primate. Their pelage consisted of two layers the short, soft underlayer is light in color and thick on the back the outer guard hairs are coarse, dark brown to black at the roots, and gray-white at the tips similar to a didelphid North American possum (Didelphis vir-giniana). Some aye-aye guard hairs have measured 7 in (18 cm). Fur above the eyes and on the throat is often light yellow or beige. Eyes are amber and are not frontally oriented. The body mass of...

Twolegged wormlizard

Bipes biporus Cope, 1894, Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. English Mole lizard French Bipedides German ZweifussDoppelschleichen Spanish Ajolote. The two-legged wormlizard has an average body length of 7.5-8.3 in (190-210 mm). Its tail is approximately 10 of total length. It has a midbody diameter of 0.23-0.27 in (6-7 mm). It is typically pink or flesh-colored uniformly, but some specimens are white ventrally. It has five claw-bearing digits on each limb and two preanal pores. It has a...

Obesityrelated Disease Interactions Between Fetal Growth And Childhood Body Mass

Studies of the fetal and infant origins of obesity are part of a wider field of research on the early origins of adult diseases (33) It is now known that people who had low birth weight, or who were thin or stunted at birth, are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (34-40). These diseases, especially type 2 diabetes, are associated with obesity (41). Their association with small body size at birth has led to the conclusion that they originate in...

Mandrill

Mandrillus sphinx (Linnaeus, 1758), Bitye, Ja River, Cameroon. This is one of only two species in the genus Mandrillus. French Mandrill German Mandrill Spanish Mandril. Body fur is grizzled light brown dorsally and gray-white ven-trally. There is pronounced sexual dimorphism in coloration of the face and rump, with males being more brightly colored than females. In males, the nose is bright red and flanked by blue, ridged paranasal bulges along with white whiskers. There is an orange-yellow...

Hamadryas baboon

Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758), Egypt. There has been considerable discussion about the taxonomy of baboons in the genus Papio because of the existence of hybrid zones between at least some of the main populations. One approach has been to recognize five different species, one being Papio hamadryas and the others being Papio anubis, Papio cynocephalus, Papio papio, and Papio ursinus. At the other extreme, it has been suggested that it would be appropriate to recognize only the single...

Growth Cardiac

The heart grows physiologically proportionally to body mass. The relationship is maintained from the fetus to the adult, and is equally true for all mammalian species. As a general rule, the heart weight can be estimated from the lean body mass. However, by multiplying the weight expressed in kilograms by 0.50 for a man, and 0.40 for a woman (because woman have a lower lean body mass), an approximation of the normalized heart weight can be determined. Physiological heart weight (e.g. without...

Life Span Characteristics and Factors Which Are Responsible for Modifying an Insects Life Span

Although the aging pattern of insects, like that of other organisms, is doubtless under genetic control, it is extremely flexible, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors. Life span includes the longevity of all developmental stages an individual passes through during its life cycle. Individuals of insect species (as well as those of other species) experience a number of critical points in time during their life cycles, which influence the life span from eggs over larvae up to pupae and...

Patas monkey

Erythrocebus patas (Schreber, 1775), Senegal. The patas monkey is sometimes included in the genus Cercopithecus, but it is so distinctive in many features that recognition of the separate genus Erythrocebus is surely justified. Four subspecies have been recognized. English Hussar monkey, red monkey French Patas German Husarenaffe. This is the largest species in the guenon tribe Cercopithecini and there is pronounced sexual dimorphism in body size, with males weighing almost twice as much as...

The Possibility of Continuously Measuring Energy Metabolism

The small body size of insects offers the opportunity of continuously monitoring the total energy metabolism of a whole population over their total life span. This results in a ''metabolic picture.'' One can then test the influence of different treatments (e.g., temperature, light program, drugs, mating, virginity) on the energy consumption. We performed such measurements with Phormia using an infrared CO2 monitoring system (URAS). Due to the restriction on carbohydrates as energy-providing...

