Ways To Improve Your Body Image

Mirror Madness

Mirror Madness

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Body Image

Another disease-specific outcome sometimes considered is body image. Gritz and colleagues36 reported that 24 of survivors perceived themselves to be less attractive as a result of testicular cancer treatment. The perception of decreased attractiveness was significantly associated with treatment modality, with survivors who had received RPLND and or chemotherapy being the most likely survivors to report perceived decreases in attractiveness. Patients who underwent only orchiectomy were the least likely to perceive a decrease in attractiveness. Interestingly, none of the spouses of the survivors perceived a decrease in attractiveness. Recent findings among survivors of pure seminoma who have undergone orchiectomy and radation therapy indicate that less than 5 of these survivors consider themselves to be less attractive after treatment.48 Gritz and colleagues20 also investigated the impact of testicular prostheses on body image. Interestingly, only 61.8 of participants reported being...

Cultural Adaptation Strategies A Overview

Body image spective are presented in Table 6. For example, body image and other attitudes may have an influence primarily through effects on the motivation to seek treatment initially or to continue with treatment. Outreach to increase enrollment in a program might then employ persuasive strategies to increase awareness of the possible health or functional status benefits of modest weight loss (e.g., on blood pressure, breathing difficulties, or knee problems) as separate from potentially less salient social or physical attractiveness issues. Cultural sensitivity in the way treatment is delivered would be helpful in ensuring that participants fully engage in the process (quality of participation). The distinction between factors affecting initial adoption versus long-term behavior changes is informed by Rothman's proposition that different theoretical models are needed to explain initial adoption and maintenance (116). For example, whereas initial adoption is related primarily to a...

The Language of Direct Experience

Polysynthetic languages can express more complex direct perceptions in single words. For example, in Navajo, a chair is bikaa'dah'asdahi or on-it-one-sits. To take a more familiar example, many languages refer to a corkscrew as a cork puller. Languages can also capture aspects of direct experience through the projection of the body image. In English, we speak of the hands of a clock, the teeth of a zipper, and the foot of the mountain. In Apache, this penchant for body part metaphors carries over to describing the parts of an automobile. The tires are the feet of the car, the battery is its heart, and the headlights are its eyes. Adjectives encode images of direct perceptions for attributes such as weight, color, or smell. Perspective taking in space and time depends on a different set of cognition mechanisms. For direct experience, perspective taking involves the projection of the body image onto the body and motions of other agents. For space, perspective taking involves the...

Damon J Vidrine DrPh Ellen R Gritz PhD

Because of the young age at diagnosis and the extremely high survival rates following testicular cancer treatment, survivorship issues become tremendously important. Young men are most frequently diagnosed at or near the prime of life a time during which patients are establishing professional careers and planning families. While mortality may no longer pose the risk it did in earlier years, other important outcomes should be considered. These outcomes include toxicity of treatment, disease-related functioning (eg, body image, sexual functioning, and fertility), and overall quality of life (QOL). A better understanding of these outcomes and how they are influenced by each treatment modality (or combination of modalities) is vital for both physician and patient. Such an understanding will allow for the selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen as well as the early implementation of interventions that have the potential to minimize disease and or treatment-related impairment.

Early Effects Of The Diagnosis And Initial Treatment On

Also with regard to breast cancer, most studies indicate that the major difference between breast sparing surgery and a mastectomy are found in body image with poorer body image being associated with mastectomy.31 In our study of breast cancer survivors we also found that among those who had a mastectomy, women who chose

Humanistic Therapies Theoretical Basis

There is, however, a substantial research literature on the effectiveness of some humanistic therapies. Carl Rogers himself was very much involved in the earliest studies in this area, which provided evidence of the effectiveness of the person-centred approach in, for example, enhancing self-acceptance and adjustment (Cartwright, 1957 Rogers & Dymond, 1954). Several subsequent studies have used person-centred therapy as a placebo control in comparison with cognitive-behavioural and other therapies. Although these have found cognitive-behavioural therapies to be superior, there are indications that this difference between therapies disappears when allowance is made for researcher allegiance (Elliott, 2001). In addition, some more recent studies (Kay et al., 2000 Tarrier et al, 2000) have not supported the superiority of cognitive-behavioural over person-centered therapies. The effect of the therapeutic relationship on outcome in person-centred and other therapies has also received...

Zyprexa see Olanzapine

Schizotypal personality disorder Blood pressure changes substance abuse substance intoxication Body image issues anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa Body temperature, raised sleep terror disorder substance abuse substance intoxication Bowel movements, in inappropriate places encopresis

Medical And Health Care Discrimination

It appears that such negative attitudes may increase patient resistance in seeking health care services. Several studies have documented delays in seeking pelvic exams and preventive services like breast and gynecological exams among obese women (29,30), and other research shows a positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and appointment cancelations (27). Obese women report that negative body image, embarrassment about weight, and previous negative physician experiences are the reasons for their reluctance to seek medical care (27,29).