Coiba Island agouti

Dasyprocta coibae Thomas, 1902, Coiba Island, off southwestern Panama. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Agouti de l'lle de Coiba. Head and body length, 12.6-25.2 in (32-64 cm) tail, 0.4-2.75 in (1-7 cm) weight, 1.3-8.8 lb (0.6-4 kg). The fur is a coarsely grizzled brown. Rump hairs are orange tipped, but not as conspicuously elongated as in mainland populations of D. punctata, from which it is presumably descendant. The body size is like that of D. punctata, but the tail is much longer than usual (to...

Evolution and systematics

Higher primates (suborder Anthropoidea) include the broad-nosed monkeys of the New World (infraorder Platyrrhini) and the narrow-nosed monkeys and apes of the Old World (infraorder Catarrhini). Old World monkeys and apes, which are widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and Southeast Asia, are uniformly characterized by a dental formula of I2 2 C1 1 P2 2 M3 3. They hence differ from all New World monkeys by reduction in the number of premolars from 3 to 2 in each tooth row. All Old World monkeys...

Lesser New Zealand shorttailed bat

Mystacina tuberculata Gray, 1843, New Zealand. Three subspecies are recognized. English Lesser short-tailed bat, northern short-tailed bat, New Zealand long-eared bat. The smallest of the New Zealand short-tailed bats. Total length is 2.3-2.6 in (60-68 mm) forearm length 1.5-1.7 in (40-45 mm) wingspan 11-11.4 in (280-290 mm) weight 0.38-0.52 oz (11-15 g) (up to 0.65 oz 18.5 g in pregnant females). There is considerable variation in size among the three subspecies, with body size increasing...

Barbary macaque

Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758), Barbary Coast, north Africa. This is the only one of 20 species of the genus Macaca that occurs in Africa. All other species are confined to Asia and Southeast Asia. English Barbary ape French Magot German Berberaffe Spanish Mono de Berberea. Fur coarse grayish yellow agouti dorsally and gray-white ven-trally. Eyelids pale. Face pink in juveniles but becoming progressively mottled with dark freckles with increasing maturity. There is moderate sexual dimorphism...

Other cases

Additional cases of maternal UPD16 have been subsequently reported. These include the following. (i) A mosaic trisomy 16 case diagnosed by amniocentesis following elective termination, this case demonstrated a trisomy 16 cell line in fetal skin (4 ) and placental tissue (64 ). Molecular studies on the disomic cell line indicated a maternal UPD16 with heterodisomy (Garber et al., 1994). (ii) A growth-retarded infant with congenital heart disease. Nonmosaic trisomy 16 was detected at...

Attenuation Correction in PET

Accurate attenuation correction (AC) is essential to emission computed tomography such as PET and SPECT, for both quantitative and qualitative interpretation of the results (Chapter 2 of Handbook of Biomedical Image Analysis Segmentation, Volume I). In PET, for instance, AC factors are most often determined by calculating the pixel-wise ratio of a blank scan acquired before positioning the patient in the gantry of the scanner, and a transmission scan performed with the patient in the gantry....

Bioequivalence and Systemic Exposure Models

Screening drug molecules for suitability for use in humans is often subjected to certain basic toxicity or workability solutions to reduce the cost of screening. The human body must be able to remove the drug in a reasonable time. Drug CL is an intrinsic parameter however, body CL (extent of drug removal) is dependent on cardiac output and the overall extraction ratio. Body clearance (plasma, blood) Q X ER The ER is the extraction ratio that ranges from 0 to 1, and the cardiac output is...

Feeding ecology and diet

The clingfishes generally feed on smaller benthic invertebrates, but there are significant exceptions to this rule. Cling-fish diets, depending upon species, body size, and habitat, include various algae, crustaceans (including amphipods, copepods, small crabs and shrimps), polychaete worms, small bivalves, limpets and other gastropods, chitons, body parts of host sea urchins, and small fishes. Members of the genus Cochleoceps are cleaner fishes that remove ectoparasites from boxfishes,...

Reproductive Biology

Pronounced sexual dimorphism in color, body size, and fin development males have greater body size as well as elongated fin spines and rays. These differences contribute toward reproductive success because of their value in defending against rival males or their signal function in attracting females. Courtship and spawning is paired, and commences with male displays of erect fins and results in pelagic spawning in water column. Eggs produced serially, likely spawned on daily basis with one or...

Exercises Lesson

The following exercises are to be answered by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises, at the end of the lesson and check your answers. 1. The human urogenital systems are made up of the u_ organs, which produce the fluid called_, and the_, or_, organs of male and female humans, which together can produce a 2. The urinary system is...

Baboon lemur

Archaeolemur edwardsi Filhol, 1895, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Malagasy Kadoky. Its estimated body weight is 49 lb (22 kg). Males and females had the same body size. Tooth eruption patterns, including rapid eruption of adult dentition, are reminiscent of the living indris, sifakas, and woolly lemurs. The anterior premolar is caniniform, and the entire premolar row formed a long cutting edge. The broad molars had low, rounded cusps arranged in a bilophodont pattern similar to Old World...

Avian Longevity Is Consistent With Evolutionary Predictions

Why do birds live so long In the past, it was often argued that life spans and aging rates in warm-blooded vertebrates were constrained by the ''rate of living'' (Pearl, 1928 Rose, 1991). This argument was based on a robust, positive correlation between animals' body size and longevity, and an equally strong, inverse association between life spans and basal metabolic rates. This generalization is clearly refuted, however, when the long life spans of birds and bats are compared with those of...

Lorises and pottos

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Lorisidae Relatively small, fully arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical and subtropical forests their most prominent features are marked reduction of the tail and of the second digits of the hands and feet, in association with their slow, deliberate locomotion involving powerful grasping Relatively small body size, ranging from the gray slender loris (head and body length 8.5 in, 21.5 cm) tail length virtually zero body mass 9 oz (255 g) to the potto (head...

Graycheeked mangabey

Lophocebus albigena (Gray, 1850), Mayombe, Zaire. Traditionally, all mangabeys were included in the genus Cercocebus. However, morphological evidence that was subsequently confirmed by molecular data indicated that there are, in fact, two distinct groups that have independently undergone shortening of the face, such that a pronounced hollow (fossa) has developed below each eye socket. Predominantly arboreal mangabeys that are more closely allied to baboons are now allocated to the separate...

Hominidae II

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae Large mammals obligate bipeds largest brain to body size ratio among terrestrial mammals moderate degree of sexual dimorphism species-specific vocal communication (language) obligate reliance on tool behavior and technology complex sociality Variable, depending upon population. Normal adult stature 53.5-72.8 in (136-185 cm) normal adult weight 83.8-198.4 lb (38-90 kg) All terrestrial habitats, aided by domestication of animals...

Sexual maturity

Sexual maturity in many species occurs when body size reaches adult size. However, there are some notable exceptions male least weasels (Mustela nivalis) often seek maternity dens of females and will copulate the newly born females, as soon as 4 hours after birth. At that time, neonates still have their eyes and ears closed, are pink and hairless. This strategy enables females to have a first litter within weeks of birth (least weasels do not exhibit delayed implantation), and then again before...

Placental mammals

Placental mammals constitute the largest group of mammals. In placental mammals, fertilized eggs migrate to the uterus or to the uterine horns where they implant and begin to develop. In the process, a placenta is grown to act as the interface between mother and offspring. The highly vascular placenta then connects to growing embryos via the umbilical cord, and exchanges of nutrients and waste between mother and fetus occur in the placenta as fluids are not shared between mother and fetus in...

Experimental Models Linking Diabetes Mellitus to Aging and Longevity

In some species, caloric restriction (CR) is associated with reduction of aging and increased longevity. It was observed that a reduced body size was correlated to an increased life span in mice, dogs, Caenorhabditis elegans, or Drosophila melanogaster. One very recent study could not find a clear general effect of body size on life span (Hafen, 2004 McCulloch et al., 2003). The question has been asked why smaller individuals would live longer. One explanation that has been put forward, mainly...