Psychoanalytic Models of Etiology

Greenacre described transvestism as an effort at reparation of a flawed body image in early life (73). Stoller described transvestism as a hostile mastery of early trauma and humiliation by the mother (74). In contrast, Oversey and Person suggested anxiety as the central theme in transvestism, caused by flawed maternal bonding and consequent incomplete sense of self (75).

Body dysmorphic disorder

Body image A term that refers to a person's inner 3 picture of his or her outward appearance. It has p two components perceptions of the appearance C of one's body, and emotional responses to those BDD and muscle dysmorphia can both be described as disorders resulting from the patient's distorted body image. Body image refers to the mental picture individuala have of their outward appearance, including size, shape, and form. It has two major components how the people perceive their physical appearance, and how they feel about their body. Significant distortions in self-perception can lead to intense dissatisfaction with one's body and dysfunctional behaviors aimed at improving one's appearance. Some patients with BDD are aware that their concerns are excessive others do not have this degree of insight. About 50 of patients diagnosed with BDD also meet the criteria for a delusional disorder, which is characterized by beliefs that are not based in reality.

An Integrated Etic Emic Approach

Integration of the etic and emic approaches involves learning about the general clinical principles but, at the same time, viewing the clinical method as fundamentally personal. Any relevant information is applied with regard to the uniqueness of the cultural context and the personal situation of the client. There are at least two aspects of the clinical issue that need to be considered. First, the issues presented by a client are fundamentally personal to the client, irrespective of whomever else may share the problem. For example, an adolescent girl suffering from anorexia nervosa will grapple with issues surrounding weight gain and body image. Despite the fact that many other young women may be facing these same issues, the problem is unique within this adolescent's own personal experiences. The second aspect concerns the client's specific life context or situation. How does the clinician define the context or gain understanding of the situation from the client's perspective In the...

Postmenopausal Dyspareunia

Psychosocial difficulties that commonly affect postmenopausal women may impinge on sexual functioning and affect pain perception. Intrapersonal issues, such as negative perceptions of menopause, body image, and postreproductive sexuality, often function as self-fulfilling prophecies and foster sexual dysfunction in the menopause (27). Interpersonal factors such as marital relationship difficulties, partner's sexual dysfunction (e.g., erectile dysfunction, decreased desire), and loss of social support may also be implicated (28). Clinicians should carefully assess for possible non-biomedical factors that may play a role in maintaining postmenopausal dyspareunia before making a diagnosis or prescribing treatment.

Psychosocial Concerns

Cancer survivors with preexisting anxiety or affective disorders appear to be at greatest risk for ongoing distress.25 Changes to body image from cancer therapy, such as that resulting from mastectomy or colostomy, can be a source of problems with psychological adjustment.72 Distress appears to dissipate with time, however. There are a small proportion of patients who experience ongoing effects characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder.73 Having a spouse or partner decreases the risk of psychological sequelae,74 although these caregivers may also themselves be adversely

Directions For Future Research

Treatment choices and their impact over time Especially in the case of breast and prostate cancer, treatment choices must be made at the outset. As indicated earlier, there are clear differences in body image between mastectomy and breast sparing surgery31 while mortality is the same. There are also differences in physical side-effects for treatment choices that men diagnosed with prostate cancer must make. Given the information on treatment options and the long-term QOL, how much are these men and women participating in choices about the treatments that they receive what kind of choices would informed patients make In some of our ongoing research, congruence between the desires for participation and actual participation results in different treatment choices and also affects QOL.96 Clearly, this question is only beginning to be studied in breast cancer and further research is needed, not only for breast cancer treatment decision-making, but also for prostate cancer treatment...

Cardiovascular Complications

Among breast cancer survivors, sexual dysfunction appears to be more closely related to receipt of chemotherapy56,57 than the body image concerns resultant from mastectomy58 or tamoxifen effects,59 although all may play a role.60 Many of these symptoms improve with prolonged (i.e., 5 years) follow-up.61

Diagnostic Procedures

An ideal protocol for the assessment of FSAD should be constructed following theoretical and factual knowledge of the physiological, psychophysiological, and psychological mechanisms involved. The protocol then describes the most parsimonious route from presentation of complaints to effective therapy. Unfortunately, we are at present far from a consensus on the most probable causes of FSAD. Despite this disagreement, at least two diagnostic procedures should be considered. Firstly, assessment of sexual dysfunction in a biopsychosocial context should start with a verification of the chief complaints in a clinical interview. The aim of the clinical interview is to gather information concerning current sexual functioning, onset of the sexual complaint, the context in which the difficulties occur, and psychological issues that may serve as etiological or maintaining factors for the sexal problems, such as depression, anxiety, personality factors, negative self- and body image, and...