Model Body Size And Scaling

The use of laboratory animals as models for humans is often based on the premise that animals are more or less similar with respect to many biological characteristics and thus can be compared with humans. However, there is one striking difference between mouse and human, and that is body size. In proportion to their body size, mammals generally have very similar organ sizes expressed as percentage of body weight. Take the heart for instance, which often constitutes 5 or 6 g per kilogram of body...

Relative brain size and intelligence

Humans have the largest brain to body size ratio among terrestrial mammals, rivaled only by the smaller odontocete whales. The modern human brain has nearly tripled in size since the origins of the subfamily Homininae. The brain reaches its modern size relative to body size at approximately 300,000 years ago, which is late in human evolutionary history. Brain size reaches its apogee among the Neanderthals, where the average cranial capacity was about 300 cc more than that of the average for...

Dinosauria

Dinosaurs fascinate more people than any other reptile group. The achievement of great size and diversity and the long domination of the earth by dinosaurs form a large part of this fascination. As is true for the great gray apparition in Mozart's Don Giovanni or the Frankenstein monster, people love things that are terrible and wonderful at the same time. In fact, the name dinosaur comes from roots meaning terrible lizard. Unique evolutionary features are evident in the hands of some...

Nondietary Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Although most attention has focused on possible dietary risk or protective factors for prostate cancer as the most likely environmental risk factor category to explain the racial ethnic variation in incidence and the impact of migration on risk modification, other factors have also been evaluated over the past few decades. Among these, cigarette smoking and a history of any type of sexually transmitted disease are among the most reproducible. As there are no highly suspected carcinogens to the...

Lactation and Milk Output

At parturition, a series of programmed hormonal changes take place that transform the mammary cells to the fully secretory state. Stage 2 lactogenesis, or the copious production of milk, is brought about by a synchronous drop in progesterone, an increase in estrogen, and the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary and follows the immediate postpartum production of colostrum. In the cow, milk production increases in the first 3-6 weeks of lactation and then slowly declines. A similar...

Research Uses

Outbred stocks continue to be widely used, even though for those species where there is a choice (mainly mice and rats), there is a compelling case for preferring isogenic strains.11,12 For other species, there is generally no practical alternative. (The term stock is used for outbred colonies, with the term strain being reserved for isogenic strains, although in this chapter, in some cases, the term strain will be used collectively to mean all genetic types. The context should make it clear in...

Solutions To Exercises Lesson

The human urogenital systems are made up of the urinary organs, which produce the fluid called urine, and the genital, or reproductive, organs of male and female humans, which together can produce a new human. (para 8-1) 2. The urinary system is specialized to remove certain nitrogenous waste products from the circulating blood. These result from the body's use of proteins. 3. The major parts of the human urinary system are two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra. (para...

Banded leafmonkey

Presbytis melalophos (Raffles, 1821), Sumatra, Indonesia. This species was originally combined with two forms that are now regarded as separate species Presbytis femoralis and Presbytis sia-mensis. Following separation from these two species, the more narrowly defined Presbytis melalophos includes three subspecies. English Mitered leaf-monkey, Sumatran surili French Semnopitheque melalophe German Roter Langur Spanish Langur de cresta. There is considerable variation in coat coloration between...

Drosophlia Immunity

Toll Pathway Human Versus Drosophila

Many more combinations are possible than are circulating in the blood at any one time, and these cells are being recycled throughout life. The system generates variation in a combinatorial way, but it need not be exhaustive tiny voles and huge elephants have essentially the same immune diversity, with orders of magnitude differences in the number of lymphocytes they can circulate. There are no major differences in adaptive immunity associated with life span or body size in higher vertebrates...

Thinspined porcupine

Hystrix subspinosa (Olfers, 1818), Cameta, Para, Brazil. Formerly classed with the Neotropical porcupines (Erythrozonti-dae), but now recognized as an echimyid and as a remarkable example of parallel evolution. Characteristics that led to this reassessment included the retention of deciduous premolars throughout life and the lack of an internal carotid artery. Rabbit-sized and weighing some 2.87 lb (1.3 kg), C. semi-spinosus has its back covered with long thin bristles. On the head, neck, and...

Digoxin Lanoxin

Actions positive inotropic effects (inhibition of the sodium potassium ATPase pump which acts to increase the intracellular sodium-calcium exchange to increase intracellular calcium leading to increased contractility) negative chronotropic effects (direct suppression of the AV node conduction to increase effective refractory period and decrease conduction velocity). Indications CHF, ventricular heart rate control in atrial fib flutter, PSVT. Dose see chart. Pharmacokinetics onset of action is...

Proboscis monkey

Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb, 1787), Indonesia. This is now the only species in the genus Nasalis, and no subspecies are recognized. The species Simias concolor has sometimes been included in the genus Nasalis, but it is sufficiently distinctive to deserve its own genus. French Nasique German Nasenaffe Spanish Mono narigudo. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS This is the largest species in the subfamily Colobinae. Fur reddish orange on the crown and back and grayish white ven-trally. The fur on the shoulders,...

Conservation status

Both species of Brachyteles, along with the recently recognized genus, Oreonax, are classified as Critically Endangered based on their highly restricted distributions, small population size, and deteriorating habitats. Brachyteles is the only genus of Atelidae endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. The brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba, is also endemic to the Atlantic forest, and is classified as Vulnerable. The status of Brachyteles hypoxanthus is probably more critical than that of B....

Calabar boa

Charina reinhardtii Schlegel, 1848, originally designated as Old Calabar, West Africa and now annotated to Gold Coast. English Burrowing python, Calabar ground python German Erdpython. The Calabar boa is a small species that only rarely grows longer than 30 in (80 cm). The head is small and not distinguished from the neck. The body is round, the skin is soft, the scales are smooth, and the tail is blunt. Individuals are dark brown or black with red or orange scales randomly scattered on the...

Bats as a Novel Model for Aging Research

Rossinni Despite small body size and high metabolic rate, bats are exceptionally long-lived mammals. This longevity, the ecological, behavioral and morphological diversity, and the unique life history traits of this multispecied order of mammals make bats well-suited as model systems for aging research. Including bats in comparative investigations may provide insight into universal mechanisms of senescence as well as reveal mechanisms that confer resistance...

Northern plains gray langur

Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne, 1797), Bengal, India. This species was previously included in the genus Presbytis, but there are enough distinctive characters to justify a separate genus. Furthermore, several of the original subspecies included in the species Semnopithecus entellus are now regarded as separate species. English Hanuman langur, sacred langur, common langur French Houleman German Hanuman Spanish Langur hanuman. Fur gray to brownish gray dorsally and white to creamy white...

Genetic Variation

An obvious and pervasive feature of life is variability. Consider a group of students in a typical college class, the members of which vary in eye color, hair color, skin pigmentation, height, weight, facial features, blood type, and susceptibility to numerous diseases and disorders. No two students in the class are likely to be even remotely similar in appearance (< Figure 23.2a). Humans are not unique in their extensive variability almost all organisms exhibit variation in phenotype. For...

Mulgara

Dasycercus cristicauda (Krefft, 1867), South Australia, Australia, probably Lake Alexandrina. Two subspecies described. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Crest-tailed marsupial mouse. Length 4.9-8.7 in (125-220 mm). Light brown above, pale below with crest of long black fur distal two-thirds of short tail short, rounded ears stores fat in the base of the tail. Inland central and western Australia. HABITAT Found in arid, sandy regions. BEHAVIOR Lives solitarily in burrows it digs in flats between or on...

Significance to humans

Northern Muriqui

Atelidae are represented in the art and legends of the people they live nearby. Their large body size and social habits have probably always made them a source of prized meat. The large testes of Brachyteles were associated with sexual potency, and made into purses by hunters. None of the Atelidae are considered to be agricultural pests or dangerous to humans. The docile behavior of Ateles and Brachyteles also contribute to their desirability as pets. A Geoffrey's spider monkey (Ateles...

Aging Research on Bats

Few studies have examined bat longevity, and due to continually improving lifespan data, it is not surprising that some of these studies have reached contradictory conclusions. Some of the earliest work that considered the question of why bats live so long was a comparative survey of lifespans by Bourliere (1958). Addressing the question from the standpoint of the rate of living theory (Pearl, 1928 Sacher, 1959), Bourliere described the extreme longevity of bats as a simple consequence of...