Nutritional Dwarfing Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disease characterized by a disordered body image, severely limited caloric intake and body weight well below ideal, has been associated with elevated GH concentrations and a variable response to provocative stimuli (29). Studies using GHRH as a secretogogue demonstrate a variable GH response to food, in a manner similar to what has been observed in obese subjects, a group with unique neuroendocrine dynamics including blunted GH secretion.

The Concept Of Health

Views about anatomy and physiology are culturally determined and crucial to perceptions of health and disease. Helman (1984, 1995) has discussed the cultural definitions and the social and psychological significance of three aspects of body image on health and disease beliefs relating to body shape, size, and adornments (e.g., clothing and body piercing) beliefs with respect to the structure of the body and beliefs about body functioning. Beliefs about body shape,


The significance of cultural influences in the etiology of obesity has been well documented, particularly with respect to societal standards of female attractiveness (1-3). Among the major chronic conditions that affect morbidity and mortality, obesity is unique in having a sociocultural significance unrelated to its presumed effects on long-term health, and biomedical definitions of obesity compete with sociocultural definitions (4). This chapter addresses the related issue of the potential influence of cultural factors on obesity treatment approaches and outcomes. The spectrum of cultural influences on obesity treatment goes far beyond body image or physical attractiveness variables. From the client perspective, this spectrum also includes perceptions and priorities in the domains of general health, food and eating, and physical activity as well as behavioral change variables. The latter include how food, activity, and weight interrelate with mechanisms for coping with stress,...

Medical Disorders

Illness or its treatment, physical debilitation, and bowel and or bladder incontinence. Examples of psychological factors include adopting the patient role as an asexual person, altered body image, mood difficulties, and fear of death or rejection by a partner. Examples of social and interpersonal factors include communication difficulties regarding feelings or sexuality, difficulties initiating a sexual encounter after a period of abstinence, lack of partner, and lack of privacy. These include disorders of the heart (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, coronary artery disease, conduction problems), hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Cardiac problems may cause sexual difficulties on their own or as a result of their treatment (see later). Likewise, just experiencing the disorder may cause mood or body image problems. Some cardiovascular diseases may result in avoidance of sexual activity and therefore its limitation. Whenever a sexual dysfunction occurs in the context of a...

Green anole

Green anoles are territorial, and males exert their dominance by flaring their dewlaps, bobbing their heads, erecting the dorsal skin into a crest, and engaging in stereotypical posturing to enlarge their body image. During the breeding season, males also use their dewlaps to entice females, which appear to choose a mate based on the coloration and possibly the ultraviolet reflectance of the dewlap.

Disease Specific

Adjustments may need to be made in the patient's medication if a woman chooses to pursue pregnancy in order to eliminate drugs that may be teratogenic. Treatments and medications can also cause decreased libido and sexual dysfunction. Some patients may lose the desire for sexual relations as a result of fatigue, tumor location, treatment, medication, depression, or body image changes. Patients should be asked about this important aspect of their life so that adjustments can be made whenever possible to improve sexual function.

Future prospects

Practice Nurse 20 (November 2000) 466-470. Mahoney, D. Understanding Racial Ethnic Variations in Family's Response to Dementia. The Gerontologist (October 15, 2001) 120. Myers, A., and J. C. Rosen. Obesity Stigmatization and Coping Relation to Mental Health Symptoms, Body Image, and Self-Esteem. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23 (March 1999) 221-230. Neil, Janice A. The Stigma Scale Measuring Body Image and the Skin. Plastic Surgical Nursing 21 (Summer 2001) 79.

Steven Nwolff Md

Young men who are abruptly and unexpectedly diagnosed with testicular cancer face daunting circumstances. These include a life-threatening disease, distortion of body image, disruption of normal activities, substantial resource demands, unfamiliar toxic therapy, impairment of fertility, and complex treatment options, compounded by a requirement to expeditiously initiate therapy. Frequently, patients are asked to participate in clinical research that can increase their uncertainty about the appropriate therapy. It is thus quite understandable that patients and their families can feel overwhelmed by the uncertainty brought on by a serious illness. This uncertainty can be mitigated by a sound and accurate understanding of the disease and treatment alternatives.

Anorexia Nervosa

Historical and geographical studies suggest that anorexia nervosa has occurred wherever there are humans. The first formal medical account is in Richard Morton's Phthisiologia (1689). Anorexia nervosa responds to the same precipitants as bulimia but depends on a physiological capacity to tolerate extreme starvation, which may be genetic. The core psy-chopathology of anorexia nervosa is overwhelming concern about body shape and weight. Phobia of fatness increases as weight decreases. The controversial 'body image distortion' does not amount to a delusion (and is unresponsive to anti-psychotic drugs) but resembles an obsessive-compulsive conviction, attracting to itself all negative attributions generated in the course of everyday life. Current diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa require that