Quantitative Measurements Of The Heart

HEART WEIGHT Total heart weight is the most reliable single measurement at autopsy for correlation with cardiac disease states (7). The assessment must take into account the size of the patient. Other described measurements such as linear external dimensions, surface areas, and volume of the entire heart or myocardium (7) are less useful than the total heart weight. Hearts are weighed after the parietal pericardium has been removed, the great vessels have been trimmed to about 2 cm in length,...

Sociocultural Factors

It has been proposed that''dieting disorders'' is a more proper term than ''eating disorder'' because the underlying essential feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and associated conditions is the ''inappropriate and excessive pursuit of thinness'' (32). For individuals with either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, attempts at weight loss and dietary restriction (often severe) almost invariably precede the development of the significant symptoms of disordered eating. The current...

Gestation and neonate type

Period Gestation

With only a few exceptions, each mammal species has a characteristic gestation period that shows remarkably little variation. In comparisons between species, gestation periods tend to increase as body size increases. However, effective comparisons of gestation periods among mammals must take into account a fundamental distinction in the state of the neonate at birth. As a general rule, it is possible to distinguish fairly clearly between mammals that give birth to several poorly developed...

Orthonectidans

Phylum Orthonectida

Phylum Orthonectida Number of families 1 Minute dioecious and dimorphic or hermaphroditic parasites found in tissues of a wide variety of marine invertebrate phyla. Photo A female Rhopalura ophiocomae. Specimens in Nouvel collection, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. Photo by Hidetaka Furuya. Reproduced by permission. Phylum Orthonectida Number of families 1 Minute dioecious and dimorphic or hermaphroditic parasites found in tissues of a wide variety of marine invertebrate phyla. Photo A...

Sexual dimorphism

Male and female mammals obviously differ in various features that are directly linked to reproduction, as is the case with the sex organs of both sexes and the mammary glands of females primary sexual characteristics . However, males and females can also differ in a variety of features that are not directly associated with reproduction secondary sexual characteristics . Such secondary differences between males and females, like the human facial beard, are collectively labeled sexual dimorphism....

Earthworms

Lubriscus Reproductive Region

Photo A giant earthworm Haplotaxida burrows back into the moist leaf litter in the subtropical rainforest floor. Photo by Wayne Lawler Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Earthworms belong to a well-defined clade, the Clitellata, which includes leeches, branchiobdellids, many aquatic and small terrestrial worms with a single cell-layered clitellum, and the earthworms, most of which have a multi-layered clitellum. However, earthworms as a group lack a defining characteristic unique...

Tantulocarida

Millipedes Have Two Penises

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Maxillopoda Subclass Tantulocarida Number of families 4 Tiny parasitic crustaceans that spend most of their lives attached to the external body surface of their hosts, a wide range of other marine crustaceans Photo The tantulus larva and globular adult female of Microdajus langi, a tantulocaridan parasite, attached to its host, a tanaidacean crustacean. Photo by G. A. Boxshall. Reproduced by permission. Photo The tantulus larva and globular adult...

Blood Volume and Composition

Plasma And Blood Solids

Blood volume varies with body size, changes in fluid and electrolyte concentrations, and the amount of adipose tissue. Blood volume is typically about 8 of body weight. An average-sized adult has a blood volume of about 5 liters. If a blood sample stands in a tube for awhile and is prevented from clotting, the cells separate from the liquid portion of the blood and settle to the bottom. Cen-trifuging the sample quickly packs the cells into the lower part of the centrifuge tube, as figure 14.2...

Extension in the Dwarf

Dwarf mice are remarkably long-lived. Congenital deficiency of growth hormone GH , prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH due to mutations at the Pit1 or Prop1 loci, as well as GH resistance due to targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene lead to major increase in both average and maximal lifespan. Prolonged longevity of Snell dwarf Pit1dw , Ames dwarf Prop1df , and GHRKO mice is associated with a major extension of ''health span'' and multiple symptoms of delayed aging. Suspected...

Blood and Blood Cells page 547

Blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 1. Blood volume and composition a. Blood volume varies with body size, fluid and electrolyte balance, and adipose tissue content. b. Blood can be separated into formed elements and liquid portions. 1 The formed elements portion is mostly red blood cells. 2 The liquid plasma includes water, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes. a. Blood cells develop from hemocytoblasts in bone marrow. b. Cells descended from...

Nervous system and sensory organs

Convolutions The Neo Cortex

Mammals have relatively larger brains than other vertebrates. From monotremes to marsupials to eutherians, the mammal brain increases in size and complexity, primarily by the expansion of the neopallium. The neopallium or neo-cortex is a mantle of gray matter that first appeared as a small region between the olfactory bulb and the larger archipallium. The neopallium in mammals has expanded over the primitive parts of the vertebrate brain, dominating it as the cerebral cortex. The cerebral...

Feeding and digestion

Rattlesnake Illustration Feeding

Many of the prominent and interesting adaptations of reptiles are related to the capture and digestion of food. Most reptiles seize prey as individual items, and feeding strategies can largely determine the shape of the head and characteristics of the skull and jaws. The reptilian skull varies in relation to feeding requirements. Skulls of turtles and crocodilians are comparatively rigid and compact. Those of lizards and especially snakes exhibit evolutionary reduction of structure and...

The most diversified animals

There are about 4,600 species of mammals. This is a relatively small number compared to the 9,600 species of birds or 35,000 fish species and almost nothing in comparison to about 100,000 species of mollusks or some 10,000,000 species of crustaceans and insects. Even such groups as extant reptiles with 6,000 species and frogs with about 5,200 species are more diversified at the species level. Nevertheless, in diversity of body sizes, locomotory types, habitat adaptations, or feeding strategies,...

Behaviors guided by tactile cues

Tactile cues are important contributors to social and reproductive behaviors. Although chemical cues usually guide males to females, once the individuals meet, tactile information comes into play. If several males are simultaneously attracted to the same female, male combat is likely in some species. The winner is the male that eventually mates with the female. In some species, many males are present simultaneously, all competing for one female. This process is called scramble competition...

Conventional Techniques for Skeletal Determinations

Greulich And Pyle Atlas

In the evaluation of physical development in children, variations in maturation rate are poorly described by chronological age. Thus, for many decades, scientists have sought better techniques to assess the degree of development from birth to full maturity. Measures of height, weight, and body mass, although closely related to biological maturation, are not sufficiently accurate due to the wide variations in body size. Similarly, the large varia tions in dental development have prevented the...

Krzisnik Krk Longevity

Al-Regaiey, K.A., Masternak, M.M., Bonkowski, M., Sun, L., and Bartke, A. 2005 . Long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice Interaction of reduced insulinlike growth factor 1 insulin signaling and caloric restriction. Endocrinology 146, 851-860. Bartke, A. 1965 . Influence of luteotrophin on fertility of dwarf mice. J. Reprod. Fertil. 10, 93-103. Bartke, A. 1979a . Genetic models in the study of anterior pituitary hormones. In Genetic Variation in Hormone Systems,, Shire, J.G.M. ed . Boca...

Variegated lemur

Lemur variegata Kerr, 1792, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ruffed lemur. Varecia variegata is the largest in body size of the living Lemuridae species. The adult head-and-body length is 20-22 in 51-56 cm , tail length is 22-25.5 in 56-65 cm , and adult body weight is 7-10 lb 3.2-4.5 kg . Females are larger than males. The ruffed lemur carries a scent gland on its neck, and females have six mammae. There are two subspecies black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata and...

Head Circumference OFC

Head Circumference Lubchenco

Definition Maximum circumference of the head. Landmarks The maximum head circumference usually horizontal just above the eyebrow ridges , is measured from just above the glabella area to the area near the top of the occipital bone opisthocranion Fig. 6.1 . Position The patient should look straight ahead Fig. 6.1 . Alternative It is often easier, in young infants, to have them stay seated on an adult's lap while measuring the head circumference, and to do the measurement from behind. Remarks The...